In Arthurian legend, Sir Kay is King Arthur's foster brother and seneschal, as well as one of the first Knights of the Round Table. In literature he is known for his acid tongue and bullying, boorish behavior, but in earlier accounts he was one of Arthur's premier warriors. Along with Bedivere, with whom he is associated, Kay is one of the earliest characters associated with Arthur. Kay's father is called Ector in literature, but the Welsh accounts name him as Cynyr Ceinfarfog. Cai or Cei is one of the earliest characters to be associated with the Arthurian mythology, appearing in a number of early Welsh texts, including Culhwch ac Olwen, Geraint fab Erbin, Iarlles y Ffynnon, Peredur fab Efrawg, Breuddwyd Rhonabwy, Pa Gur yv y Porthaur and the Welsh Triads, his father is given as his son as Garanwyn and his daughter as Kelemon. Before Cai's birth, Cynyr prophesied that his son's heart would be eternally cold, that he would be exceptionally stubborn and that no one would be able to brave fire or water like him.
Cai is attributed with a number of further superhuman abilities, including the ability to go nine days and nine nights without the need to breathe or to sleep, the ability to grow as "tall as the tallest tree in the forest if he pleased" and the ability to radiate supernatural heat from his hands. Furthermore, it is impossible to cure a wound from Cai's sword. Cai is killed by Gwyddawg fab Menestyr, in turn killed in vengeance by Arthur. One of the earliest direct reference to Cai can be found in the 10th-century poem Pa Gur, in which Arthur recounts the feats and achievements of his knights so as to gain entrance to a fortress guarded by Glewlwyd Gafaelfawr, the titular porter; the poem concerns itself with Cai's exploits: Culhwch's father, King Cilydd son of Celyddon, loses his wife Goleuddydd after a difficult childbirth. When he remarries, the young Culhwch rejects his stepmother's attempt to pair him with his new stepsister. Offended, the new queen puts a curse on him so that he can marry no one besides the beautiful Olwen, daughter of the giant Ysbaddaden.
Though he has never seen her, Culhwch becomes infatuated with her, but his father warns him that he will never find her without the aid of his famous cousin Arthur. The young man sets off to seek his kinsman, he asks for support and assistance. Cai is the first knight to volunteer to assist Culhwch in his quest, promising to stand by his side until Olwen is found. A further five knights join them in their mission, they travel onwards until they come across the "fairest of the castles of the world", meet Ysbaddaden's shepherd brother, Custennin. They learn that the castle belongs to Ysbaddaden, that he stripped Custennin of his lands and murdered the shepherd's twenty-three children out of cruelty. Custennin set up a meeting between Culhwch and Olwen, the maiden agrees to lead Culhwch and his companions to Ysbadadden's castle. Cai pledges to protect Goreu with his life; the knights attack the castle by stealth, killing the nine porters and the nine watchdogs, enter the giant's hall. Upon their arrival, Ysbaddaden attempts to kill Culhwch with a poison dart, but is outwitted and wounded, first by Bedwyr by the enchanter Menw, by Culhwch himself.
Ysbaddaden relents, agrees to give Culhwch his daughter on the condition that he completes a number of impossible tasks, including hunting the Twrch Trwyth and recovering the exalted prisoner Mabon ap Modron. Cai is a prominent character throughout the tale and is responsible for completing a number of the tasks. However, when Arthur makes a satirical englyn about Cai, he grows angry and hostile towards the king abandoning the quest and his companions; the narrative tells us that Cai would "have nothing to do with Arthur from on, not when the latter was waning in strength or when his men were being killed." As a result, he did not take part in the hunt for Twrch Trwyth. In the Life of St. Cadoc Bedwyr is alongside Arthur and Cai in dealing with King Gwynllyw of Gwynllwg's abduction of St. Gwladys from her father's court in Brycheiniog. Cai appears prominently in the early Welsh version of Tristan and Isolde, in which he assists the two lovers and is himself infatuated with a maiden named Golwg Hafddydd, in the early dialogue poems relating to Melwas' abduction of Gwenhwyfar.
