1997 United Kingdom general election
The 1997 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 1 May 1997, five years after the previous general election on 9 April 1992, to elect 659 members to the British House of Commons. Under the leadership of Tony Blair, the Labour Party ended its eighteen-year spell in opposition and won the general election with a landslide victory, winning 418 seats, the most seats the party has held to date, the highest proportion of seats held by any party in the post-war era. For the first time since 1931, the outgoing government lost more than half its parliamentary seats in an election; the election saw a 10.0% swing from Conservative to Labour on a national turnout of 71%, would be the last national vote where turnout exceeded 70% until the 2016 EU referendum nineteen years later. As a result Blair became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, a position he held until his resignation on 27 June 2007. Under Blair's leadership, the Labour Party had adopted a more centrist policy platform under the name'New Labour'.
This was seen as moving away from the traditionally more left-wing stance of the Labour Party. Labour made several campaign pledges such as the creation of a National Minimum Wage, devolution referendums for Scotland and Wales and promised greater economic competence than the Conservatives, who were unpopular following the events of Black Wednesday in 1992; the Labour Party campaign was a success. However, 1997 was the last general election in which Labour had a net gain of seats until the snap 2017 general election 20 years later. A record number of women were elected to 120, of whom 101 were Labour MPs; this was in part thanks to Labour's policy of using all-women shortlists. The Conservative Party was led by incumbent Prime Minister John Major and ran their campaign emphasising falling unemployment and a strong economic recovery following the early 1990s recession. However, a series of scandals, party division over the European Union, the events of Black Wednesday and a desire of the electorate for change after 18 years of Conservative rule all contributed to the Conservatives' worst defeat since 1906, with only 165 MPs elected to Westminster, as well as their lowest share of the vote since 1832.
The party was left with no seats whatsoever in Scotland or Wales, many key Conservative politicians, including Defence Secretary Michael Portillo, Foreign Secretary Malcolm Rifkind, Trade Secretary Ian Lang, Scottish Secretary Michael Forsyth and former ministers Edwina Currie, Norman Lamont, David Mellor and Neil Hamilton lost their parliamentary seats. However, future Prime Minister Theresa May was elected to the safe Conservative seat of Maidenhead, current Speaker John Bercow at Buckingham. Following the defeat, the Conservatives began their longest continuous spell in opposition in the history of the present day Conservative Party, indeed the longest such spell for any incarnation of the Tories/Conservatives since the 1760s, lasting 13 years, including the whole of the 2000s. Throughout this period, their representation in the Commons remained below 200 MPs; the Liberal Democrats, under Paddy Ashdown, returned 46 MPs to parliament, the most for any third party since 1929 and more than double the number of seats it got in 1992, despite a drop in popular vote, in part due to tactical voting by anti-Conservative voters supporting it in lieu of Labour in areas where that party had little strength.
The Scottish National Party returned six MPs, double its total in 1992. As with all general elections since the early 1950s, the results were broadcast live on the BBC; the British economy had been in recession at the time of the 1992 election, which the Conservatives had won, although the recession had ended within a year, events such as Black Wednesday had tarnished the Conservative government's reputation for economic management. Labour had elected John Smith as its party leader in 1992, but his death from a heart attack in 1994 led the way for Tony Blair to become Labour leader. Blair brought the party closer to the political centre and abolished the party's Clause IV in their constitution, which had committed them to mass nationalisation of industry. Labour reversed its policy on unilateral nuclear disarmament and the events of Black Wednesday allowed Labour to promise greater economic management under the Chancellorship of Gordon Brown. A manifesto, entitled New Labour, New Life For Britain was released in 1996 and outlined five key pledges: Class sizes to be cut to 30 or under for 5-, 6- and 7-year-olds by using money from the assisted places scheme.
