Evelyn Wood (British Army officer)
Field Marshal Sir Henry Evelyn Wood, was a British Army officer. After an early career in the Royal Navy, Wood joined the British Army in 1855, he served in several major conflicts including the Indian Mutiny where, as a lieutenant, he was awarded the Victoria Cross, the highest award for valour in the face of the enemy, awarded to British and Imperial forces, for rescuing a local merchant from a band of robbers who had taken their captive into the jungle, where they intended to hang him. Wood further served as a commander in several other conflicts, notably the Third Anglo-Ashanti War, the Anglo-Zulu War, the First Boer War and the Mahdist War, his service in Egypt led to his appointment as Sirdar. He returned to Britain to serve as General Officer Commanding-in-Chief Aldershot Command from 1889, as Quartermaster-General to the Forces from 1893 and as Adjutant General from 1897, his last appointment was as commander of 2nd Army Corps from 1901 to 1904. Wood was born at Cressing near Braintree, Essex as the fifth and youngest son of the Reverend Sir John Page Wood, 2nd Baronet, a clergyman, Emma Caroline Michell, sister of Charles Collier Michell.
Wood was an elder brother of Katherine Parnell. Sir Matthew Wood, 1st Baronet, was his grandfather and Lord Chancellor William Wood, 1st Baron Hatherley was an uncle, his maternal grandfather had been an admiral in the Portuguese navy. One of his mother's brothers was a British admiral, another rose to be Surveyor-General of Cape Colony. Wood was educated at Marlborough Grammar School and Marlborough College, but ran away after an unjust beating. Like his near contemporary John French, Wood began his career in the Royal Navy, serving under his uncle Captain Frederick Mitchell on HMS Queen, but vertigo stopped him going aloft, he became a midshipman on 15 April 1852. Wood served in the Crimean War during the siege of Sebastopol, in Captain William Peel’s 1,400 strong naval brigade, whose job was to man some guns on a ridge opposite Sebastopol, he was at Inkerman and aged 16, was Peel's aide de camp in the assault on the Redan on 18 June 1855, having risen from his sickbed to join the attack. He was wounded and lost his left arm, which doctors wanted to amputate.
Wood was mentioned in despatches and received his first, but unsuccessful, recommendation for a VC. Invalided home with a letter of recommendation from Lord Raglan, written five days before the latter's death, Wood left the Royal Navy to join the British Army, becoming a cornet in the 13th Light Dragoons on 7 September 1855 and reporting to their depot with his arm still in a sling, he had only £250 a year in private income, rather than the £400 needed, was soon in debt. Wood returned to the Crimean Theatre, his promotion to lieutenant, which his uncle had paid for, took effect on 1 February 1856. However, within a month he was in hospital at Scutari with typhoid, his parents were told he was dying, so his mother arrived on 20 March 1856 only to find one of Florence Nightingale’s nurses striking him. He was so emaciated. Against medical advice he was brought home to England to recover. Wood served in Ireland transferred as a lieutenant to the 17th Lancers on 9 October 1857, his transfer was to gain passage to India.
He reached Bombay on 21 December 1858. While out hunting he was attacked by a wounded tiger – it was shot in the nick of time by a hunting companion. In India, Wood saw action at Rajghur, Sindwaho and Barode during the Indian Mutiny. From May 1858 to October 1859 he was brigade major to a flying column in Central India. On 19 October 1858 during an action at Sindwaho while in command of a troop of light cavalry, twenty-year-old Lieutenant Wood attacked a body of rebels, whom he routed single-handedly. Wood saw action at Kurai. At Sindhora, on 29 December 1858, Wood's force of 10 men routed 80 men. With the help of a daffadar and a sowar, he rescued a local merchant from a band of robbers who had taken their captive into the jungle, where they had intended to hang him. For this act of selfless bravery, Wood was awarded the Victoria Cross, his citation read: For having, on the 19th of October, 1858, during Action at Sindwaho, when in command of a Troop of the 3rd Light Cavalry, attacked with much gallantry single handed, a body of Rebels who had made a stand, whom he routed.
