South West Queensland
South West Queensland is a remote region in the Australian state of Queensland which covers 319,808 km2. The region lies to the south of Central West Queensland and west of the Darling Downs and includes the Maranoa district and parts of the Channel Country; the area is noted for its cattle cotton farming, opal mining and oil and gas deposits. At the federal level the whole region is encompassed by the Division of Maranoa. Local Government areas included in the region are Maranoa Region, Shire of Balonne, Shire of Paroo, Shire of Murweh, Shire of Bulloo and the Shire of Quilpie. South West Queensland has a population of 26,489; the region is serviced by the ABC Western Queensland radio station. Aboriginal society traded objects based on need; the South West region of Queensland was the primary source of the traded plant Duboisia hopwoodii, from which a traditional chewing tobacco was made. Eastern parts of the region around the upper reaches of the Warrego River were explored by Thomas Mitchell in 1845.
It wasn't until after William Landsborough explored the area during his 1862 expedition that settlers began to take up pastoral runs. In 1860, Robert O'Hara Burke and William John Wills began an expedition from Melbourne to the Gulf of Carpentaria to explore large areas of inland Australia which remained unknown to the European settlers. A pivotal meeting place or depôt camp used by the expedition was located at Bullah Bullah Waterhole on Cooper Creek. After failing to reach the northern coastline due to the mangrove swamps of the Flinders River delta the party of four set off for the return journey short on supplies. Charles Gray died on the way leaving three of the party who managed to return to Cooper Creek on 21 April 1861, only to find the other half of the party had just left for Menindee nine hours earlier. A tree at the camp was used to mark the location of a food cache, it became the resting place for Burke who died of malnourishment after they ran low on supplies amid controversial and tragic circumstances.
Wills died from weakness and malnourishment downstream at Breerily Waterhole. John King was the sole survivor of the party; the expedition's journals and maps inspired pastoralists and opened up of vast tracts of Queensland to pastoral settlement. Western parts of the region receive an average of 150 mm annual rainfall. Further east around St. George, receives an average of 500 mm per year. Limited access to water in the region restricted early pastoralism. After artesian bore water had been discovered and developed the lands were able to support sheep and not just cattle. A Cobb & Co factory and was built at Charleville in 1893. During the 1880s coach services expanded into the region. Cobb & Co was Australia's most famous historical coaching firm and once provided passenger and mail services across the country, they produced an eight-passenger coach that gained repute for its strength and the forgiving suspension. In 1922, QANTAS began its first regular flights from Charleville; the northern extent of the Sturt Stony Desert lies within the region around the location known as Cameron Corner.
Part of the Cooper Basin is located in the region. The basin contains natural gas deposits in Australia. Near Roma at Hospital Hill, Australia's first natural gas strike was made. Oil was found in the region in 1961; the Eromanga Basin located in South West Queensland has been explored and developed for petroleum production. Commercial quantities of gas were first discovered in 1976 and oil in 1978; the Tookoonooka crater is a large impact crater located in the region, however it is not visible at the surface. Major towns of South West Queensland include Charleville, Augathella, Thargomindah, St George and Cunnamulla. Cunnamulla has the biggest wool-loading station on the Queensland railway network. Australia's largest cotton farm, Cubbie Station near St George, covers 93,000 hectares. Smaller towns in the region include Amby, Jackson, Muckadilla, Surat, Yuleba, Bollon, Dirranbandi, Mungindi, Thallon, Eulo, Tuen, Yowah, Bakers Bend, Nive, Thargomindah, Noccundra, Norley, Quilpie, Cheepie and Toompine.
Cooladdi is a ghost town with a population of just six. Historical geographical records have suggested changes in the flow of local tertiary sandstone springs have occurred since the 1880s. Blasting was used to enhance spring flow and causing its destruction as with bores and dams. Only 45% of springs that were documented in the south west queensland records, remain. Waterways coursing through South West Queensland include the Warrego, Merivale and its tributary the Bokhara River, Culgoa and Cooper Creek; the Balonne is used for an extensive irrigation network. The Bulloo River system is the only closed river system in Australia. A number of national parks have been declared in the region, including Alton National Park, Chesterton Range National Park, Culgoa Floodplain National Park, Currawinya National Park, Diamantina National Park, Idalia National Park, Lake Bindegolly National Park, Mariala National Park, Thrushton National Park and Tregole National Park. Bowra Sanctuary is a nature reserve near Cunnamulla, managed by the Australian Wildlife Conservancy.
