Quercus stellata, the post oak or iron oak, is a North American species of oak in the white oak section. It is a slow-growing oak that lives in dry, poor soils, is resistant to rot and drought. Interbreeding occurs among white oaks, thus many hybrid species combinations occur. Q. stellata is native to the eastern and central United States, found in all the coastal states from Massachusetts to Texas, as far inland as Nebraska. It is identifiable by the rounded cross-like shape formed by the leaf lobes and hairy underside of the leaves. Post oak is a small tree 10–15 m tall and trunk 30–60 cm in diameter, though occasional specimens reach 30 m tall and 140 cm in diameter; the leaves have a distinctive shape, with three perpendicular terminal lobes, shaped much like a Maltese cross. They are leathery, tomentose beneath; the branching pattern of this tree gives it a rugged appearance. The acorns are 1.5–2 cm long, are mature in their first summer. The specific epithet stellata is Latin for "star". Several variants of Q. stellata were named by American botanist Charles Sprague Sargent.
The variety most recognised by the US Forest Service is Q. stellata var. paludosa Sarg Varieties include: var. margarettiae Sarg. var. paludosa Sarg.var. Boyntonii Sarg.var. Anomala Sarg.var. Attenuata Sarg.var. Araniosa Sarg.var. Palmeri Sarg.var. Parviloba Sarg.var. Rufescens Sarg. Both Quercus stellata and Q. alba are in a section of Quercus called the white oaks. In the white oak section, Q. stellata is a sister taxon with Quercus alba. Q. stellata is distributed as white oak. One identifiable difference between the two trees is that Q. stellata is'hairy' on the underside of the leaf. Q. stellata is found in Southeastern United States, in the coast states from Massachusetts, to Texas, inland to Iowa. Found at the edge of a forest, it grows in dry, sandy areas, deficient of nutrients; because of its ability to grow in dry sites, attractive crown, strong horizontal branches, it is used in urban forestry. It is resistant to decay, so it is used for railroad ties, planks, construction timbers, stair risers and treads, pulp, particle board and its namesake fence posts.
It is used for wildlife food for deer, turkeys and other rodents, but because the nuts contain tannin, it is toxic to cattle. Q. stellata has the ability to survive fires by having thicker bark. It is useful for fire surveys. A tree ring survey of 36 trees in Illinois provided a 226-year tree ring record that indicated that many Q. stellata persisted through annual fire return intervals of 1.44 fires/year for over 100 years. IPNI Kew Flora of North America Plants. USDA.gov US Forest Service Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States Q. stellata images from Vanderbilt University photo of herbarium specimen at Missouri Botanical Garden, collected in Missouri in 1939
Muscogee (Creek) Nation
The Muscogee Nation is a federally recognized Native American tribe based in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. The nation descends from the historic Creek Confederacy, a large group of indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Official languages include Muscogee, Natchez and Koasati, with Muscogee retaining the largest number of speakers, they refer to themselves as Este Mvskokvlke. They were referred to as one of the Five Civilized Tribes of the American Southeast; the Muscogee Nation is the largest of the federally recognized Muscogee tribes. The Muskogean-speaking Alabama, Koasati and Natchez people, as well as Algonquian-speaking Shawnee and Yuchi are enrolled in the Muscogee Creek Nation; the latter two groups were from different language families than the Muscogee. Other federally recognized Muscogee groups include the Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, Thlopthlocco Tribal Town of Oklahoma, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas, the Poarch Band of Creeks in Alabama.
The Muscogee Nation is headquartered in Okmulgee and serves as the seat of tribal government. The Muscogee Nation Reservation status was reaffirmed in 2017 by decision of Tenth Circuit Court in Murphy v. Royal which held that the allotted Muscogee Nation reservation in Oklahoma has not been disestablished and therefore retains jurisdiction over tribal citizens in Creek, Okfuskee, Okmulgee, McIntosh, Muskogee and Wagoner counties in Oklahoma; the decision in Murphy v. Royal was appealed to the United States Supreme Court on February 6, 2018 and certiorari was granted on May 21, 2018; the government of the Muscogee Nation is divided into three branches: executive and judicial. Okmulgee is the capitol of the Muscogee Nation and serves as the seat of government; the Executive branch is led by a Principal Chief, Second Chief, Tribal Administrator, Secretary of the Nation. The Principal Chief and Second Chief are democratically elected every four years. Citizens cast ballots for both the Principal Chief and Second Chief as they are elected individually.