For having subsequently, near Siudhora, gallantly advanced with a Duffadar and Sowar of Beatson's Horse, rescued from a band of robbers, a Potail, Chemmum Singh, whom they had captured and carried off to the Jungles, where they intended to hang him. He became temporarily deaf for a week whilst studying Hindustani at Poona, which he attributed at the time to overwork. In December 1859 he joined the 2nd Central India Horse, whose main function was the suppression of banditry. In this role he had to sort out the regimental accounts, he was invalided back to Britain in November 1860 with fever and ear problems. On 16 April 1861, Wood was promoted to captain, his captaincy cost him £1,000 official payment to the government and £1,500 "over regulation" to buy out his predecessor. He was promoted again this time to brevet major on 19 August 1862. Wood passed th
Hodder & Stoughton
Hodder & Stoughton is a British publishing house, now an imprint of Hachette. The firm has its origins in the 1840s, with Matthew Hodder's employment, aged fourteen, with Messrs Jackson and Walford, the official publisher for the Congregational Union. In 1861 the firm became Jackson and Hodder. Hodder & Stoughton published both religious and secular works, its religious list contained some progressive titles; these included George Adam Smith's Isaiah for its Expositor’s Bible series, one of the earliest texts to identify multiple authorship in the Book of Isaiah. There was a sympathetic Life of St Francis by Paul Sabatier, a French Protestant pastor. Matthew Hodder made frequent visits to North America, meeting with the Moody Press and making links with Scribners and Fleming H. Revell; the secular list only accepted fiction, it was still subject to "moral censorship" in the early part of the twentieth century. Matthew Hodder was doubtful about the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, the company refused Michael Arlen's The Green Hat, a novel published by Collins in 1924.
In 1922, Hodder and Stoughton published an edition of Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, very controversial at the time given the fantastical nature of the work. The 1920s brought an explosion of commercial fiction at keen prices - Hodder's "Yellow jackets" series were the precursors of the first paperbacks, included bestsellers from John Buchan, Edgar Wallace, Dornford Yates and Sapper's Bulldog Drummond. In 1928, the company became the exclusive British hardback publisher of Leslie Charteris's adventure novel series, The Saint, publishing all 50 UK first editions of the series until 1983. In this decade they took over ownership of the medical journal, The Lancet. Hodder & Stoughton were the originators of the Teach Yourself line of self-instruction books, which are still published through Hodder Headline's educational division; as the company expanded at home and overseas, Hodder & Stoughton's list swelled to include the real life adventures in Peary's North Pole and several works by Winston Churchill.
During the war, Ralph Hodder Williams set up the Brockhampton Book Co. to sell off overstocks of theological works. The manager, Ernest Roker, had an interest in children's books and managed to persuade author Enid Blyton to write a series of books for them about four children and a dog. In 1942, the Famous Five series was born with Five on a Treasure Island. In 1962, Brockhampton took over the children's writer Elinor Lyon, whose novels the parent company had introduced in 1948. Hodder & Stoughton published the Biggles books by Captain W. E. Johns, after he moved publishers from the Oxford University Press during the Second World War. Hodder & Stoughton published their first original Biggles book in 1942 with "Biggles Sweeps the Desert" around Sept/Oct of that year and the Brockhampton Press published Johns' Gimlet books from 1947. From 1953 Brockhampton Press would publish Biggles books, alternating with Hodder & Stoughton and Captain W. E. Johns remained with them until his death in 1968, with the last Hodder & Stoughton Biggles book appearing in August 1965 and the last Brockhampton Press Biggles book appearing in July 1970.
