A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. The recovery of fingerprints from a crime scene is an important method of forensic science. Fingerprints are deposited on suitable surfaces by the natural secretions of sweat from the eccrine glands that are present in epidermal ridges; these are sometimes referred to as "Chanced Impressions". In a wider use of the term, fingerprints are the traces of an impression from the friction ridges of any part of a human or other primate hand. A print from the sole of the foot can leave an impression of friction ridges. Deliberate impressions of fingerprints may be formed by ink or other substances transferred from the peaks of friction ridges on the skin to a smooth surface such as a fingerprint card. Fingerprint records contain impressions from the pad on the last joint of fingers and thumbs, although fingerprint cards typically record portions of lower joint areas of the fingers. Human fingerprints are detailed, nearly unique, difficult to alter, durable over the life of an individual, making them suitable as long-term markers of human identity.
They may be employed by police or other authorities to identify individuals who wish to conceal their identity, or to identify people who are incapacitated or deceased and thus unable to identify themselves, as in the aftermath of a natural disaster. Fingerprint analysis, in use since the early 20th century, has led to many crimes being solved; this means. In 2015, the identification of sex by testing the fingerprint biochemical content has been reported. A friction ridge is a raised portion of the epidermis on the digits, the palm of the hand or the sole of the foot, consisting of one or more connected ridge units of friction ridge skin; these are sometimes known as "epidermal ridges" which are caused by the underlying interface between the dermal papillae of the dermis and the interpapillary pegs of the epidermis. These epidermal ridges serve to amplify vibrations triggered, for example, when fingertips brush across an uneven surface, better transmitting the signals to sensory nerves involved in fine texture perception.
These ridges may assist in gripping rough surfaces and may improve surface contact in wet conditions. Before computerization, manual filing systems were used in large fingerprint repositories. Manual classification systems were based on the general ridge patterns of all fingers; this allowed the filing and retrieval of paper records in large collections based on friction ridge patterns alone. The most popular systems used the pattern class of each finger to form a key to assist lookup in a filing system. Classification systems include the Roscher system, the Juan Vucetich system, the Henry Classification System; the Roscher system was developed in Germany and implemented in both Germany and Japan, the Vucetich system was developed in Argentina and implemented throughout South America, the Henry system was developed in India and implemented in most English-speaking countries. In the Henry system of classification, there are three basic fingerprint patterns: loop and arch, which constitute 60–65%, 30–35%, 5% of all fingerprints respectively.
There are more complex classification systems that break down patterns further, into plain arches or tented arches, into loops that may be radial or ulnar, depending on the side of the hand toward which the tail points. Ulnar loops start on the pinky-side of the finger, the side closer to the lower arm bone. Radial loops start on the thumb-side of the finger, the side closer to the radius. Whorls may have sub-group classifications including plain whorls, accidental whorls, double loop whorls, peacock's eye and central pocket loop whorls. Other common fingerprint patterns include the tented arch, the plain arch, the central pocket loop; the system used by most experts, is similar to the Henry System of Classification. It consists of five fractions, in which R stands for right, L for left, i for index finger, m for middle finger, t for thumb, r for ring finger and p for little finger; the fractions are as follows: Ri/Rt + Rr/Rm + Lt/Rp + Lm/Li + Lp/Lr. The numbers assigned to each print are based on.
A whorl in the first fraction is given a 16, the second an 8, the third a 4, the fourth a 2, 0 to the last fraction. Arches and loops are assigned values of 0. Lastly, the numbers in the numerator and denominator are added up, using the scheme: /and a 1 is added to both top and bottom, to exclude any possibility of division by zero. For example, if the right ring finger and the left index finger have whorls, the fractions would look like this: 0/0 + 8/0 + 0/0 + 0/2 + 0/0 + 1/1, the calculation: / = 9/3 = 3. Using this system reduces the number of prints that the print in question needs to be compared to. For example, the above set of prints would only need to be compared to other sets of fingerprints with a value of 3. Fingerprint identification, known as dactyloscopy, or hand print identification, is the process of comparing two instances of friction ridge skin impressions, from human fingers or toes, or the palm of the hand or sole of the foot, to determine whether these impressions could have come from the same individual.
The flexibility of friction ridge skin means that no two finger or palm prints are exactly alike in every detail.