The context suggests that Cai is rescuing the queen from the otherwordly suitor, may imply a romantic relationship between Cai and Gwenhwyfar. The Welsh Triads name Cai as one of the "Three Battle-Diademed Men of the Island of Britain" alongside Drystan mab Tallwch and Hueil mab Caw. In the Triads of the Horses, his horse is named as Gwyneu gwddf hir. According to tradition, Cai is intimately associated with the old Roman fort of Caer Gai. In the Welsh Romances, Cai assumes the same boorish role. However, manuscripts for these romances date to well after Chrétien de Troyes, meaning that Cai as he appears there may owe more to Chrétien's version of the character than to the indigenous Welsh representation. Kay and Bedivere appear in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, aid Arthur in defeating the Giant of Mont Saint-Michel. Geoffrey makes Kay the count of Anjou and Arthur's steward, an office he holds in most literature. In Erec and Enide, Chrétien de Troyes mentions he had a son
Blodeuwedd or Blodeuedd, is the wife of Lleu Llaw Gyffes in Welsh mythology. She was made from the flowers of broom and oak by the magicians Math and Gwydion, is a central figure in Math fab Mathonwy, the last of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi; the hero Lleu Llaw Gyffes has been placed under a tynged by his mother, that he may never have a human wife. To counteract this curse, the magicians Math and Gwydion: the flowers of the oak, the flowers of the broom, the flowers of the meadowsweet, from those they conjured up the fairest and most beautiful maiden anyone had seen, and they baptized her in the way that they did at that time, named her Blodeuwedd. Some time while Lleu is away on business, Blodeuwedd has an affair with Gronw Pebr, the lord of Penllyn, the two lovers conspire to murder Lleu. Blodeuwedd tricks Lleu into revealing how he may be killed, since he cannot be killed during the day or night, nor indoors or outdoors, neither riding nor walking, not clothed and not naked, nor by any weapon lawfully made.
He reveals to her that he can only be killed at dusk, wrapped in a net, with one foot on a bath and one on a black goat, by a riverbank and by a spear forged for a year during the hours when everyone is at Mass. With this information she arranges his death. Struck by the spear thrown by Gronw's hand, Lleu flies away. Gwydion finds him perched high on an oak tree. Through the singing of an englyn Gwydion lures Lleu down from the oak tree and switches him back to his human form. Gwydion and Math nurse Lleu back to health before mustering Gwynedd and reclaiming his lands from Gronw and Blodeuwedd. Gwydion overtakes the fleeing Blodeuwedd and turns her into an owl, the creature hated by all other birds, proclaiming: You will not dare to show your face again in the light of day again, that will be because of enmity between you and all other birds, it will be in their nature to despise you wherever they find you. And you will not lose your name - that will always be "Bloddeuwedd." The narrative adds: Blodeuwedd" means "owl" in the language of today.
And it is because of that there is hostility between birds and owls, the owl is still known as Blodeuwedd." Meanwhile, Gronw sends emissaries to Lleu, to beg his forgiveness. Lleu refuses, demanding that Gronw must stand on the bank of the River Cynfael and receive a blow from his spear. Gronw asks if anyone from his warband will take the spear in his place, but his men refuse his plea. Gronw agrees to receive the blow on the condition that he may place a large stone between himself and Lleu. Lleu allows Gronw to do so throws the spear with such strength that it pierces the stone, killing his rival. A holed stone in Ardudwy is still known as Llech Ronw. Robert Graves and others consider lines 142-153 of the poem "Cad Goddeu" to be a "Song of Blodeuwedd". John Steinbeck's Sweet Thursday mentions Blodeuwedd's story briefly. Doc tells Suzy of the story as he looks at the wild iris in her hand while they're on their arranged date. Alan Garner's novel, The Owl Service, makes the story of Blodeuwedd an eternal cycle played out each generation, in a Welsh valley.
The only way to break the cycle is for the Blodeuwedd character to realise she is supposed to be flowers, not an owl. The Blodeuwedd story is referenced in film Tylluan Wen. In the Welsh TV series Y Gwyll, season 1, episode 4: "The Girl in the Water", murder victim Alice Thomas left a journal indicating she saw herself as Blodeuwedd; when interviewing the professor who had broken off his and Alice's affair the night she was killed, DCI Tom Mathias read passages of the story and noted the story's multiple interpretations. In The Return: Shadow Souls, the sixth book of L. J. Smith's The Vampire Diaries series, Lady Blodeuwedd resides in the Dark Dimension and is an aristocrat; the story of Blodeuwedd is explained as an example of a story not ending as expected. Blodeuwedd's creation by Gwydion and Math is delicately described in the poem'The Wife of Llew' by Francis Ledwidge. Louise M Hewett explores the story of Blodeuwedd and Math Son of Mathonwy from a feminist perspective in the second and third books, Wind.