Hodder & Stoughton published some of Johns' Worrals books. Hodder & Stoughton published 35 Biggles first editions and Brockhampton Press published a further 29 Biggles first editions. In 1953 they published Sir John Hunt's successful The Ascent of Everest, began their long association with thriller writer John Creasey. In the 1970s, they brought the Coronet imprints into common use; the latter is memorable for David Niven's much-celebrated autobiography The Moon's a Balloon. In the 1960s the Hodder and Stoughton fiction list broadened to include many quality commercial authors, including Mary Stewart whose works included Madam, Will You Talk? and sold millions of copies worldwide. The non-fiction publishing included Anthony Sampson's era-defining The Anatomy of Britain in 1962. Another notable title in the children's sphere was the 1969 Brockhampton Press publication of Asterix the Gaul by Goscinny and Uderzo. In 1974, John le Carré’s Tinker, Soldier, Spy was published to much critical acclaim, earning him a Literary Guild Choice.
The following year, previous employee John Attenborough published A Living Memory of Hodder. In 1981, the company acquired the New English Library, an imprint created by the American Times Mirror Company that published works from several genres including fantasy, science fiction and suspense and included books by James Herbert and Stephen King. In 1986, Hodder & Stoughton introduced Sceptre as a literary imprint to sit alongside mass-market imprints Coronet and NEL. Publishing in paperback only, early books on the Sceptre list included Thomas Keneally’s Schindler’s Ark which had won the Booker Prize in 1982. Hodder & Stoughton won the Booker Prize in 1985 with the publication of Keri Hulme’s The Bone People acquired from its New Zealand office. Other notable books on the Hodder & Stoughton list in this decade include Rosamunde Pilcher’s The Shell Seekers, Elizabeth George’s A Great Deliverance and the first novel in Jean M. Auel’s prehistoric fiction series Earth’s Children® The Clan of the Cave Bear, an international success and the series, completed with the publication of The Land of Painted Caves in 2011, has sold over 45 million copies worldwide.
In 1993, Headline bought Hodder & Stoughton and the company became a division of Hodder Headline Ltd. In 1997 Sceptre published Charles Frazier’s Co
Essex Police is a territorial police force responsible for policing the county of Essex, in the east of England, consisting of over 1.7 million people and around 1,400 square miles. It is one of the largest non-metropolitan police forces in the United Kingdom, employing over 2,900 police officers; the Chief Constable is Ben-Julian Harrington, who took up the appointment in October 2018. Assistant Chief Constable for Media Relations Steve Worron is simultaneously ACC for Area Operations for Kent Police due to the two forces forming a joint Serious Crime Directorate; as of 2017, Assistant Chief Constable Nick Downing became the head of the Serious Crime Directorate for Kent and Essex Police. In November 2012, the first Essex Police and Crime Commissioner election took place, in which Conservative candidate Nick Alston achieved 30.5% of the first round votes, 51.5% of the second round votes against Independent candidate Mick Thwaites. Alston set his 4 priorities in his election statement as 1) policing that meets local needs, 2) policing, prompt and professional, 3) effective cooperation and partnership between Police and the Voluntary Sector, 4) to be an influential voice in leading public engagement about crime reduction and policing, to listen to and speak for the victims of crime.
Nick Alston was elected with a 12.8% turnout. Essex police were featured in 3 of Channel 5's Police Interceptors. Essex Constabulary was formed in 1840. In 1965, the force had an establishment of 1,862 officers. Southend-on-Sea Borough Police was established by the county borough of Southend-on-Sea, England, in 1914. In 1969 Southend-on-Sea Borough Police amalgamated with Essex Constabulary to become the Essex and Southend-on-Sea Joint Constabulary; this merger was campaigned against by the local MPs. Colchester at one time had its own police force; the title was shortened to Essex Police in 1974. In April 2000, it took over parts of the county in the south-west in the Metropolitan Police Area. Epping Forest Keepers act as Epping Forest constables in the Forest parishes in the south-west of the Essex Police area. Essex Police is one of the United Kingdom's largest non-metropolitan police forces with a strength of over 2,900 police officers, its headquarters, the Force Control Room and Essex Police College, are all located in Chelmsford.