The Principal Chief chooses staff. The current members of the executive branch are as follows: James Floyd, Principal Chief Louis Hicks, Second Chief Jerry McPeak, Tribal Administrator The legislative branch is the National Council and consists of 16 members elected to represent the 8 different districts within the tribe's jurisdictional area. National Council representatives sponsor the laws and resolutions of the Nation; the 8 districts include: Creek, Wagoner, Muskogee, Okmulgee, McIntosh, Tukvpvtce. The Nation has two courts: the Supreme Court; the Supreme Court has final authority over disputes about the Muscogee Creek Constitution and Laws. The current members of the Supreme Court are as follows: Chief Justice Kathleen Supernaw Vice-Chief Justice Montie Deer Associate Justice Jonodev Chaudhuri Associate Justice Leah Harjo-Ware Associate Justice Andrew Adams III Associate Justice Richard LerblanceThere is a separate Muscogee Nation Bar Association. In 2016, there were 80,591 people enrolled in the Muscogee Creek Nation.
Of these, 60,403 lived within the state of Oklahoma. Since 1979, membership to the tribe is based on documented lineal descent from persons listed as Creek'Indians by Blood' on the Dawes Rolls; the tribe does not have a minimum blood quantum requirement. The Nation operates its own division of housing and issues vehicle license plates, their Division of Health contracts with Indian Health Services to maintain the Creek Nation Community Hospital and several community clinics, a vocational rehabilitation program, nutrition programs for children and the elderly, programs dedicated to diabetes, tobacco prevention, caregivers. The Muscogee Nation operates the Lighthorse Tribal Police Department, with 43 active employees; the tribe has its own program for enforcing child support payments. The Mvskoke Food Sovereignty Initiative is sponsored by the nation, it educates and encourages tribal members to grow their own traditional foods for health, environmental sustainability, economic development, sharing of knowledge and community between generations.
The Muscogee Nation operates a Communications Department that produces a bi-monthly newspaper, the Muscogee Nation News, a weekly television show, the Native News Today. The tribe operates a budget in excess of $290 million, has over 4,000 employees, provides services within their jurisdiction; the tribe has non-gaming businesses. Non-gaming business ventures include Onefire. MNBE and Onefire oversee economic development as well as investigating, planning and operating business ventures projects for the tribe related to non-gaming business. Gaming enterprises consist of 9 stand alone casinos; the revenue from both gaming and non-gaming business are reinvested to develop new businesses, as well as support the welfare of the tribe. The Muscogee Nation operates two Travel Plaza truck stops; the Nation's historic old Council House was located in downtown Okmulgee. It is under renovation, it now serves as a museum of tribal history. In 2004, the Muscogee Nation founded a tribal college in Okmulgee, the College of the Muscogee Nation.
CMN is a two-year institution, offer
Francis Anthony "Frank" Keating II is an American attorney and politician who served as the 25th governor of Oklahoma from 1995 to 2003. As of 2014, Keating is one of only four governors in Oklahoma history, in addition to George Nigh, Brad Henry and Mary Fallin, to hold consecutive terms and the first Republican to accomplish that feat; as governor, he oversaw the state's response to the Oklahoma City bombing. His term was marked by the enactment of welfare reform and tax cuts. Keating was born on February 10, 1944, in St. Louis, the son of Mary Ann and Anthony Francis Keating, he was born David Rowland Keating, but his name was changed to Francis Anthony Keating II when he was two. Before he was six months old, his family settled in Tulsa. A practicing Roman Catholic, Keating attended Cascia Hall Preparatory School in Tulsa, graduating in 1962. Keating attended Georgetown University in Washington, D. C. where he was president of the college student body and an editor of The Hoya, receiving his Bachelor of Arts in history, in 1966.