Letter of credence
A letter of credence is a formal diplomatic letter that appoints a diplomat as ambassador to another sovereign state. Known as diplomatic credentials, the letter is addressed from one head of state to another, asking him to give credence to whatever the ambassador may say on his country's behalf; the letter is presented by the ambassador to the receiving head of state in a formal ceremony, marking the beginning of the ambassadorship. Letters of credence are traditionally written in the lingua franca of diplomacy. However, they may be written in the official language of the sending state. Upon arrival at his post, an ambassador meets with the foreign minister to arrange for an audience with the head of state; the ambassador carries an unsealed copy of his credentials. The unsealed copy is given to the foreign minister upon arrival, the original is presented to the head of state in a formal ceremony. Ambassadors do not begin their duties until their credentials are accepted, their precedence within the diplomatic corps is determined by the date on which the credentials were presented.
However, ambassadors are entitled to diplomatic immunity as soon. The ambassador travels to the presentation ceremony in an official vehicle provided by the receiving state, accompanied by a military escort. In constitutional monarchies and parliamentary democracies, the head of state or viceroy acts according to advice from the government; the foreign minister will attend the head of state at the actual ceremony, to symbolize the fact that the credentials are being accepted on the basis of government advice. The ambassador uses both hands to present his credentials to the head of state; when two countries maintain relations at the chargé d'affaires level, the letter of credence will be written by the foreign minister of the sending state and addressed to the foreign minister of the receiving state. The chargé will present his credentials to the foreign minister; the head of state is neither addressed nor presented with the credentials, symbolizing the lower level of diplomatic relations between the countries.
The chargé is not entitled to an official car. High commissioners from Commonwealth nations do not present letters of credence; when two Commonwealth realms share the same British monarch as head of state, the prime minister of the sending state writes an informal letter of introduction to the prime minister of the receiving state. When a Commonwealth nation is a republic, high commissioners are dispatched and received with letters of commission, which are written by one head of state and presented to another head of state. Both forms of letters were standardized in 1950–1951 after India became a republic, replacing a chaotic system where some high commissioners carried letters from the prime minister, some carried letters from the minister of external relations, others carried no letters at all
An identity document is any document which may be used to prove a person's identity. If issued in a small, standard credit card size form, it is called an identity card, or passport card; some countries issue formal identity documents, as national identification cards which may be compulsory or non-compulsory, while others may require identity verification using regional identification or informal documents. When the identity document incorporates a person's photograph, it may be called photo ID. In the absence of a formal identity document, a driver's license may be accepted in many countries for identity verification; some countries do not accept driver's licenses for identification because in those countries they do not expire as documents and can be old or forged. Most countries accept passports as a form of identification; some countries require all people to have an identity document available at any time. Many countries require all foreigners to have a passport or a national identity card from their country available at any time if they do not have a residence permit in the country.
The identity document is used to connect a person to information about the person in a database. The photo and the possession of it is used to connect the person with the document; the connection between the identity document and information database is based on personal information present on the document, such as the bearer's full name, birth date, address, an identification number, card number, gender and more. A unique national identification number is the most secure way, but some countries lack such numbers or don't write them on identity documents. A version of the passport considered to be the earliest identity document inscribed into law was introduced by King Henry V of England with the Safe Conducts Act 1414. For the next 500 years and before World War I, most people did not have or need an identity document. Photographic identification appeared in 1876 but it did not become used until the early 20th century when photographs became part of passports and other ID documents such as driver's licenses, all of which came to be referred to as "photo IDs".
Both Australia and Great Britain, for example, introduced the requirement for a photographic passport in 1915 after the so-called Lody spy scandal. The shape and size of identity cards were standardized in 1985 by ISO/IEC 7810; some modern identity documents are smart cards including a difficult-to-forge embedded integrated circuit that were standardized in 1988 by ISO/IEC 7816. New technologies allow identity cards to contain biometric information, such as a photograph. Electronic identity cards are available in countries including Belgium, Chile, Finland, Hong Kong, Morocco, Portugal and Slovakia. Law enforcement officials claim that identity cards make surveillance and the search for criminals easier and therefore support the universal adoption of identity cards. In countries that don't have a national identity card, there is, concern about the projected large costs and potential abuse of high-tech smartcards. In many countries – English-speaking countries such as Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States – there are no government-issued compulsory identity cards for all citizens.