Major roads in the region include the Mitchell Highway out of outback New South Wales and the Balonne Highway which travels east from St George to Cunnamulla. The Warrego Highway travels in an east/west direction across the north of the region; the northern tip of the Castlerea
The Cooby Dam is a rock–fill embankment dam with an un–gated spillway across the Cooby Creek, a tributary of Condamine River, at Groomsville in the Darling Downs region of Queensland, Australia. The main purpose of the dam is for potable water supply of the Toowoomba region; the impounded reservoir is called the Cooby Creek Reservoir. The dam is located 17 kilometres north of Toowoomba; the other two storages used for Toowoomba are Cressbrook Dam. Completed in 1942 the rock -- fill dam structure is 207 metres long; the 71-thousand-cubic-metre dam wall holds back the 23,092-megalitre reservoir when at full capacity. From a catchment area of 169 square kilometres, the dam creates an unnamed reservoir, with a surface area of 301 hectares at a maximum depth of 12.5 metres when at full capacity. The uncontrolled un-gated spillway has a discharge capacity of 680 cubic metres per second; the dam is managed by the Toowoomba Region Council. Cooby Dam's lowest usable storage volume was recorded at 8% in January 2010.
In July 2006, public outcry and a referendum with winning "No" vote rejected plans to place recycled water into Cooby Dam. In 2007, the idea was again resurrected when plans for an advanced water treatment plant to be built near Cooby Dam by the Toowoomba City Council were suggested; the trial would test the re-use of recycled water into Toowoomba's drinking water supply. In 2008, an emergency bore was used to extract water from the Great Artesian Basin to supplement water supplies for the dam as drought conditions reduced supply to critical levels. A stocked impoundment permit is required to fish in the dam. List of dams in Queensland
The Wivenhoe Dam is a rock and earth-fill embankment dam with a concrete spillway across the Brisbane River in South East Queensland, Australia. The dam wall is located about 80 kilometres by road from the centre of Brisbane; the primary purpose of the dam is the supply of potable water for the Ipswich regions. In addition, the dam provides for flood mitigation control and for recreation; the impounded reservoir is called Lake Wivenhoe and the dam, the lake and a narrow strip of surrounding land forms a locality called Lake Wivenhoe. Wivenhoe Dam was planned in the water storage dam; the 1974 Brisbane flood highlighted the need for flood protection for South East Queensland. The lake forms part of the water storages for the Wivenhoe Power Station; the earth and rock dam structure is 2,300 metres long. The 4,140-thousand-cubic-metre dam wall holds back the 1,165,000-megalitre reservoir when at full capacity. From a catchment area of 7,020 square kilometres that includes much of the south–western slopes of the D'Aguilar National Park, the dam creates Lake Wivenhoe, with a surface area of 1,094 hectares, a maximum shoreline of 462 kilometres, an average annual evaporation level of 1,872 mm.
The gated spillway, with five steel crest gates that are 12 metres wide and 16.6 metres high, has a discharge capacity of 12,000 cubic metres per second. The dam has an auxiliary spillway to stop over-topping; the dam is managed by SEQ Water since July 2008 when most dam assets were transferred to the statutory authority, as part of a water security project in the South East Queensland region, known as the South East Queensland Water Grid. Wivenhoe was investigated for a dam site in the 1890s and again in 1933. Further investigations into a dam began in the mid 1960s. In November 1971, Government approval was given to proceed with construction. Acquisition of lands of the submerged portion of the dam began in March 1973. In 1976, the Government gave approval to proceed with construction of the pumped storage hydro-electric scheme. Total cost for the hydro-electric project was A$450 million. In March 1977, the first construction contract was awarded; the dam was designed by the Queensland Water Resources Commission.