Fast track punishment for persistent young offenders, by halving the time from arrest to sentencing. Cut NHS waiting lists by treating an extra 100,000 patients as a first step by releasing £100 million saved from NHS red tape. Get 250,000 under-25-year-olds off benefit and into work by using money from a windfall levy on the privatised utilities. No rise in income tax rates, cut VAT on heating to 5%, keeping inflation and interest rates as low as possible. Disputes within the Conservative government over European Union issues, a variety of "sleaze" allegations had affected the government's popularity. Despite the strong economic recovery and substantial fall in unemployment in the four years leading up to the election, the rise in Conservative support was only marginal with all of the major opinion polls having shown Labour in a comfortable lead since late 1992. Following the 1992 general election, the Conservatives held government with 336 of the 651 H
(What's the Story) Morning Glory?
Morning Glory? is the second studio album by English rock band Oasis, released on 2 October 1995 by Creation Records. It was produced by the group's guitarist Noel Gallagher; the structure and arrangement style of the album were a significant departure from the group's previous record Definitely Maybe. Gallagher's compositions were more focused in balladry and placed more emphasis on huge choruses, with the string arrangements and more varied instrumentation on the record contrasting with the rawness of the group's debut album. Morning Glory? was the group's first album with drummer Alan White, who replaced Tony McCarroll. The record propelled Oasis from being a crossover indie act to a worldwide rock phenomenon, according to various critics, was a significant record in the timeline of British indie music; the band's most commercially successful release, Morning Glory? sold a record-breaking 347,000 copies in its first week on sale, spent 10 weeks at number one on the UK Albums Chart, reached number four in the US Billboard 200.
Singles from the album were successful in Britain and Australia: "Some Might Say" and "Don't Look Back in Anger" reached number one in the UK. Although a commercial smash, the record received lukewarm reviews from mainstream music critics. In the ensuing years, critical opinion towards the album reversed, it is now considered a seminal record of both the Britpop era and the 1990s in general, appears on several lists of the greatest albums in rock music. At the 1996 Brit Awards, the album won Best British Album. Over several months in 1995 and 1996, the band performed an extensive world tour in support of the album. Among the most notable of these concerts were back-to-back nights at Earls Court in London in November 1995, which were the biggest indoor gigs in Europe at the time, they performed two "homecoming" gigs at Maine Road in Manchester in April 1996. In August of that year, the band played to 80,000 people over two nights at Balloch Country Park at Loch Lomond in Scotland, before two performances a week at Knebworth House to a combined crowd of 250,000 people.
At the 2010 Brit Awards, Morning Glory? was named the greatest British album since 1980. It is purported to have sold over 27.4 million worldwide, although several sources claim that it has sold over 31.2 million copies worldwide. Making it one of the best-selling albums of all time; as of October 2018, it is the UK's forth-best-selling album of all time, having sold over 5.1 million copies, was the UK's best-selling album of the 1990s. In May 1995, in the wake of the critical and commercial success of their 1994 debut album, Definitely Maybe, Oasis began recording Morning Glory at Rockfield Studios in Wales, with Owen Morris and Noel Gallagher producing. By the time they were finished in June 1995, Oasis were on the brink of becoming one of the most popular bands in the UK: the August 1995 Battle of Britpop incident in which Oasis and Blur had a chart battle over their singles "Roll with It", "Country House", would propel them to mainstream awareness; the band recorded the album quickly: early on, averaging one song every twenty-four hours.
However, tension arose between songwriter Noel Gallagher and his younger brother, lead singer Liam, when Noel wanted to sing lead vocals on either "Wonderwall" or "Don't Look Back in Anger". The younger Gallagher considered this tantamount to a temporary exile from his own group; the issue dissipated momentarily as Noel was pleased with Liam's vocal take of "Wonderwall". However, tension returned due to Liam's strained attempts to sing the high notes on "Champagne Supernova"; when Noel subsequently took his turn to record his vocals for "Don't Look Back in Anger", Liam went to a local pub and came back accompanied by a crowd of people, including music journalist John Robb, producing the band Cable in nearby studio Monnow Valley, Wales whilst recording was still underway. After an altercation with Cable that infuriated his brother, the siblings began fighting viciously, the session was abandoned and recording was suspended; when the Gallagher brothers were reconciled three weeks the group spent another two weeks working on the album, followed by post-production work in London.