Strategically, Essex is an important force. Bordering London, the force area consists of affluent city suburbs, large urban areas, industrial centres, rural villages, London Stansted Airport and two of the UK's major ports; the force polices one of the largest expanses of coastline of any force in the UK. The police area covers 1,400 square miles and has a population of around 1,700,000; the Chief Constable is Ben-Julian Harrington who replaced Stephen Kavanagh after he retired in October 2018. The force has been a regular innovator and is used by the Home Office to trial new procedures and equipment, including automatic number plate recognition and the X26 Taser. Essex Police was the subject of the television series Police Interceptors, which followed the work of the specialist Mobile Support Division's ANPR intercept unit that utilise high-performance pursuit vehicles, including the Mitsubishi Evo X and Subaru Impreza, to pursue and intercept mobile criminals. In late 2016, Essex Police was the subject of a television series The Force: Essex, which followed the duties and responsibilities of Essex Police in the modern day, covering the front-line aspect of the police officers on duty, across Essex.
A number of specialist teams within Essex were grouped into the Mobile Support Division. In 2012 Essex Police moved away from the divisional structure to a patrol based structure and the former components of the Mobile Support Division were moved to new command structures. Roads Policing and Dog Section became part of the Patrol function. Crime Division works across the territorial divisions of Essex and with forces nationwide, providing resources and expertise; as a division within Essex Police, it deals with the specialist aspects of crime investigation, tending to focus on serious crime, but not and provides support to territorial divisions' efforts in investigating crime. Crime Division has a command team structure of a divisional commander, supported by a director of intelligence, lead senior investigating officer, support manager and divisional administrative manager, based at the Chelmsford headquarters; this team is supported by section heads. The work of the various departments of Crime Division are both reactive.
The way in which major crimes are investigated has changed over time. 30 years ago, the head of Crime Division would have carried out every part of the investigation in a murder case himself, including interviewing key witnesses. However, this has now been transformed with the advent of computerised Major Investigation Rooms and concerns over handling complex, high-profile enquiries like the Stephen Lawrence case. In April 2000, the Major Investigation Team was set up to investigate homicides, abductions and extortion; each major investigation has a senior investigation officer, like the conductor of an orchestra, overseeing all the different parts of the investigations. The SIO works with a MIT and they are supported by the resources of Major Investigation Centralised Administrative Support. There are four MIT offices, at Harlow, Brentwood and Rayleigh; the sc
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
East of England Ambulance Service
The East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust is the authority responsible for providing National Health Service ambulance services in the counties of Bedfordshire, Essex, Hertfordshire and Suffolk, in the East of England region. These consist of 7,500 square miles, it is one of 10 Ambulance Trusts providing England with emergency medical services, is part of the NHS, receiving direct government funding for its role. There is no charge to patients for use of the service, under the Patient's Charter every person in the United Kingdom has the right to the attendance of an ambulance in an emergency; as well as providing an emergency ambulance service, the Trust provides non emergency patient transport services, commercial services and special operations such as emergency planning, hazardous materials incident response. The service support a number of emergency charities, such as air ambulances, who provide doctors for serious incidents; the Trust controls the mobilisation of critical care charities throughout its area.
These include Magpas, Essex & Herts Air Ambulance, East Anglian Air Ambulance, BASICS Essex Accident Rescue Service, SARS, NARS and BASICS Hertfordshire. The service can if required, mobilise London's Air Ambulance and the Kent and Sussex Air Ambulance if there is a major incident requiring more than one critical care team, where other teams in the region are operating at maximum capacity; the trauma teams are dispatched by a Critical Care Paramedic at the Critical Care Desk, in their Control Room in Chelmsford, who filters through every call the ambulance service receives and makes a clinical decision on whether to dispatch a critical care resource. The trust was formed on 1 July 2006 following the three-way merger of the Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust, the East Anglian Ambulance NHS Trust and the Essex Ambulance Service NHS Trust; the result was a service covering an area of over 7,500 square miles with a population of 5.8 million people, one which answers more than one million emergency calls per year.