He obtained a J. D. from the University of Oklahoma College of Law, in 1969, where he was student body president. Upon receiving his law degree, Keating began his career in law enforcement; the same year he finished law school, Keating was made a Special agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Relocated to the West Coast, Keating was charged with investigating terrorism incidents in the area and other various duties. After years on the coast, Keating returned to Tulsa to become an assistant district attorney. In 1973, was elected to the Oklahoma House of Representatives, he would serve a single term until 1975, when he was elected to the Oklahoma Senate. He would serve in the Senate from 1975 until 1981. While in the Senate, Keating became the minority leader. Keating's law enforcement career and prominence in the Oklahoma Republican Party prompted newly elected President Ronald Reagan to appoint Keating as the U. S. Attorney for the Northern District of Oklahoma. Keating served from 1981 until 1983, serving for part of that time as chairman of all U.
S. Attorneys, he gave up that post in 1983 to run for Congress in Oklahoma's 1st congressional district and nearly defeated House Budget Committee chairman James R. Jones, holding him to only 52 percent of the vote as Reagan carried the district. Shortly after Reagan was sworn in for his second term, he appointed Keating to serve as an assistant secretary of the Treasury and elevated him to associate attorney general, the third ranking official within the U. S. Department of Justice; these appointments made Keating the highest ranking Oklahoman during the Reagan administration. In his positions as assistant secretary of the Treasury and associate attorney general, Keating oversaw both the Justice and Treasury's law enforcement agencies; these included the United States Customs Service, the Bureau of Alcohol and Firearms, the Secret Service, the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the U. S. Marshals, the Immigration and Naturalization Service, all 94 U. S. Attorneys and the U.
S. role in Interpol. Late in the Reagan Administration, Keating continued to serve in the Justice Department in his role as associate attorney general. In 1990, President Bush elevated Keating to general counsel and acting deputy secretary of Housing and Urban Development, that department's second highest office, under Secretary Jack Kemp, he would serve as deputy secretary until 1993. As was the case in the Reagan administration, Keating became the highest ranking Oklahoman in the federal government, under Bush. On November 14, 1991, Bush nominated Keating to a seat on the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit, but with Democratic control of the U. S. Senate Judiciary Committee, Keating's nomination languished and no hearing was held before Bush's presidency ended. President Bill Clinton chose not to renominate Keating, instead nominating former Oklahoma Attorney General Robert Harlan Henry, subsequently confirmed. After two years of private life, in 1994, Keating received the Republican nomination for Governor of Oklahoma.
In a three-way race against Democratic nominee Jack Mildren and independent Wes Watkins, Keating was elected with just under 47 percent of the vote. He was undoubtedly helped by the presence of Watkins, a former Democratic Congressman, on the ballot. Keating was sworn in as the 25th Governor of Oklahoma on January 9, 1995. Keating faced Democratic nominee Laura Boyd, the first woman to receive a major party's nomination for Oklahoma Governor, in his 1998 re-election campaign. Keating won in a landslide victory, the second of four Governors in Oklahoma history to win two consecutive terms and preceding Democrat Brad Henry, he was the only Republican to do so before Mary Fallin in 2014. Within three months of taking office, on April 19, the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City was destroyed in the Oklahoma City bombing, in which the lives of 168 people were lost and over 800 people were injured; the blast destroyed or damaged more than 300 buildings in the surrounding area, leaving several hundred people homeless and shutting down business.