Despite the friction involved between the Gallagher brothers, Owen Morris reflected in 2010 that: "The sessions were the best, least fraught, most creative time I've had in a recording studio. I believe people can hear when music is dishonest and motivated by the wrong reasons. Morning Glory, for all its imperfection and flaws, is dripping with love and happiness." Paul Weller joined them in the studio and provided lead guitar and backing vocals for "Champagne Supernova", harmonica for the two untitled tracks known as "The Swamp Song". Noel wrote the last song for the album, "Cast No Shadow", on the train. Morris claimed the album was recorded at a pace of one song a day. "Some Might Say" proved problematic to record: the backing track was recorded in one take after Noel Gallagher and Morris drunkenly listened to the demo and decided the new version was played too fast, Noel woke the rest of the band to re-record it. The backing track was faster than intended, with what Morris described as "a bad speed up during the first three bars of the first chorus", but the take
Oasis were an English rock band formed in Manchester in 1991. Developed from an earlier group, the Rain, the band consisted of Liam Gallagher, Paul "Bonehead" Arthurs, Paul "Guigsy" McGuigan and Tony McCarroll. Upon returning to Manchester, Liam's older brother, Noel Gallagher joined as a fifth member, which formed the band's core and settled line-up. During the course of their existence, they had various line-up changes. Oasis signed to independent record label Creation Records in 1993 and released their record-setting debut album Definitely Maybe; the following year the band recorded Morning Glory? with drummer Alan White, in the midst of a chart rivalry with Britpop peers Blur. Morning Glory? became one of the best-selling albums of all time, selling over 22 million copies worldwide and the Gallagher brothers were featured in tabloid newspapers for their sibling disputes and wild lifestyles. In 1996, Oasis performed two nights at Knebworth for an audience of 125,000 each night, which were at the time the largest outdoor concerts in UK history.
2.5 million people applied for tickets, which remains the highest demand for a show in British history. In 1997, Oasis released their third album. McGuigan and Arthurs left Oasis in 1999 as the band released Standing on the Shoulder of Giants, they were replaced by former Heavy Stereo guitarist/frontman Gem Archer and former Ride guitarist/frontman Andy Bell. Their fifth studio album Heathen Chemistry was released in 2002. In 2004, White left, leaving them as a four-piece, with the addition of the Who drummer Zak Starkey as an unofficial recording and touring fifth member, they found renewed popularity with Don't Believe the Truth. Following the recording of the band's seventh album Dig Out Your Soul in May 2008, Starkey departed from the band. Chris Sharrock was recruited as a touring member, Oasis did their last tour as a collective band. During the tour the Gallagher brothers' deteriorating relationship led to Noel Gallagher announcing his departure in August 2009, after a backstage altercation with Liam.
The rest of the band, led by Liam, decided to continue, under the name Beady Eye, until their breakup in 2014. Noel formed Noel Gallagher's High Flying Birds. Oasis have had eight UK number-one singles and eight UK number-one albums, they have won 17 NME Awards, nine Q Awards, four MTV Europe Music Awards and six Brit Awards, including one in 2007 for Outstanding Contribution to Music and one for the Best Album of the Last 30 Years–for Morning Glory?–as voted by BBC Radio 2 listeners. They have been nominated for two Grammy Awards; as of 2009, Oasis have sold over 75 million records worldwide. The band were listed in the Guinness World Records book in 2010 for "Longest Top 10 UK Chart Run by a Group" after an unprecedented run of 22 top 10 hits in the UK; the band holds the Guinness World Record for the most successful act in the UK between the years 1995 and 2005, spending 765 weeks in the top 75 singles and albums charts. Oasis evolved from an earlier group, the Rain, composed of bassist Paul McGuigan, guitarist Paul Arthurs, drummer Tony McCarroll and Chris Hutton on vocals.