Within the novels, a discussion about the three significant females in the story of Math Son of Mathonwy - Goewin and Blodeuwedd - has taken place between Róisín and a group of the Pictish Spirit Braves. It culminates with Róisín's "re-vision" of the story in the closing chapter of Flowers, pages 810-814. Welsh mythology in popular culture
The Last Judgment or The Day of the Lord is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism. Some Christian denominations consider the Second Coming of Christ to be the final and eternal judgment by God of the people in every nation resulting in the glorification of some and the punishment of others; the concept is found in all the Canonical gospels the Gospel of Matthew. Christian Futurists believe it will take place after the Resurrection of the Dead and the Second Coming of Christ while Full Preterists believe it has occurred; the Last Judgment has inspired numerous artistic depictions. The doctrine and iconographic depiction of the "Last Judgment" are drawn from many passages from the apocalyptic sections of the Bible, but most notably from Jesus' teaching of the strait gate in the Gospel of Matthew and found in the Gospel of Luke: Enter ye in at the strait gate: for wide is the gate, broad is the way, that leadeth to destruction, many there be which go in thereat: Because strait is the gate, narrow is the way, which leadeth unto life, few there be that find it.
Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves. Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? So, every good tree bringeth forth good fruit. A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit; every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, cast into the fire. Therefore, by their fruits ye shall know them. Not every one that saith unto me: Lord, shall enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. Many will say to me in that day, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? And will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity. Said one unto him, are there few that be saved? And he said unto them, Strive to enter in at the strait gate: for many, I say unto you, will seek to enter in, shall not be able; when once the master of the house is risen up, hath shut to the door, ye begin to stand without, to knock at the door, Lord, open unto us.
But he shall say, I tell you. There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when ye shall see Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, all the prophets, in the kingdom of God, you yourselves thrust out, it appears in the Sheep and the Goats section of Matthew where the judgment seems based on help given or refused to "one of the least of these my brethren" who are identified in Matthew 12 as "whosoever shall do the will of my Father, in heaven". “When the Son of Man comes in his glory, all the angels with him he will sit on the throne of his glory. All the nations will be gathered before him, he will separate people one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats, he will put the sheep at his right hand and the goats at the left; the king will say to those at his right hand, ‘Come, you that are blessed by my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. The doctrine is further supported by passages in the Books of Daniel and the Revelation: Then I saw a great white throne and him, seated on it.
From his presence earth and sky fled away, no place was found for them. And I saw the dead and small, standing before the throne, books were opened. Another book was opened, the book of life, and the dead were judged by what was written according to what they had done. Now the axe is lying at the root of the trees. "I baptize you with water for repentance, but one, more powerful than I is coming after me. He will baptize you with the fire, his winnowing fork is in his hand, he will clear his threshing-floor and will gather his wheat into the granary. Just as the weeds are collected and burned up with fire, so will it be at the end of the age; the Son of Man will send his angels, they will col
Gwyn ap Nudd
Gwyn ap Nudd is a Welsh mythological figure, the king of the Tylwyth Teg or "fair folk" and ruler of the Welsh Otherworld and whose name means “white son of Nudd”. Described on as a great warrior with a "blackened face", Gwyn is intimately associated with the otherworld in medieval Welsh literature, is associated with the international tradition of the Wild Hunt. Gwyn is the son of Nudd and would thus be grandson to Beli Mawr and nephew of Arianrhod, Penarddun, Gofannon, Nynniaw and Caswallawn. Based on their shared patronymic, his siblings include Edern, a warrior who appears in a number of Arthurian texts, Owain ap Nudd, mentioned in Geraint and Enid. In Culhwch and Olwen, Gwyn is the lover of Creiddylad, the daughter of Lludd, who may therefore be Gwyn's own sister, though that connection was not made by the medieval author of Culhwch and Olwen. Gwyn plays a prominent role in the early Arthurian tale Culhwch and Olwen in which he abducts his sister Creiddylad from her betrothed, Gwythyr ap Greidawl.