In June 1983, the completed dam mitigated a severe flood that may have caused damage equal to the 1893 Brisbane flood. Construction work was complete by 1985. To provide the 337.5 square kilometres of land required for the dam, 200 properties were acquired. The catchment area has an average annual rainfall of 940 millimetres; the dam holds twice as much water as Sydney Harbour and holds about seven more capacity than the Hinze Dam on the Gold Coast. Wivenhoe Dam contributes to the Gold Coast's water supply; the dam was designed as a response to the floods that damaged Brisbane in 1974. Built in the late 1970s – early 1980s as a multifunction facility by a consortium of construction companies including Thiess Brothers, Wivenhoe Dam provides a safe water supply to the people of Brisbane and adjacent regions. Additionally, Wivenhoe Dam serves as the lower storage in a pumped-storage, hydro-electric generating facility, the Wivenhoe Power Station; the upper reservoir is formed by Splityard Creek Dam, of earth and rock construction, with a capacity of 28,700 megalitres.
Under normal conditions the dam supplies water via pipeline to both Tarong Power Station and Tarong North Power Station, but during drought conditions only supplies water to Tarong North. During a flood the dam is designed to hold back 1.45 million megalitres of additional water for flood mitigation or 225% capacity. Under the water release plan, defined by law, excess water must be released from the dam within seven days or a week of it reaching 100% capacity. Between April 2004 and September 2008, a 165-metre wide auxiliary spillway with a three-bay fuse plug was installed on the western portion of the dam to further mitigate flooding. In 2007, a feasibility study concluded that Wivenhoe Dam failed to satisfy the Australian National Committee on Large Dams guidelines on acceptable flood capacity. Brisbane water levels reduced to under 20% of capacity, having had no substantial inflow for five years; the largest recorded inflows for the dam occurred in January 2011. On 11 January 2011, Wivenhoe Dam reached its highest level 191% of normal water supply storage capacity, as it held back floodwater.
Because it is an embankment dam, it was not designed to spill over its crest or overtop and there is a risk that if waters spilled over the crest, this could erode the dam wall and cause the dam to fail. In this scenario the water level would need to rise to 225% capacity. To prevent this, the dam was built to include a second emergency spillway. During the peak of the flooding event the dam water level reached 60 centimetres below the auxiliary spillway height. In 2006, emergency plans for placing treated recycled water from the Western Corridor Recycled Water Scheme into the dam to supplement supply were made public. Sixty million litres of recycled water were to be pumped into the dam by early 2009. Increasing rainfall from 2008 resulted in the plan for recycled water to enter the region's drinking water supply to be postponed. Lake Wivenhoe is a camping and outdoor recreation destination. Camping sites are provided at Captain Lumley Hill Areas; the managed camping facilities at Captain Logan Camp include hot showers and toi
The Maroon Dam is a rock and earth-fill embankment dam with an un-gated spillway across the Burnett Creek, located in the South East region of Queensland, Australia. The main purpose of the dam is for irrigation of the Scenic Rim Regional Council region; the impounded reservoir is called Maroon Dam. The dam is located 64 kilometres southwest of Beaudesert; the primary inflow of the reservoir is a tributary of Logan River. Construction of the dam commenced in 1969 and was completed in 1973; the rock and earthfill dam structure is 451 metres long. The 1,620-thousand-cubic-metre dam wall holds back the 44,300-megalitre reservoir when at full capacity; the dam has a clearance of 10.4 metres above full supply level for flood mitigation purposes. This allows for a full operating level at 37,100 megalitres. From a catchment area of 160 square kilometres that lies within the Scenic Rim at the foot of the McPherson Range, the dam creates an unnamed reservoir, with a surface area of 310 hectares; the uncontrolled un-gated spillway has a discharge capacity of 567 cubic metres per second, is situated 43.9 metres above the original stream bed.
Managed by the SunWater, management of the dam was transferred to Seqwater in July 2008. The reservoir was opened on 16 July 1975 by Neville Hewitt, the Queensland Minister for Water Resources; the reservoir contains some areas of standing timber in its upper reaches. It is shallow with extensive weedbeds. Drought in February 2003 reduced water levels in the dam to 12%, it was at 18% capacity in November 2003. Camping is not permitted on the dam's property. Private accommodation is available near the dam. Fishing and water skiing are popular activities for visitors to the waters held back by the dam. There is no restrictions on boat numbers; the dam is stocked with golden perch and bass. Additionally spangled perch are present; the Maroon Moogerah Fish Management Association is the local fish stocking group. A stocked impoundment permit is required to fish in the dam. List of dams in Queensland "Maroon Dam". Sweetwater Fishing Australia. 2010. "Current Water Storage Information". Sunwater. "Maroon Dam". Picture Australia.