Unsatisfied with Hutton, Arthurs invited and auditioned acquaintance Liam Gallagher as a replacement. Liam suggested that the band name be changed to Oasis, inspired by an Inspiral Carpets tour poster in the Gallagher brothers' bedroom which listed the Oasis Leisure Centre in Swindon as a venue. Oasis played their first gig on 18 August 1991 at the Boardwalk club in Manchester. Liam's brother Noel Gallagher, a roadie for Inspiral Carpets, went with the band to watch his younger brother's band play. Whilst Noel and his friends did not think Oasis sounded spectacular, he began to consider the possibility of using his brother's group as a possible outlet for a series of songs he had been writing for several years. Noel approached the group about joining with the proviso that he would become the band's sole songwriter and leader, that they would commit to an earnest pursuit of commercial success. "He had loads of stuff written," Arthurs recalled. "When he walked in, we were a band making a racket with four tunes.
All of a sudden, there were loads of ideas." Under Noel, Oasis crafted a musical approach that relied on simplicity: with Arthurs and McGuigan restricted to playing barre chords and root bass notes, McCarroll playing basic rhythms, the band's amplifiers turned up to create distortion, Oasis created a sound "so devoid of finesse and complexity that it came out sounding pretty much unstoppable." After over a year of live shows, rehearsals and a recording of a demo, the Live Demonstration tape, Oasis's big break came in May 1993 when they were spotted by Creation Records co-owner Alan McGee. Oasis were invited to play a gig at King Tut's Wah Wah Hut club in Glasgow, Scotland, by Sister Lovers, who shared their rehearsal rooms. Oasis, along with a group of friends, made the journey to Glasgow; when they arrived, they were refused entry. They were given the opening slot and impressed McGee, there to see 18 Wheeler, one of his own bands. McGee offered them a recording contract. Due to problems securing an American contract
Britpop was a UK-based music and culture movement in the mid-1990s which emphasised "Britishness", produced brighter, catchier alternative rock in reaction to the popularity of the darker lyrical themes of the US-led grunge music, an alternative rock genre, to the UK's own shoegazing music scene. The most successful bands linked with the movement are Blur, Oasis and Pulp; the timespan of Britpop is considered to be 1993–1997, with 1994–1995, a chart battle between Blur and Oasis dubbed "The Battle of Britpop", being the epicentre of activity. While music was the main focus, fashion and politics got involved, with artists such as Damien Hirst being involved in creating videos for Blur, being labelled as Britart or Britpop artists, Tony Blair and New Labour aligning themselves with the movement. Though Britpop is viewed as a marketing tool, more of a cultural moment than a musical style or genre, there are musical conventions and influences the bands grouped under the Britpop term have in common, such as showing elements from the British pop music of the 1960s, glam rock and punk rock of the 1970s, indie pop of the 1980s in their music.
Britpop was a media-driven focus on bands which emerged from the independent music scene of the early 1990s—and was associated with the British popular cultural movement of Cool Britannia which evoked the Swinging Sixties and the British guitar pop music of that decade. In the wake of the musical invasion into the United Kingdom by American grunge bands, new British groups such as Blur and Suede launched the movement by positioning themselves as opposing musical forces, referencing British guitar music of the past and writing about uniquely British topics and concerns; these bands were soon joined by others including Oasis, The Verve, Cast and Elastica. Britpop groups brought British alternative rock into the mainstream and formed the backbone of a larger British cultural movement called Cool Britannia. "The Battle of Britpop" brought Britpop to the forefront of the British press in 1995. By 1997, the movement began to slow down; the popularity of the pop group the Spice Girls "snatched the spirit of the age from those responsible for Britpop".