Ireland's Public Services Card is not considered a national identity card by the Department of Employment Affairs and Social Protection, but many say it is in fact becoming that, without public debate or a legislative foundation. There is debate in these countries about whether such cards and their centralised database constitute an infringement of privacy and civil liberties. Most criticism is directed towards the enhanced possibilities of extensive abuse of centralised and comprehensive databases storing sensitive data. A 2006 survey of UK Open University students concluded that the planned compulsory identity card under the Identity Cards Act 2006 coupled with a central government database generated the most negative response among several alternative configurations. None of the countries listed above mandate possession of identity documents, but they have de facto equivalents since these countries still require proof of identity in many situations. For example, all vehicle drivers must have a driving licence, young people may need to use specially issued "proof of age cards" when purchasing alcohol.
In addition, uniquely amongst native English speaking countries without ID cards, the USA requires all its male residents between the ages of 18 and 25, including foreigners, to register for military conscription. Arguments for identity documents as such: In order to avoid mismatching people, to fight fraud, there should be a way, as securely as possible, to prove a person's identity; every human being carries their own personal identification in the form of DNA, hard to falsify or to discard. For non-state commercial and private interactions, this may shortly become the preferred identifier, rendering a state-issued identity card a lesser evil than the extensive privacy risks associated with everyday use of a person's genetic profile for identification purposes. Arguments for national identity documents: If using only private alternatives, such as id cards issued by banks, the inherent lack of consistency regarding issuance policies can lead to downstream problems. For example, in Sweden private companies such as banks refused to issue ID cards to individuals without a Swedish card.
This forced the government
A retinal scan is a biometric technique that uses unique patterns on a person's retina blood vessels. It is not to be confused with other ocular-based technologies: iris recognition called an "iris scan", eye vein verification that uses scleral veins." The human retina is a thin tissue composed of neural cells, located in the posterior portion of the eye. Because of the complex structure of the capillaries that supply the retina with blood, each person's retina is unique; the network of blood vessels in the retina is not genetically determined and thus identical twins do not share a similar pattern. Although retinal patterns may be altered in cases of diabetes, glaucoma or retinal degenerative disorders, the retina remains unchanged from birth until death. Due to its unique and unchanging nature, the retina appears to be the most precise and reliable biometric, aside from DNA; the National Center for State Courts estimate that retinal scanning has an error rate of one in ten million. A retinal scan is performed by casting an unperceived beam of low-energy infrared light into a person’s eye as they look through the scanner's eyepiece.
This beam of light traces a standardized path on the retina. Because retinal blood vessels absorb light more than the surrounding tissue, the amount of reflection varies during the scan; the pattern of variations is stored in a database. The idea for retinal identification was first conceived by Dr Carleton Simon and Dr Isadore Goldstein and was published in the New York State Journal of Medicine in 1935; the idea was ahead of its time, but once technology caught up, the concept for a retinal scanning device emerged in 1975. In 1976, Robert "Buzz" Hill formed a corporation named EyeDentify, Inc. and made a full-time effort to research and develop such a device. In 1978, specific means for a retinal scanner was patented, followed by a commercial model in 1981; the relative obscurity and "high tech" nature of retinal scans means that they are a frequent device in fiction to suggest that an area has been strongly secured against intrusion. Some notable examples include: In the movie Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, Admiral Kirk gains access to top secret computer files by use of a retinal scan.
In the science fiction novel "The Long Result" by John Brunner, a retinal scanner is used to access a Remote Control Centre at a spaceport. In the movie Batman, Batman describes to Robin how the tiny vessels in the retina are unique to the individual and utilizing the portable retina scan device in the Batmobile they could confirm the identity of the Penguin. In the Half-Life series, the Scientists of Black Mesa are shown operating Retinal Scanners to access locked doors or hidden devices. Characters in the films GoldenEye, Mission: Impossible, Barb Wire, Minority Report and Paycheck and Charlie's Angels utilize or try to deceive retinal scanners. In the Splinter Cell series, retinal scanners are used to identify agents within Third Echelon and guards within military/business complexes. In the 2012 film The Avengers, characters gain access to a quantity of rare iridium by using two devices: one which hooks onto a victim's eyeball, another which receives signals from the first to holographically reconstruct the retina to fool the scanner.