Governor Keating mobilized rescue teams to handle the crisis. Over 12,000 people participated in rescue operations in the days following the blast; the national and worldwide humanitarian response was overwhelming. Governor Keating declared a state of emergency, which allowed the Federal Emergency Management Agency to activate 11 of its Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces to
Quercus macrocarpa, the bur oak, sometimes spelled burr oak, is a species of oak in the white oak section Quercus sect. Quercus, native to North America in the eastern and central United States and eastern and central Canada; this plant is called mossycup oak and mossycup white oak. Quercus macrocarpa is widespread in the Atlantic coastal plain from New Brunswick to North Carolina, west as far as Alberta, eastern Montana and northeastern New Mexico; the vast majority of the populations are found in the eastern Great Plains, the Mississippi–Missouri–Ohio Valley, the Great Lakes region. Quercus macrocarpa is a large deciduous tree growing up to 98 ft 160 ft, in height, is one of the most massive oaks with a trunk diameter of up to 10 ft, it is one of the slowest-growing oaks, with a growth rate of 1 ft per year when young. However, other sources state that a bur oak tree, planted in the ground grows up to 3 ft per year. A 20-year-old tree will be about 20 ft tall. Occurring saplings in forests will be older.
Bur oaks get to be 200 to 300 years old, may live up to 400 years. The bark is a somewhat rugged; the leaves are 2 3⁄4 -- 6 in long and 2 -- 5 in variable in shape, with a lobed margin. Most the basal two-thirds is narrower and lobed, while the apical third is wider and has shallow lobes or large teeth; the flowers are greenish-yellow catkins, produced in the spring. The acorns are large, 1–2 in long and 3⁄4–1 1⁄2 in broad, having a large cup that wraps much of the way around the nut, with large overlapping scales and a fringe at the edge of the cup. Bur oak is sometimes confused with overcup oak and white oak, both of which it hybridizes with; the acorns are the largest of any North American oak, are an important wildlife food. However, heavy nut crops are borne only every few years. In this evolutionary strategy, known as masting, the large seed crop every few years overwhelms the ability of seed predators to eat the acorns, thus ensuring the survival of some seeds. Other wildlife, such as deer and porcupine, eat the leaves and bark.
Cattle are heavy browsers in some areas. The bur oak is the only known foodplant of Bucculatrix recognita caterpillars. Bur oaks grow in a temperate climate, in regions such as, where their tree rings are read as one year of growth; this is because the trees grow less in cold dry climates. So, when the season changes so does the amount the tree ring will grow for that year; the woody part of the tree that presents the rings is made up of xylem. The xylem is darker; this occurs in dryer weather. The lighter part of the ring occurs during an ample growth period which includes warm and more wet weather. Bur oak grows in the open, away from forest canopy. For this reason, it is an important tree on the eastern prairies found near waterways in otherwise more forested areas, where there is a break in the canopy, it is drought resistant because of its long taproot. At the end of the growing season, a one-year sapling may have a taproot 1.37 m deep and a lateral root spread of 76 cm. The West Virginia state champion bur oak has a trunk diameter of 3 m.
Large bur oaks, older than 12 years, are fire-tolerant because of their thick bark. One of the bur oak's most common habitats in Midwestern United States, is the oak savanna, where fires occurred in early spring or late fall in hill country. Without fires, bur oak is succeeded by other tree and shrub species that are more shade-tolerant. Older bur oaks may survive in dense woodlands for 80 years, until they are weakened by wood-rot fungi in the lower branches killed by shade, by 100 to 110 years, they are snapped by wind storms. Quercus macrocarpa is cultivated by plant nurseries for use in gardens, in parks, on urban sidewalks. Bur oak makes an outstanding ornamental tree. Among the white oaks, it is one of the most tolerant of urban conditions, is one of the fastest-growing of the group, it has been planted in many climates, ranging northwards to Anchorage, as far south as Mission, Texas. It withstands chinook conditions in Alberta; the name sometimes is spelled "burr oak", as for example in Burr Oak State Park in Ohio, the cities of Burr Oak and Burr Oak, the village of Burr Oak, in the title Burr Oaks by poet Richard Eberhart.