In retaliation, Gwythyr raised a great host against Gwyn, leading to a vicious battle between the two. Gwyn was victorious and, following the conflict, captured a number of Gwythyr's noblemen including Nwython and his son Cyledr. Gwyn would murder Nwython, force Cyledr to eat his father's heart; as a result of his torture at Gwyn's hands, Cyledr went mad. After the intervention of Arthur and Gwythr agreed to fight for Creiddylad every May Day until Judgement Day; the warrior, victorious on this final day would at last take the maiden. This fight may be an example of a putative contest between summer and winter as well as a variant of the putative Holly King myth proposed by Robert Graves. According to Culhwch and Olwen, Gwyn was "placed over the brood of devils in Annwn, lest they should destroy the present race". Before he can win Olwen's hand, Culhwch ap Cilydd must complete a number of impossible tasks given to him by Olwen's father, the giant Ysbaddaden. One of these tasks is to retrieve the comb and scissors from the head of the vicious boar, Twrch Trwyth.
As it is impossible to hunt the boar without Gwyn's aid, he is called upon to join Arthur and his retinue against Twrch Trwyth. During the hunt, he is mounted on the only horse that can carry him. Both Gwyn and Gwythyr set out with Arthur to retrieve the blood of Orddu, witch of the uplands of hell. Gwyn appears prominently in the medieval poem The Dialogue of Gwyn ap Nudd and Gwyddno Garanhir, found in the Black Book of Carmarthen. In this narrative, returning from battle, chances upon Gwyddno, king of Cantre'r Gwaelod, grants him his protection. Gwyn relates his exploits on the battlefield and his role as a psychopomp, a mysterious figure who gathers the souls of fallen British warriors, such as Bran the Blessed, Meurig ap Carreian, Gwendoleu ap Ceidaw and Llacheu ab Arthur, his skill in combat is extolled in this poem. The poem ends with Gwyn's proclamation: His role as a psychopomp is paralleled in his tradition as leader of the Wild Hunt, in which he leads a pack of supernatural hounds known as the Cŵn Annwn to harvest human souls.
In Welsh folklore, to hear the baying of Gwyn's hounds was a portent of imminent death in the family. In The Dialogue, Gwyn is accompanied by a hound, namely as Dormarth of the ruddy nose. Gwyn witnessed a "conflict" before Caer Vandwy, an otherworldly fortress mentioned in Preiddeu Annwfn. Over time, Gwyn's role would diminish and, in folklore, he was regarded as the king of the Tylwyth Teg, the fairies of Welsh lore, he appears as a simpler figure in Buchedd Collen, in which he and his retinue are vanquished from Glastonbury Tor with the use of holy water. As late as the fourteenth century, Welsh soothsayers would invoke Gwyn's name before entering woodlands, proclaiming: "to the king of Spirits, to his queen-- Gwyn ap Nudd, you who are yonder in the forest, for love of your mate, permit us to enter your dwelling."The celebrated fourteenth-century bard, Dafydd ap Gwilym refers to Gwyn in a number of texts, suggesting that the character was known in Wales during the medieval period. In Y Dylluan, he describes the eponymous owl as the "fowl of Gwyn ap Nudd", while in Y Niwl, he is described as the "trickster of men with his dark face" and his talaith as talaith y gwynt, "the nation of the wind."
Gwyn is again mentioned in Y Pwll Mawn, in which the bard tells an unfortunate autobiographical account in which he and his horse were drowned in a lake, described as the "fish lake of Gwyn ap Nudd" and "the palace of the elves and their children." Gwyn is associated with the Wild Hunt, in a role akin to Woden or Herne the Hunter. Some traditions name Gwyn's chief huntsman as Iolo ap Huw, every Halloween, "may be found cheering Cŵn Annwn over Cader Idris". In the Black Book of Carmarthen Gwyn states. Gwyn means "fair, white", cognate with the Irish fionn; as such, he has some connection to the Irish hero Fionn mac Cumhail, whose maternal great-grandfather was Nuada. The name of Gwyn's father, appears like Nuada to be cognate with the Brythonic deity Nodens. Gwyn is in everyday use as a common noun and adjective: it remains a popular personal name; the Brythonic form of this name would have been *Windos. In Old and Middle Welsh, "gwyn" has t
The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, the Isle of Man, the Hebrides and over six thousand smaller isles. They have a total area of about 315,159 km2 and a combined population of 72 million, include two sovereign states, the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; the islands of Alderney, Jersey and Sark, their neighbouring smaller islands, are sometimes taken to be part of the British Isles though, as islands off the coast of France, they do not form part of the archipelago. The oldest rocks in the group are in the north west of Scotland and North Wales and are 2.7 billion years old. During the Silurian period, the north-western regions collided with the south-east, part of a separate continental landmass; the topography of the islands is modest in scale by global standards. Ben Nevis rises to an elevation of only 1,345 metres, Lough Neagh, notably larger than other lakes in the island group, covers 390 square kilometres.