National Library of Australia
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities, commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals via a system of pumps and pipes. Irrigation is covered separately. In 2010, about 56% of the global population had access to piped water supply through house connections or to an improved water source through other means than house, including standpipes, water kiosks, spring supplies and protected wells. However, about 13% did not have access to an improved water source and had to use unprotected wells or springs, lakes or rivers for their water needs. A clean water supply—in particular, water, not polluted with fecal matter from lack of sanitation—is the single most important determinant of public health. Destruction of water supply and/or sanitation infrastructure after major catastrophes poses the immediate threat of severe epidemics of waterborne diseases, several of which can be life-threatening. Water supply systems get water from a variety of locations after appropriate treatment, including groundwater, surface water, the sea through desalination.
The water treatment steps include, in most cases, disinfection through chlorination and sometimes fluoridation. Treated water either flows by gravity or is pumped to reservoirs, which can be elevated such as water towers or on the ground. Once water is used, wastewater is discharged in a sewer system and treated in a sewage treatment plant before being discharged into a river, lake or the sea or reused for landscaping, irrigation or industrial use. In the United States, the typical single family home uses about 520 l of water per day or 222 l per capita per day; this includes several common residential end use purposes like toilet use, tap use, washing machine use, other and dishwasher use. Water supply service quality has many dimensions: continuity. Many people in developing countries receive a poor or poor quality of service. Continuity of water supply is taken for granted in most developed countries, but is a severe problem in many developing countries, where sometimes water is only provided for a few hours every day or a few days a week.
It is estimated that about half of the population of developing countries receives water on an intermittent basis. Drinking water quality has a physico-chemical dimension. There are thousands of parameters of water quality. In public water supply systems water should, at a minimum, be disinfected—most through the use of chlorination or the use of ultra violet light—or it may need to undergo treatment in the case of surface water. For more details, please see the separate entries on water quality, water treatment and drinking water. Water pressures vary in different locations of a distribution system. Water mains below the street may operate at higher pressures, with a pressure reducer located at each point where the water enters a building or a house. In poorly managed systems, water pressure can be so low as to result only in a trickle of water or so high that it leads to damage to plumbing fixtures and waste of water. Pressure in an urban water system is maintained either by a pressurised water tank serving an urban area, by pumping the water up into a water tower and relying on gravity to maintain a constant pressure in the system or by pumps at the water treatment plant and repeater pumping stations.
Typical UK pressures are 4–5 bar for an urban supply. However, some people can get below one bar. A single iron main pipe may cross a deep valley, it will have the same nominal pressure, however each consumer will get a bit more or less because of the hydrostatic pressure. So people at the bottom of a 30-metre hill will get about 3 bars more than those at the top; the effective pressure varies because of the pressure loss due to supply resistance for the same static pressure. An urban consumer may have 5 metres of 15 mm pipe running from the iron main, so the kitchen tap flow will be unrestricted, so high flow. A rural consumer may have a kilometre of rusted and limed 22 mm iron pipe, so their kitchen tap flow will be small. For this reason, the UK domestic water system has traditionally employed a "cistern feed" system, where the incoming supply is connected to the kitchen sink and a header/storage tank in the attic. Water can dribble into this tank through a 12 mm pipe, plus ball valve, supply the house on 22 or 28 mm pipes.
Gravity water has a small pressure. This is fine for baths and toilets but is inadequate for showers. A booster pump or a hydrophore is installed to maintain pressure. For this reason urban houses are using mains pressure boilers which take a long time to fill a bath but suit the high back pressure of a shower. A great variety of institutions have responsibilities in water supply. A basic distinction is between institutions responsible for regulation on the one hand. Water supply policies and regulation are defined by one or several Ministries, in consultation with the legislative branch. In the United States the United States Environmental Protection Agency, whose administrator repo
A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa
The Darling Downs is a farming region on the western slopes of the Great Dividing Range in southern Queensland, Australia. The Downs are one of the major regions of Queensland; the name was applied to an area approximating to that of the Condamine River catchment upstream of Condamine township but is now applied to a wider region comprising the Southern Downs, Western Downs and Goondiwindi local authority areas. The name Darling Downs was given in 1827 by Allan Cunningham, the first European explorer to reach the area and recognises the Governor of New South Wales, Ralph Darling; the region has developed a strong and diverse agricultural industry due to the extensive areas of vertosols black vertosols, of moderate to high fertility and available water capacity. Manufacturing and mining coal mining are important, coal seam gas extraction experienced significant growth in the decade to 2016; the landscape is dominated by rolling hills covered by pastures of many different species, legumes such as soy beans and chick peas, other crops including cotton, wheat and sorghum.