The bur oak is the state tree of Iowa. A bur oak is displayed on the revised flag of Ann Arbor, Michigan. Bur oak blight, a fungal disease affecting bur oak trees. Media related to Quercus macrocarpa at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Quercus macrocarpa at Wikispecies
Quercus alba, the white oak, is one of the preeminent hardwoods of eastern and central North America. It is a long-lived oak, native to eastern and central North America and found from Minnesota, Ontario and southern Maine south as far as northern Florida and eastern Texas. Specimens have been documented to be over 450 years old. Although called a white oak, it is unusual to find an individual specimen with white bark; the name comes from the color of the finished wood. In the forest it can reach a magnificent height and in the open it develops into a massive broad-topped tree with large branches striking out at wide angles. Q. alba reaches heights of 80 to 100 feet at maturity, its canopy can become quite massive as its lower branches are apt to extend far out laterally, parallel to the ground. Trees growing in a forest will become much taller than ones in an open area which develop to be short and massive; the tallest known white oak is 144 feet tall. It is not unusual for a white oak tree to be as wide as it is tall, but specimens growing at high altitudes may only become small shrubs.
White oak may live 200 to 300 years, with some older specimens known. The Wye Oak in Wye Mills, Maryland was estimated to be over 450 years old when it fell in a thunderstorm in 2002. Another noted white oak was the Great White Oak in Basking Ridge, New Jersey, estimated to have been over 600 years old when it died in 2016; the tree measured 25 feet in circumference at the base and 16 feet in circumference four feet above the ground. The tree was 75 feet tall, its branches spread over 125 feet from tip to tip; the oak, claimed to be the oldest in the United States, began showing signs of poor health in the mid-2010s. The tree was taken down in 2017. Sexual maturity begins at around 20 years, but the tree does not produce large crops of acorns until its 50th year and the amount varies from year to year. Acorns deteriorate after ripening, the germination rate being only 10% for six-month-old seeds; as the acorns are prime food for insects and other animals, all may be consumed in years of small crops, leaving none that would become new trees.
The bark peels somewhat from the top, bottom and/or sides. In spring the young leaves are of a delicate, silvery pink and covered with a soft, blanket-like down; the petioles are short, the leaves which cluster close to the ends of the shoots are pale green and downy with the result that the entire tree has a misty, frosty look. This condition continues for several days, passing through the opalescent changes of soft pink, silvery white and yellow green; the leaves grow to be 5 to 8.5 inches long and 2.75 to 4.5 inches wide and have a deep glossy green upper surface. They turn red or brown in autumn, but depending on climate and individual tree genetics, some trees are nearly always red, or purple in autumn; some brown, dead leaves may remain on the tree throughout winter until early spring. The lobes can be shallow and somewhat branching; the acorns are sessile, grow to 0.5 to 1 inch in length, falling in early October. Quercus alba is sometimes confused with the swamp white oak, a related species, the bur oak.
The white oak hybridizes with the bur oak, the post oak, the chestnut oak. Bark: Light gray, varying to dark gray and to white. Branchlets at first bright green reddish-green and light gray. A distinguishing feature of this tree is that a little over halfway up the trunk the bark tends to form overlapping scales that are noticed and aid in identification. Wood: Light brown with paler sapwood. Specific gravity, 0.7470. Winter buds: Reddish brown, one-eighth of an inch long. Leaves: Alternate, five to nine inches long, three to four inches wide. Obovate or oblong, seven to nine-lobed seven-lobed with rounded lobes and rounded sinuses. On young trees the leaves are repand, they come out of the bud conduplicate, are bright red above, pale below, covered with white tomentum. In late autumn the leaves turn a deep red and drop, or on young trees remain on the branches throughout the winter. Petioles are short, stout and flattened. Stipules are caducous. Flowers: appear in May. Staminate flowers are borne in hairy aments two and a half to three inches long.
Pistillate flowers are borne on short peduncles. Acorns: Annual, sessile or stalked. White oak acorns have no epigeal dormancy and germination begins without any treatment. In most cases, the oak root stem appearing the next spring; the acorns take only one growing season to devel
As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land. In general, the tribes ceded land they occupied in exchange for land grants in 1803; the concept of an Indian Territory was an outcome of the 18th- and 19th-century policy of Indian removal. After the Civil War, the policy of the government was one of assimilation; the term Indian Reserve describes lands the British government set aside for indigenous tribes between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River in the time before the American Revolutionary War. Indian Territory came to refer to an unorganized territory whose general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834, was the successor to the remainder of the Missouri Territory after Missouri received statehood; the borders of Indian Territory were reduced in size as various Organic Acts were passed by Congress to create incorporated territories of the United States.