The climate is temperate marine, with warm summers. The North Atlantic drift brings significant moisture and raises temperatures 11 °C above the global average for the latitude; this led to a landscape, long dominated by temperate rainforest, although human activity has since cleared the vast majority of forest cover. The region was re-inhabited after the last glacial period of Quaternary glaciation, by 12,000 BC, when Great Britain was still part of a peninsula of the European continent. Ireland, which became an island by 12,000 BC, was not inhabited until after 8000 BC. Great Britain became an island by 5600 BC. Hiberni and Britons tribes, all speaking Insular Celtic, inhabited the islands at the beginning of the 1st millennium AD. Much of Brittonic-occupied Britain was conquered by the Roman Empire from AD 43; the first Anglo-Saxons arrived as Roman power waned in the 5th century, dominated the bulk of what is now England. Viking invasions began in the 9th century, followed by more permanent settlements and political change in England.
The Norman conquest of England in 1066 and the Angevin partial conquest of Ireland from 1169 led to the imposition of a new Norman ruling elite across much of Britain and parts of Ireland. By the Late Middle Ages, Great Britain was separated into the Kingdoms of England and Kingdom of Scotland, while control in Ireland fluxed between Gaelic kingdoms, Hiberno-Norman lords and the English-dominated Lordship of Ireland, soon restricted only to The Pale; the 1603 Union of the Crowns, Acts of Union 1707 and Acts of Union 1800 attempted to consolidate Britain and Ireland into a single political unit, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, with the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands remaining as Crown Dependencies. The expansion of the British Empire and migrations following the Irish Famine and Highland Clearances resulted in the dispersal of some of the islands' population and culture throughout the world, a rapid depopulation of Ireland in the second half of the 19th century. Most of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom after the Irish War of Independence and the subsequent Anglo-Irish Treaty, with six counties remaining in the UK as Northern Ireland.
The term "British Isles" is controversial in Ireland, where there are nationalist objections to its usage. The Government of Ireland does not recognise the term, its embassy in London discourages its use. Britain and Ireland is used as an alternative description, Atlantic Archipelago has seen limited use in academia; the earliest known references to the islands as a group appeared in the writings of sea-farers from the ancient Greek colony of Massalia. The original records have been lost. In the 1st century BC, Diodorus Siculus has Prettanikē nēsos, "the British Island", Prettanoi, "the Britons". Strabo used Βρεττανική, Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, used αἱ Πρεττανικαί νῆσοι to refer to the islands. Historians today, though not in absolute agreement agree that these Greek and Latin names were drawn from native Celtic-language names for the archipelago. Along these lines, the inhabitants of the islands were called the Πρεττανοί; the shift from the "P" of Pretannia to the "B" of Britannia by the Romans occurred during the time of Julius Caesar.
The Greco-Egyptian scientist Claudius Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave these islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Great Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island called Great Britain. The earliest known use of the phrase Brytish Iles in the English language is dated 1577 in a work by John Dee. Today, this name is seen by some as carrying imperialist overtones although it is still used. Other names used to describe the islands include the Anglo-Celtic Isles, Atlantic archipelago, British-Irish Isles and Ireland, UK
Sir Bedivere is one of the earliest characters to be featured in the Matter of Britain appearing in a number of early Welsh texts in which he is named as Bedwyr Bedrydant. In the versions, he is described as being the Knight of the Round Table of King Arthur who serves as Arthur's marshal and returns Excalibur to the Lady of the Lake, he is associated with his brother Sir Lucan and his cousin Sir Griflet, as well as with Sir Kay. Bedwyr Bedrydant is a one-handed knight under Arthur's command, his father is given as Pedrawd or Bedrawd, his children as Amhren and Eneuawg, both members of Arthur's court. One of the earliest direct references to Bedwyr can be found in the 10th-century poem Pa Gur which recounts the exploits of a number of Arthur's knights, including Bedwyr and Manawydan. Of Bedwyr, this narrative says: They fell by the hundred / before Bedwyr of the Perfect-Sinew. On the shores of Tryfrwyd / fighting with Garwlwyd / furious was his nature / with shield. A 9th-century version of Englynion y Beddau gives Bedwyr's final resting place on Tryfan.