Between the farmlands there are long stretches of crisscrossing roads, bushy ridges, winding creeks and herds of cattle. There are farms with beef and dairy cattle, pigs and lamb stock. Other typical sights include irrigation systems, windmills serving as water well pumps to get water from the Great Artesian Basin, light planes crop-dusting, rusty old woolsheds and other scattered remnants from a bygone era of early exploration and settlement; the largest city and commercial centre of the Darling Downs is Toowoomba about 132 km west of Brisbane. Other towns situated on what is now called The Downs include Dalby, Stanthorpe, Goondiwindi, Miles, Allora, Cecil Plains, Millmerran and Chinchilla; the New England Highway, Gore Highway and the Warrego Highway traverse the region. The Toowoomba Second Range Crossing is being constructed so that heavy traffic can avoid passing through Toowoomba. Coolmunda Dam, Leslie Dam, Cooby Dam, Perseverance Dam, Cressbrook Dam, Storm King Dam and the Glenlyon Dam are some of the major water storage facilities in the area.
West of Toowoomba is the Toowoomba Wellcamp Airport. The Darling Down is situated in the drainage basins of the Condamine River and Maranoa River and tributaries; the Condamine River flood plain is noted for its good soils formed by basaltic alluvium. On the northern boundaries of the Downs are the Bunya Mountains and the Bunya Mountains National Park; the region to the north is the South Burnett and the Maranoa lies to the west. A section of the western downs lies over coal deposits of the Surat Basin. Towards the coast, the mountains of the Scenic Rim form the headwaters of the westward flowing Condamine; the majority of the Darling Downs has a humid subtropical climate although some areas experience a semi-arid or subtropical highland climate. Summer maximum temperatures range from 28 °C to 34 °C, while winter maximums range from 13 °C to 19 °C; the annual rainfall ranges to 1,000 mm in the east. In the south-east of the Darling Downs winter temperatures can drop below −5 °C with heavy frost and occasional snow, while in the north-west summer temperatures can surpass 45 °C.
Severe thunderstorms and damaging floods are a threat at times. Part of the Darling Downs, which includes the towns of Allora, Warwick and the rocky district in the south known as the Granite Belt, is known as the Southern Downs; the phrase is used to define political boundaries and in the promotion of tourism in the area. The Dumaresq and the MacIntyre are found in this part of the region.. The Darling Downs was covered with a wealth of indigenous grasses which created an ideal verdure for stock eight months of the year; the Darling Downs Aborigines had an annual burning season at the time when the indigenous grasses were ripe and dry. The annual fires gave the local Aborigines of the Darling Downs the name "Goonneeburra" or "Fire Blacks" - "goonnee" being a name for fire and "burra" a generic word for the whole race; this is what the Downs tribes were known as to the coastal Aborigines who inhabited the Moreton Bay area. Murri is a wider-spread generic word meaning the whole race but in the Kamabroi dialect.
The Downs tribes spoke one common dialect, called Waccah and so to all other surrounding tribes were known as the Wacca-burra. The Goonnee-burra were once situated. Goonnee meant "the ones who hunt with fire". Allan Cunningham set out to explore the area to the west of Moreton Bay in 1827, crossing to the west of the Great Dividing Range from the Hunter Region and travelling north. In June 1827, Cunningham climbed to the top of Mount Dumaresque and after wrote in his diary that this lush area was ideal for settlement. Exploring around Mount Dumaresque, Cunningham found a pass, now known as Cunninghams Gap. Cunningham returned to Moreton Bay in 1828 and with Charles Fraser charted the route through the pass to the Darling Downs. Ludwig Leichhardt in 1844 saw the remains of a camp showing the signs of white men through ridge poles and steel axes. News of the lush pastures spread resulting in a land grab that authorities in the distant New South Wales colony found difficult to stop. Patrick Leslie was the first person to s