The 1907 Oklahoma Enabling Act created the single state of Oklahoma by combining Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory, ending the existence of an Indian Territory. Indian Territory known as the Indian Territories and the Indian Country, was land within the United States of America reserved for the forced re-settlement of Native Americans. Therefore, it was not a traditional territory for the tribes settled upon it; the general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834. The territory was located in the Central United States. While Congress passed several Organic Acts that provided a path for statehood for much of the original Indian Country, Congress never passed an Organic Act for the Indian Territory. Indian Territory was never an organized incorporated territory of the United States. In general, tribes could not sell land to non-Indians. Treaties with the tribes restricted entry of non-Indians into tribal areas; the region never had a formal government until after the American Civil War.
After the Civil War, the Southern Treaty Commission re-wrote treaties with tribes that sided with the Confederacy, reducing the territory of the Five Civilized Tribes and providing land to resettle Plains Indians and tribes of the Midwestern United States. These re-written treaties included provisions for a territorial legislature with proportional representation from various tribes. In time, the Indian Territory was reduced to; the Organic Act of 1890 reduced Indian Territory to the lands occupied by the Five Civilized Tribes and the Tribes of the Quapaw Indian Agency. The remaining western portion of the former Indian Territory became the Oklahoma Territory; the Oklahoma organic act applied the laws of Nebraska to the incorporated territory of Oklahoma Territory, the laws of Arkansas to the still unincorporated Indian Territory. The concept of an Indian territory is the successor to the British Indian Reserve, a British North American territory established by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 that set aside land for use by the Native American people.
The proclamation limited the settlement of Europeans to Crown-claimed lands east of the Appalachian Mountains. The territory remained active until the Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War, land was ceded to the United States; the British administration reduced the land area of the Indian Reserve – the United States further reduced it after the American Revolutionary War – until it included only lands west of the Mississippi River. At the time of the American Revolution, many Native American tribes had long-standing relationships with British who were loyal to the British Empire, but they had a less-developed relationship with the Empire's colonists-turned-rebels. After the defeat of the British, the Americans twice invaded the Ohio Country and were twice defeated, they defeated the Indian Western Confederacy at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 and imposed the Treaty of Greenville, which ceded most of what is now Ohio, part of present-day Indiana, the lands that include present-day Chicago and Detroit, to the United States federal government.
The period after the American Revolutionary War was one of rapid western expansion. The areas occupied by Native Americans in the United States were called Indian country, not an unorganized territory, as the areas were established by treaty. In 1803 the United States of America agreed to purchase France's claim to French Louisiana for a total of $15 million. President Thomas Jefferson doubted the legality of the purchase. However, the chief negotiator, Robert R. Livingston believed that the 3rd article of the treaty providing for the Louisiana Purchase would be acceptable to Congress; the 3rd article stated, in part: the inhabitants of the ceded territory shall be incorporated in the Union of the United States, admitted as soon as possible, according to the principles of the Federal Constitution, to the enjoyment of all the rights and immunities of citizens of the United States. Which committed the US government to "the ultimate, but not to the immediate, admission" of the territory as multiple states, "postponed its incorporation into the Union t
The Oklahoma Senate is the upper house of the two houses of the Legislature of Oklahoma, the other being the Oklahoma House of Representatives. The total number of senators is set at 48 by the Oklahoma Constitution. Senators approve or reject gubernatorial appointments, contribute to the creation of both state law and an annual state budget; every ten years, they aid in drawing new boundaries for Oklahoma's electoral districts. The Oklahoma Senate serves as a court of impeachment; the presiding officer of the Senate is the Lieutenant Governor of Oklahoma, the President of the Senate. Since the 1960s, the President Pro Tempore of the Senate has presided over daily work. Prior to that time, the President of the Senate took a leading role in the Senate, including appointing committees and members to those committees; the President of the Senate may cast a vote only in the instance of a tie vote and may not vote to create a tie. The 1907 Oklahoma Constitution established the Oklahoma Senate alongside the Oklahoma House of Representatives.