Although its more popular bands were able to spread their commercial success overseas to the United States, the movement fell apart by the end of the decade. Though Britpop is seen retrospectively as a marketing tool, more of a cultural moment than a musical style or genre, there are musical conventions and influences the bands grouped under the Britpop term have in common. Britpop bands show elements from the British pop music of the Sixties, glam rock and punk rock of the Seventies, indie pop of the Eighties in their music and clothing. Specific influences vary: Blur and Oasis drew from the Kinks, early Pink Floyd and the Beatles while Elastica had a fondness for arty punk rock, notably Wire. Regardless, Britpop artists project a sense of reverence for British pop sounds of the past; the Kinks' Ray Davies and XTC's Andy Partridge are sometimes advanced as the "godfathers" or "grandfathers" of Britpop. Alternative rock acts from the indie scene of the Eighties and early Nineties were the direct ancestors of the Britpop movement.
The influence of the Smiths is common to the majority of Britpop artists. The Madchester scene, fronted by the Stone Roses, Happy Mondays and Inspiral Carpets, was an immediate root of Britpop since its emphasis on good times and catchy songs provided an alternative to the British-based shoegazing and American based grunge styles of music. Pre-dating Britpop by four years, Liverpool based group The La's hit single "There She Goes" was described by Rolling Stone as a "founding piece of Britpop's foundation." Local identity and regional British accents are common to Britpop groups, as well as references to British places and culture in lyrics and image. Stylistically, Britpop bands use catchy hooks and lyrics that were relevant to young British people of their own generation. Britpop bands conversely denounced grunge as irrelevant and having nothing to say about their lives. Damon Albarn of Blur summed up the attitude in 1993 when after being asked if Blur were an "anti-grunge band" he said, "Well, that's good.
If punk was about getting rid of hippies I'm getting rid of grunge." In spite of the professed disdain for the genres, some elements of both crept into the more enduring facets of Britpop. Noel Gallagher has since championed Ride and once stated that Nirvana's Kurt Cobain was the only songwriter he had respect for in the last ten years, that he felt their music was similar enough that Cobain could have written "Wonderwall". By 1996, Oasis's prominence was such that NME termed a number of Britpop bands "Noelrock", citing Gallagher's influence on their music. Journalist John Harris typified these bands, Gallagher, of sharing "a dewy-eyed love of the 1960s, a spurning of much beyond rock's most basic ingredients, a belief in the supremacy of'real music'"; the imagery associated with Britpop was British and working class. A rise in unabashed maleness, exemplified by Loaded magazine and lad culture in general, would be much part of the Britpop era; the Union Jack became a prominent symbol of the movement and its use as a symbol of pride and nationalism contrasted with the controversy that erupted just a few years before when former Smiths singer Morrissey performed draped in it.
The emphasis on British referen
Public Image Ltd
Public Image Ltd are an English post-punk band formed by singer John Lydon, guitarist Keith Levene, bassist Jah Wobble, drummer Jim Walker. The group's personnel has changed over the years. Following his departure from the Sex Pistols in January 1978, Lydon was eager to pursue a more experimental "anti-rock" project and formed PiL; that year PIL released their debut First Issue, creating an abrasive, bass-heavy sound that drew on dub, progressive rock and disco. PIL's second album Metal Box pushed their sound further into the avant-garde, is regarded as one of the most important albums of the post-punk era. By 1984, both Levene and Wobble had departed and the group was a solo vehicle for Lydon, who moved toward a more accessible sound with the commercially successful albums This Is What You Want... This Is What You Album. After a late 1990s hiatus, Lydon reformed the group in 2009 and has released several further albums, most What the World Needs Now.... Following the Sex Pistols' break-up in 1978, photographer Dennis Morris suggested that Lydon travel to Jamaica with him and Virgin Records head Richard Branson, where Branson would be scouting for emerging reggae musicians.