In the new Robocop movie and in Charlie's angels, Retina scanners are present. Retinal scanners are used for authentication and identification purposes. Retinal scanning has been utilized by several government agencies including the FBI, CIA, NASA. However, in recent years, retinal scanning has become more commercially popular. Retinal scanning has been used in prisons, for ATM identity verification and the prevention of welfare fraud. Retinal scanning has medical application. Communicable illnesses such as AIDS, malaria, chicken pox and Lyme disease as well as hereditary diseases like leukemia and sickle cell anemia affect the eyes. Pregnancy affects the eyes. Indications of chronic health conditions such as congestive heart failure and cholesterol issues first appear in the eyes. Advantages Low occurrence of false positives Extremely low false negative rates Highly reliable because no two people have the same retinal pattern Speedy results: Identity of the subject is verified quicklyDisadvantages Measurement accuracy can be affected by a disease such as cataracts Measurement accuracy can be affected by severe astigmatism Scanning procedure is perceived by some as invasive Not user friendly Subject being scanned must be close to the camera optics High equipment cost Leads to eye problems that can be identified by CT Scan.
Cheap equipment used can damage your eyes on regular usage. Vein matching Iris recognition
An aircraft is a machine, able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines. Common examples of aircraft include airplanes, airships and hot air balloons; the human activity that surrounds aircraft is called aviation. The science of aviation, including designing and building aircraft, is called aeronautics. Crewed aircraft are flown by an onboard pilot, but unmanned aerial vehicles may be remotely controlled or self-controlled by onboard computers. Aircraft may be classified by different criteria, such as lift type, aircraft propulsion and others. Flying model craft and stories of manned flight go back many centuries, however the first manned ascent – and safe descent – in modern times took place by larger hot-air balloons developed in the 18th century; each of the two World Wars led to great technical advances. The history of aircraft can be divided into five eras: Pioneers of flight, from the earliest experiments to 1914.
First World War, 1914 to 1918. Aviation between the World Wars, 1918 to 1939. Second World War, 1939 to 1945. Postwar era called the jet age, 1945 to the present day. Aerostats use buoyancy to float in the air in much the same way, they are characterized by one or more large gasbags or canopies, filled with a low-density gas such as helium, hydrogen, or hot air, less dense than the surrounding air. When the weight of this is added to the weight of the aircraft structure, it adds up to the same weight as the air that the craft displaces. Small hot-air balloons called sky lanterns were first invented in ancient China prior to the 3rd century BC and used in cultural celebrations, were only the second type of aircraft to fly, the first being kites which were first invented in ancient China over two thousand years ago. A balloon was any aerostat, while the term airship was used for large, powered aircraft designs – fixed-wing. In 1919 Frederick Handley Page was reported as referring to "ships of the air," with smaller passenger types as "Air yachts."
In the 1930s, large intercontinental flying boats were sometimes referred to as "ships of the air" or "flying-ships". – though none had yet been built. The advent of powered balloons, called dirigible balloons, of rigid hulls allowing a great increase in size, began to change the way these words were used. Huge powered aerostats, characterized by a rigid outer framework and separate aerodynamic skin surrounding the gas bags, were produced, the Zeppelins being the largest and most famous. There were still no fixed-wing aircraft or non-rigid balloons large enough to be called airships, so "airship" came to be synonymous with these aircraft. Several accidents, such as the Hindenburg disaster in 1937, led to the demise of these airships. Nowadays a "balloon" is an unpowered aerostat and an "airship" is a powered one. A powered, steerable aerostat is called a dirigible. Sometimes this term is applied only to non-rigid balloons, sometimes dirigible balloon is regarded as the definition of an airship.
Non-rigid dirigibles are characterized by a moderately aerodynamic gasbag with stabilizing fins at the back. These soon became known as blimps. During the Second World War, this shape was adopted for tethered balloons; the nickname blimp was adopted along with the shape. In modern times, any small dirigible or airship is called a blimp, though a blimp may be unpowered as well as powered. Heavier-than-air aircraft, such as airplanes, must find some way to push air or gas downwards, so that a reaction occurs to push the aircraft upwards; this dynamic movement through the air is the origin of the term aerodyne. There are two ways to produce dynamic upthrust: aerodynamic lift, powered lift in the form of engine thrust. Aerodynamic lift involving wings is the most common, with fixed-wing aircraft being kept in the air by the forward movement of wings, rotorcraft by spinning wing-shaped rotors sometimes called rotary wings. A wing is a flat, horizontal surface shaped in cross-section as an aerofoil. To fly, air must generate lift.