In the hagiography of Cadoc, Bedwyr is alongside Arthur and Cei in dealing with King Gwynllyw of Gwynllwg's abduction of Gwladys from her father's court in Brycheiniog. A possible allusion to Bedwyr could be found in the reference to Bedwyr's well in the 9th-century Marwnad Cadwallon ap Cadfan; the Welsh Triads name Bedwyr as "Battle-Diademed", a superior to Drystan, Hueil mab Caw and Cei. A catchphrase quipped by Cei, "by the hand of my friend" is a reference to Bedwyr's disability. Bedwyr is a prominent character in the tale of Culhwch and Olwen, in which he appears at the head of Arthur's court list with his friend Cei and is described as the handsomest man in the world, the wielder of a magic lance, he is called upon to accompany Culhwch on his quest to win Olwen's hand in marriage, is the first knight to strike the giant Ysbaddaden with the poisoned spear meant for Culhwch. Bedwyr goes on to assist Culhwch in completing the impossible tasks given to him by Ysbaddaden; the tale ends with the completion of the tasks, the humiliation and death of Ysbaddaden, the marriage of Culhwch and Olwen.
Bedivere is one of Arthur's loyal allies in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, maintains this position in much Arthurian literature. He helps Arthur and Kay fight the Giant of Mont Saint-Michel, joins Arthur in his war against Emperor Lucius of Rome. In several English versions of Arthur's death, including Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur, the Alliterative Morte Arthure and the Stanzaic Morte Arthur and Arthur are among the few survivors of the Battle of Camlann. After the battle, at the request of the mortally wounded king, Bedivere casts away the sword Excalibur that Arthur had received from the Lady of the Lake. However, he does this only after twice thinking the sword too valuable to Britain to throw into the water; when he reports that nothing in particular happened, King Arthur admonishes him, for Arthur knows that the mystical sword would create some supernatural event. Sir Bedivere casts the sword into the water, at which a hand arises and catches the sword mid-air sinks into the waters, Arthur is thus assured that the sword has been returned.
Upon the death of Arthur, Bedivere enters a hermitage. It is implied that both King Queen Guinevere lie beside each other in or near there; some modern authors such as Rosemary Sutcliff, Gillian Bradshaw, Mary Stewart give him Lancelot's traditional role as Guinevere's lover, Lancelot having been added to the cycle too late to seem historical. In the 1975 comedy film Monty Python and the Holy Grail, the ironically-named Sir Bedevere the Wise is regarded as brilliant at science by other characters, but his methods revolve around absurd theories such as the Earth being banana-shaped and witches burning and floating on water because they are made of wood, he devises a Trojan Horse styled scheme with a big wooden rabbit to get inside a French fortress, but overlooks the crucial detail of Arthur and the knights being inside it. In John Boorman's 1981 film Excalibur, Percival replaces Bedivere as the knight that returns the sword to the Lady of the Lake. Bedivere is the main character in the 1994 novel Grailblazers by Tom Holt.