It met in Guthrie, Oklahoma until 1910. Henry S. Johnston, the author of the initiative and referendum section of the Oklahoma Constitution, served as the first Senate President Pro Tempore. After women in Oklahoma earned the right to vote in 1918, the Oklahoma Senate gained its first female state senator. Lamar Looney was elected in 1920 over G. L. Wilson. Looney was a progressive Democrat and served from 1921 to 1929; the United States Supreme Court "one man, one vote" decision in Baker v. Carr led to a court order that forced Oklahoma to equalize representation. Before that decision, Oklahoma had 48 senatorial districts that represented either a populous county or several less-populated counties, but did not provide for districts of equal population. Since 1964, under the holding of Reynolds v. Sims, 377 U. S. 533 districts must be apportioned within a 5% margin of the average target size district as determined by the U. S. Census state population figures divided by the forty-eight districts.
This allows for some districts to be smaller or larger than others. The Oklahoma Senate draws its own maps of its district lines, which are subject to the approval of both the Oklahoma House of Representatives and the governor. Should the redistricting not occur in a timely manner, the lines are determined by a panel of five statewide elected officials. In 1966, voters approved 90-day legislative sessions and, in 1968, they voted to create a Board of Legislative Compensation. An initiative petition championed by Governor Henry Bellmon in 1989 created a requirement that the legislative sessions end by 5 p.m. on the last Friday in May. The November 7, 2006 elections resulted in an unprecedented 24–24 tie in the number of seats held by Oklahoma's two major political parties, the Republican Party and the Democratic Party. Although the Republican Party added two seats to their prior total, they had lost a seat in July due to Nancy Riley changing in her party affiliation from Republican to Democratic.
The Democratic Party did hold the seat of lieutenant governor, who serves as President of the Senate, giving them a tie-breaking vote in the Senate. The result was a power-sharing agreement for the 2007 and 2008 legislative sessions that split control of the presiding officer position of President Pro Tempore into two Co-President Pro Tempores, one of each party. A Democratic member held the President Pro Tempore position for 23 months and a Republican member held the position for only one month. Unofficially, decisions were made with the approval of both Co-President Pro Tempores. By winning two more seats in the 2008 elections, the Republicans assumed control of the Oklahoma Senate for the first time in state history and held a 26–22 majority, thus ending the power sharing arrangement between the parties; the Senate meets in regular session in east wing of the Oklahoma State Capitol in Oklahoma City, from early February to the last Friday in May. Special sessions may be called by the Governor of Oklahoma, or by supermajority vote of the Legislature.
Unlike their counterparts in the Oklahoma House of Representatives, state senators are not restricted on introduction of bills and resolutions. The Oklahoma Senate advises and consents to numerous appointments of the Governor, including the entire Governor's Cabinet. Nominations are heard by respective standing committees rather than through a committee on nominations; the Oklahoma Constitution-based the Senate on counties. The 19 most populous counties, as determined by the most recent federal census, were each to elect one senator; the 58 less populous counties were to be joined into 29 two-county districts, each of, to elect one senator. In apportioning the Senate, the Oklahoma Constitution required that consideration be given to population, area, political units, historical precedents and political interests, contiguous territory and other major factors, to the extent feasible. In 1964, the United States Supreme Court ruled. Since every ten years, the Oklahoma Senate is responsible for passing into law new district boundaries for the Oklahoma House of Representatives, Oklahoma Senate and Oklahoma Congressional delegation.
The Senate and House have traditionally drawn their own lines without any comment from the other body and work together with the Congressional delegation to draw lines appropriate for the next election. The Governor must sign these bills into law or a statewide panel is convened to draw the disputed lines; the Oklahoma Senate serves a dual role as a judicial court. As the court of impeachment, it is an independent court in the Oklahoma court system. Impeachment charges are brought by the Oklahoma House of