A flexible wing is a wing made of fabric or thin sheet material stretched over a rigid frame. A kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the speed of the wind over its wings, which may be flexible or rigid, fixed, or rotary. With powered lift, the aircraft directs its engine thrust vertically downward. V/STOL aircraft, such as the Harrier Jump Jet and F-35B take off and land vertically using powered lift and transfer to aerodynamic lift in steady flight. A pure rocket is not regarded as an aerodyne, because it does not depend on the air for its lift. Rocket-powered missiles that obtain aerodynamic lift at high speed due to airflow over their bodies are a marginal case; the forerunner of the fixed-wing aircraft is the kite. Whereas a fixed-wing aircraft relies on its forward speed to create airflow over the wings, a kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the wind blowing over its wings to provide lift. Kites were the first kind of aircraft to fly, were invented in China around 500 BC.
Much aerodynamic research was done with kites before test aircraft, wind tunnels, computer modelling programs became available. The first heavier-than-air craft capable of controlled free-flight were gliders. A glider designed by Geo
Espionage or spying is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information. Spies help agencies uncover secret information. Any individual or spy ring, in the service of a government, company or independent operation, can commit espionage; the practice is clandestine, as it is by definition unwelcome and in many cases illegal and punishable by law. Espionage is a method of intelligence gathering which includes information gathering from public sources. Espionage is part of an institutional effort by a government or commercial concern. However, the term tends to be associated with state spying on potential or actual enemies for military purposes. Spying involving corporations is known as industrial espionage. One of the most effective ways to gather data and information about the enemy is by infiltrating the enemy's ranks; this is the job of the spy. Spies can return information concerning the strength of enemy forces, they can find dissidents within the enemy's forces and influence them to defect.
In times of crisis, spies sabotage the enemy in various ways. Counterintelligence is the practice of thwarting enemy intelligence-gathering. All nations have strict laws concerning espionage and the penalty for being caught is severe. However, the benefits gained through espionage are so great that most governments and many large corporations make use of it. Information collection techniques used in the conduct of clandestine human intelligence include operational techniques, asset recruiting, tradecraft. Today, espionage agencies target terrorists as well as state actors. Since 2008, the United States has charged at least 57 defendants for attempting to spy for China. Intelligence services value certain intelligence collection techniques over others; the former Soviet Union, for example, preferred human sources over research in open sources, while the United States has tended to emphasize technological methods such as SIGINT and IMINT. In the Soviet Union, both political and military intelligence officers were judged by the number of agents they recruited.
Espionage agents are trained experts in a targeted field so they can differentiate mundane information from targets of value to their own organizational development. Correct identification of the target at its execution is the sole purpose of the espionage operation. Broad areas of espionage targeting expertise include: Natural resources: strategic production identification and assessment. Agents are found among bureaucrats who administer these resources in their own countries Popular sentiment towards domestic and foreign policies. Agents recruited from field journalistic crews, exchange postgraduate students and sociology researchers Strategic economic strengths. Agents recruited from science and technology academia, commercial enterprises, more from among military technologists Military capability intelligence. Agents are trained by military espionage education facilities, posted to an area of operation with covert identities to minimize prosecution Counterintelligence operations targeting opponents' intelligence services themselves, such as breaching confidentiality of communications, recruiting defectors or moles Although the news media may speak of "spy satellites" and the like, espionage is not a synonym for all intelligence-gathering disciplines.
It is a specific form of human source intelligence. Codebreaking, aircraft or satellite photography, research in open publications are all intelligence gathering disciplines, but none of them is considered espionage. Many HUMINT activities, such as prisoner interrogation, reports from military reconnaissance patrols and from diplomats, etc. are not considered espionage. Espionage is the disclosure of sensitive information to people who are not cleared for that information or access to that sensitive information. Unlike other forms of intelligence collection disciplines, espionage involves accessing the place where the desired information is stored or accessing the people who know the information and will divulge it through some kind of subterfuge. There are exceptions to physical meetings, such as the Oslo Report, or the insistence of Robert Hanssen in never meeting the people who bought his information; the US defines espionage towards itself as "The act of obtaining, transmitting, communicating, or receiving information about the national defense with an intent, or reason to believe, that the information may be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of any foreign nation".
Black's Law Dictionary defines espionage as: "... gathering, transmitting, or losing... information related to the national defense". Espionage is a violation of United States law, 18 U. S. C. §§ 792–798 and Article 106a of the Uniform Code of Military Justice". The United States, like most nations, conducts espionage against other nations, under the control of the National Clandestine Service. Britain's espionage activities are controlled by the Secret Intelligence Service. A spy is a person employed to seek out top secret information from a source. Within the United States Intelligence Community, "asset" is a more common usage. A case officer or Special Agent, who may have diplomatic status and directs the human collector. Cutouts are couriers who do not know the case officer but transfer messages. A