The East Anglian Ambulance NHS Trust had been formed in 1994 from the three-way merger of Cambridgeshire and Suffolk Ambulance Services. In 2009, the Trust was censured by the Care Quality Commission after inspection of an ambulance depot and seven of its 100 ambulance stations found patient-carrying vehicles were "dirty" and that staff were "unsure of basic measures for infection prevention and control"; the service launched an "urgent and comprehensive review" of its ambulance cleaning programme and reiterated its stance on patient safety, adding that "ensuring consistent high standards of cleanliness is a challenge" with so many stations, covering six counties and an area of 7,500 square-miles. In 2015/16, the trust received 1,037,119 emergency calls and handled 500,620 non-emergency patient transport journeys; the trust arrived at 73.6% of emergency Red 1 calls within eight minutes, 69.4% of emergency Red 2 calls within eight minutes. EEAST has around 1,500 volunteers; as of July 2016, the Trust has the following resources in operation: 357 front-line emergency ambulances 201 marked rapid-response vehicles 164 non-emergency ambulances 52 major incident support vehicles Over 130 ambulance stations and response posts 3 emergency operations centers in Bedford and NorwichThe Trust has its own emergency driving school, which trains drivers in 999 emergency driving under blue lights and sirens.
The Trust used the Mercedes Sprinter as front-line Double Staffed Ambulances, with the exception of a single Vauxhall Movano 4 wheel drive vehicle for use at Newmarket Racecourse. In 2009, the service started the transition to a brand-new Sprinter only fleet from a wide range of other brands - including Fords and older Mercedes vehicles; the scheme was finished in 2016, when the last brand-new Sprinter was delivered, although many of the older ones are now ending their cycle life. In March 2018, four new vehicles will be trialled across the East of England, with one concept vehicle being designed for and by the Trust. In May 2018 the trust bought 32 five-year-old vehicles decommissioned by the West Midlands Ambulance Service - described as "clapped out vehicles which colleagues in other trusts would have sent to the scrapyard" and contrasted with the luxury cars with which senior managers were provided in 2017. Ford Mondeos and Skoda Octavia Scouts are the most common amongst the fleet. In addition Land Rover Freelander and Land Rover Discovery Sport operate out of a limited number of bases.
Some Land Rover are used as Officer Cars. Renault Masters and Vauxhall Movanos are used for the Patient Transport Service. A number of these vehicles are fitted with blue sirens for High Dependency transfers; the Hazardous Area Response Team team uses Volkswagen Transporters and Mercedes Sprinters, all of which have 4x4 capability. The new fleet arrived in 2017, standardising these vehicles across the 10 ambulances services in England and Wales, it replaced Iveco Dailys. The trust provides Critical Care Paramedics to 3 local charity air ambulances in the region: Magpas, Essex & Herts Air Ambulance and the East Anglian Air Ambulance; these paramedics work alongside doctors to administer advanced treatment at the scene of the accident. Although the service uses the air ambulances, it does not fund the charit
Cressing railway station
Cressing railway station is on the Braintree Branch Line in the East of England, serving the villages of Cressing and Black Notley, Essex. It is 42 miles 75 chains down the line from London Liverpool Street via Witham and it is situated between White Notley to the south and Braintree Freeport to the north, its three-letter station code is CES. The platform has an operational length for nine-coach trains; the station is managed by Abellio Greater Anglia, which operates all trains serving it. The Maldon, Witham & Braintree Railway was authorised in 1846 but prior to its opening the company was absorbed by the Eastern Counties Railway; the line opened for goods traffic on 15 August 1848, for passenger services on 2 October 1848. The station named Bulford, was opened on 2 October 1848, it was renamed Cressing on 1 February 1911. It is suggested that the large crossing gates were present because Cressing had a passing loop until after World War I, retained the loop for freight purposes until goods traffic ceased on the line in 1964.