Branson flew American band Devo to Jamaica, aiming to install Lydon as lead singer in the band. Devo declined the offer. Upon returning to England, Lydon approached Jah Wobble about forming a band together; the pair had been friends since the early 1970s. Lydon and Wobble had played music together during the final days of the Sex Pistols. Both had broad musical tastes, were avid fans of reggae and world music. Lydon assumed, much as he had with Sid Vicious, that Wobble would learn to play bass guitar as he went. Wobble would prove to be a natural talent. Lydon approached guitarist Keith Levene, with whom he had toured in mid-1976, while Levene was a member of the Clash. Lydon and Levene had both considered themselves outsiders within their own bands. Jim Walker, a Canadian student newly arrived in the UK, was recruited on drums, after answering an ad placed in Melody Maker. PiL began rehearsing together in May 1978. In July 1978, Lydon named the band "Public Image", after the Muriel Spark novel The Public Image.
PiL debuted in October 1978 with "Public Image", a song written while Lydon was still a member of the Sex Pistols. The single was well received and reached number 9 on the UK charts, it performed well on import in the US; the photography for the album was shot by Dennis Morris who created the PiL logo. In preparing their debut album, Public Image: First Issue, the band spent their recording budget well before the record was completed; as a result, the final album comprised eight tracks of varying sound quality, half of which were written and recorded in a rush after the money had run out. The album was released in December 1978; the single "Public Image" was seen as diatribe against Malcolm McLaren and his perceived manipulation of Lydon during his career with the Sex Pistols. The track "Low Life" has been regarded as an attack on McLaren, although Lydon has stated that the lyrics refer to Sid Vicious; the two-part song "Religion" refers contemptuously to Roman Catholicism. The closing track "Fodderstompf" influenced by dub, comprises nearly eight minutes of a circular bass riff, played over a Lydon/Wobble double act lampooning public outrage, love songs and teenage apathy.
The track culminates with the sound of a fire extinguisher being let off in the recording studio, as Lydon had lit a fire whilst in a weird trance-like state during the recording session. The first album was subsequently renamed as First Issue. "PiL was the simple thing of four different people doing different drugs at different times," Wobble observed to Select. "It was only in any way together for the first two months of its existence. We had a fuckin' good drummer called Jim Walker, but he fucked off after a few months and it just fell apart. Somehow it had sort of death throes that produced a couple of blinding albums." The departure of Jim Walker made way for a series of new drummers. Auditions were held at Rollerball Studios in Tooley Street, London Bridge. David Humphrey was their second drummer, who went on to record two tracks at Manor Studios in Oxford, "Swan Lake" and "Albatross", for Metal Box. "Death Disco" was reached No. 20 in the charts. The majority of the drumming on the album was provided by Richard Dudanski, PiL's drummer from April to September 1979.
He was replaced by Karl Burns. Following sessions took place in which Martin Atkins would show up for an'audition' and discover himself in the middle of a recording session with the tape rolling; the recording was released on Metal Box as "Bad Baby". Atkins was PiL's drummer from 1979 to 1980 and 1982 to 1985. Metal Box was released as three untitled 45-rpm 12-inch records packaged in a metal box resembling a film canister with an embossed PIL logo on the lid (it was reissued in more conventional packaging as
Acid house is a subgenre of house music developed around the mid-1980s by DJs from Chicago. The style was defined by the deep basslines and "squelching" sounds of the Roland TB-303 electronic synthesizer-sequencer. Acid house spread to the United Kingdom and continental Europe, where it was played by DJs in the acid house and rave scenes. By the late 1980s, acid house had moved into the British mainstream, where it had some influence on pop and dance styles. Acid house brought house music to a worldwide audience; the influence of acid house can be heard on styles of dance music including trance, breakbeat hardcore, big beat and trip hop. Acid house's minimalist production aesthetic combined house music's ubiquitous programmed four-on-the-floor 4/4 beat with the electronic squelch sound produced by the Roland TB-303 electronic synthesizer-sequencer by modulating its frequency and resonance controls to create movement in otherwise simple bass patterns. Other elements, such as synthetic strings and stabs, were minimal.