Although he plays a minor part in Bernard Cornwell's The Warlord Chronicles, many of his legendary deeds are carried out instead by the protagonist, Derfel Cadarn. He appears in Philip Reeve's 2007 Here Lies Arthur as Bedwyr and befriends the main character, Gwyna/Gwyn, he is Arthur's half-sister's younger son, the older being Medrawt. He is murdered by Arthur, for betrayal with Arthur's wife, Gwenhwyfar, in a similar role to the Lancelot; this causes a family rift with Medrawt, who takes revenge by raising an army, attacking Arthur, killing him, taking the city of Aquae Sulis for himself. Bedivere appears in the video game an
In mythology, the Greek underworld is an otherworld where souls go after death. The original Greek idea of afterlife is that, at the moment of death, the soul is separated from the corpse, taking on the shape of the former person, is transported to the entrance of the underworld; the underworld itself—sometimes known as Hades, after its patron god—is described as being either at the outer bounds of the ocean or beneath the depths or ends of the earth. It is considered the dark counterpart to the brightness of Mount Olympus with the kingdom of the dead corresponding to the kingdom of the gods. Hades is a realm invisible to the living, made for the dead. There are six main rivers that are visible both in the underworld, their names were meant to reflect the emotions associated with death. The Styx is considered to be one of the most prominent and central rivers of the underworld and is the most known out of all the rivers, it is named after the goddess Styx. This river circles the underworld seven times.
The Acheron is the river of pain. It's the one that Charon known as the Ferryman, rows the dead over according to many mythological accounts, though sometimes it is the river Styx or both; the Lethe is the river of forgetfulness. It is associated with the goddess of forgetfulness and oblivion. In accounts, a poplar branch dripping with water of the Lethe became the symbol of Hypnos, the god of sleep; the Phlegethon is the river of fire. According to Plato, this river leads to the depths of Tartarus; the Cocytus is the river of wailing. Oceanus is the river that encircles the world, it marks the east edge of the underworld, as Erebos is west of the mortal world. In front of the entrance to the underworld live Grief, Anxiety and Old Age. Fear, Need, Death and Sleep live in front of the entrance, together with Guilty Joys. On the opposite threshold is War, the Erinyes, Discord. Close to the doors are many beasts, including Centaurs, Briareus, the Lernaean Hydra, the Chimera, Harpies. In the midst of all this, an Elm can be seen.
The souls that enter the underworld carry a coin under their tongue to pay Charon to take them across the river. Charon may make allowances for those visitors carrying a certain Golden Bough. Charon is appallingly filthy, with eyes like jets of fire, a bush of unkempt beard upon his chin, a dirty cloak hanging from his shoulders. Although Charon embarks now one group now another, some souls he grimly turns away; these are the unburied which can't be taken across from bank to bank until they receive a proper burial. Across the river, guarding the gates of the underworld is Cerberus. There is an area where the Judges of the underworld decide where to send the souls of the person — to Elysium, the Fields of Asphodel, or Tartarus. While Tartarus is not considered to be directly a part of the underworld, it is described as being as far beneath the underworld as the earth is beneath the sky, it is so dark that the "night is poured around it in three rows like a collar round the neck, while above it grows the roots of the earth and of the unharvested sea."
Tartarus is the place. Homer wrote that Cronus became the king of Tartarus. While Odysseus does not see them himself, he mentions some of the people within the underworld who are experiencing punishment for their sins; the Asphodel Meadows was a place for ordinary or indifferent souls who did not commit any significant crimes, but who did not achieve any greatness or recognition that would warrant them being admitted to the Elysian Fields. It was. In the Aeneid, the Mourning Fields was a section of the underworld reserved for souls who wasted their lives on unrequited love; those mentioned as residents of this place are Dido, Procris, Pasiphaë, Evadne and Caeneus. Elysium was a place for the distinguished, it was ruled over by Rhadamanthus, the souls that dwelled there had an easy afterlife and had no labors. Those who had proximity to the gods were granted admission, rather than those who were righteous or had ethical merit. Most accepted to Elysium were heroes. Heroes such as Cadmus and Achilles were transported here after their deaths.
Normal people who lived righteous and virtuous lives could gain entrance such as Socrates who proved his worth sufficiently through philosophy. The Fortunate Isles or Isles of the Blessed were islands in the realm of Elysium; when a soul achieved Elysium, they had a choice to be reborn. If a soul was reborn three times and achieved Elysium all three times they were sent to the Isles of the Blessed to live in eternal paradise. Hades, the eldest son of the Titans Cronus and Rhea; when the three brothers divided the world between themselves, Zeus received the heavens, Poseidon the sea, Hades the underworld. Therefore, while Hades' responsibility was in the underworld, he was allowed to have power on earth as well. However, Hades himself is seen outside his domain, to those on earth his intentions and personality are a mystery. In art and literature Hades is depicted as stern and dignified, but not as a fierce torturer or devil-like. However