The station was owned by the Great Eastern Railway from 1862 to 1923, but as the building does not show typical GER architectural canopy support features, it is that it pre-dates the GER. Although there does not appear to be any obvious evidence that it was built when the line first opened, a possibility and if so would make it the only surviving MWBR structure on this railway. There was a signal box on the platform, next to the level crossing; this was removed and relocated to the preserved Colne Valley Railway at Castle Hedingham in the 1970s. The typical off-peak service is of one train per hour to Braintree and one to Witham, where many Monday-Saturday services continue onto the Great Eastern Main Line to London Liverpool Street. On Sundays services terminate at Witham and passengers travelling on towards London must change for a connecting main line train. Services are formed by Class 321 electric multiple units, but Class 360 units may be utilised. Train times and station information for Cressing railway station from National Rail More pictures on Flickr
Cressing Temple is an ancient monument situated between Witham and Braintree in Essex, close to the villages of Cressing and White Notley. It was amongst the earliest and largest of the possessions of the Knights Templar in England, is open to the public as a visitor site, it is the location of three Grade I listed Medieval barns, one of, the oldest standing timber-framed barn in the world. The manor of Cressing was granted to the Knights Templar in 1136 by Matilda of Boulogne, the wife of King Stephen close to the main road between London and Colchester, the road between Witham and Braintree; the Templar estate received further grants soon after its founding in the form of the manor and half-hundred of Witham sometime between 1138 and 1148, although the church of Witham, granted to the church of St Martin's Le Grand in London, was not included. The Preceptory of Cressing was therefore one of the earliest Templar estates in England, was placed first in a detailed list of Templar holdings in 1185.
It was the largest of their estates in Essex. King John confirmed to the Templars at Cressing the land of Berecholt on 14 July 1199, the land of Newland on 8 June 1214, as well as a market on Thursdays and a three-day-long fair at the feast of the Decollation of St. John the Baptist at the new town of Wulnesforde in the parish of Witham. Sometime before his death in 1255, the Templar Peter de Rossa granted over 100 acres of the manor of Rivenhall to Cressing, a parish in which he was parson and lord; the original 14,000 acre site was a considerable agricultural enterprise, was led by a Templar Preceptor, accompanied by two or three knights or sergeants, together with a chaplain, a bailiff, numerous household servants overseeing around 160 tenant farmers. The manor had a mansion house, brewery, granary, gardens, a dovecote, a watermill, a windmill, with a chapel and associated cemetery dedicated to St Mary; the proceeds from the Cressing Temple were all diverted to fund Templar activities in the Crusader states in the Middle East.
During the reign of King Edward II the Templar order was suppressed in England, with their estate at Cressing being handed over to the Order of the Knights Hospitaller in 1309, who preserved the Templar documents and charters of Cressing amongst their own records. The manor, controlled by a prior of the Knights Hospitaller, continued to work as a large estate, it was targeted in 1381 during the Peasants' Revolt, when on Monday 10 June a large group of rebels attacked Cressing and carried away armour, vestments and silver, other goods to the value of £20 belonging to the Hospitallers, burned books to the value of 20 marks. The Hospitaller manor of Cressing Temple was dissolved in 1540, soon after the last monasteries, on 8 July 1541, King Henry VIII granted the manor and lordship of Cressing and the half-hundred of Witham to Sir William Huse and John Smyth, one of the barons of the Exchequer. John Smyth's family held the manor until 1657. Following the Reformation, in the late 16th Century there was a mansion on the site, now called the'Great House', but it was demolished in the 18th Century and only the farmhouse, wagon lodge and stable yards remain.
The mid-Sixteenth century Tudor brick garden stands and has been developed by Essex County Council who acquired the barns for the people of Essex in 1987. The farmhouse dates from 1618, the coach house from 1800. Extensive archaeological investigations were carried out as part of a programme of improvements and updates in the 1990s. Cressing Temple is the site of three Grade; the Barley Barn, is an early thirteenth century barn modified in centuries, is the oldest standing timber-framed barn in the world. The roof was tiled, would have weighed close to 70 tonnes; the Wheat Barn was built in around 1280 in the Romanesque style, was altered in the early 1500s and 1700s. The Granary, built sometime just after 1575, is the largest granary in Essex. Today these are open to the public along with the Tudor gardens and farm buildings; the barns and walled garden are a popular venue for civil ceremonies. The Tudor gardens and farm buildings are open to the public. Official website Twitter feed