Sometimes tracks were instrumentals such as Phuture's "Acid Tracks", or contained full vocal performances such as Pierre's Pfantasy Club's "Dream Girl", while others were instrumentals complemented by the odd spoken word'drop-in', such as Phuture's "Slam". English acid house and rave fans used the yellow smiley face symbol as an emblem of the music and scene, a "vapid, anonymous smile" that portrayed the "simplest and gentlest of the Eighties’ youth manifestations", non-aggressive, "except in terms of decibels" at the high-volume DJ parties; some acid house fans used a smiley face with a blood streak on it, which Watchmen comics creator Alan Moore asserts was based on Dave Gibbons' artwork for the series. The origin of this usage was the bloodied smiley from Watchmen on the label of "Beat Dis" by Bomb the Bass. There are conflicting accounts about how the term acid came to be used to describe this style of house music. One account ties it to Phuture's "Acid Tracks". Before the song was given a title for commercial release, it was played by DJ Ron Hardy at a nightclub where psychedelic drugs were used.
The club's patrons called the song "Ron Hardy's Acid Track". The song was released with the title "Acid Tracks" on Larry Sherman's label Trax Records in 1987. Sources differ on whether it was Sherman who chose the title. Regardless, after the release of Phuture's song, the term acid house came into common parlance; some accounts say the reference to "acid" may be a celebratory reference to psychedelic drugs in general, such as LSD, as well as the popular club drug Ecstasy. According to Rietveld, it was the house sensibility of Chicago, in a club like Hardy's The Music Box, that afforded it its initial meaning. In her view "acid connotes the fragmentation of experience and dislocation of meaning due to the unstructuring effects on thought patterns which the psycho-active drug LSD or'Acid' can bring about. In the context of the creation of "Acid Tracks" it indicated a concept rather than the use of psycho-active drugs in itself; some accounts disavow psychedelic connotations. One theory, holding that acid was a derogatory reference towards the use of samples in acid house music, was repeated in the press and in the British House of Commons.
In this theory, the term acid came from the slang term "acid burning", which the Oxford Dictionary of New Words calls "a term for stealing." In 1991, UK Libertarian advocate Paul Staines claimed that he had coined this theory to discourage the government from adopting anti-rave party legislation. Several accounts claim that Genesis P-Orridge coined the term on the 1988 Psychic TV release “Tune In.” By other accounts, while shopping in Chicago in 1986, P-Orridge came across a bin of records marked acid, indicating a corrosive liquid, mistook it for a reference to LSD. P-Orridge bought the entire contents of the bin and went on to play them when DJing in Ibiza. P-Orridge's role is disputed by music journalist Simon Reynolds, who calls it a "self-serving myth", by Psychic TV band member Fred Giannelli, who suggested that "Gen has made this claim so many times in interviews that he believes his own bullshit." The earliest recorded examples of acid house are a matter of debate. At least one historian considers the Phuture's "Acid Trax" to be the genre's earliest example.
Another points out Sleezy D's "I've Lost Control" was the first to be released on vinyl, but it is impossible to know which track was created first. The first acid house records were produced in Chicago, Illinois. Phuture, a group founded by Nathan "DJ Pierre" Jones, Earl "Spanky" Smith Jr. and Herbert "Herb J" Jackson, is credited with having been the first to use the TB-303 in the house-music context. The group's 12-minute "Acid Tracks" was recorded to tape and was played by DJ Ron Hardy at the Music Box, where Hardy was resident DJ. Hardy once played it four times over the course of an evening. Chicago's house music scene suffered a crackdown on events by the police. Sales of house records dwindled and, by 1988, the genre was selling less than a tenth as many records as at the height of the style's popularity. However, hou
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion