Talapoins are the two species of Old World monkeys classified in genus Miopithecus. They live in central Africa, with their range extending from Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to Angola. With a typical length of 32 to 45 cm and a weight of 1.3 kg and 0.8 kg, the talapoins are the smallest Old World monkeys. Their fur is whitish on their underside, much like the vervet monkeys; the head is short-snouted with a hairless face. Talapoins are arboreal, preferring rain forest or mangroves near water, they are not found in open fields, nor do they seem to be disrupted by humans. Like Allen's swamp monkey, they can look in the water for food; these monkeys live in groups of 60 to 100 individuals. They congregate at night in trees close to the water, dividing into smaller subgroups during the day to spread out to find food. Groups are composed of several mature males, numerous females and their offspring. Unlike the related guenons, they do not have any territorial behaviors, their vocal repertoire is smaller, as well.
Talapoins are omnivores. Their 160-day gestation period results in the birth of a single young. Offspring are large and well developed and develop rapidly. Within six weeks, they eat solid food, at three months of age, they are independent; the highest recorded age of an animal in captivity was 28 years, while the life expectancy in the wild is not well known. Genus Miopithecus Angolan talapoin, Miopithecus talapoin Gabon talapoin, Miopithecus ogouensis Talapoin is a 16th-century French word for a Buddhist monk, from Portuguese talapão, from Mon tala pōi "our lord". Primate Info Net Miopithecus Factsheets
The grivet known as African green monkey and savannah monkey is an Old World monkey with long white tufts of hair along the sides of the face. Some authorities consider this and all of the members of the genus Chlorocebus to be a single species, Cercopithecus aethiops; as here defined, the grivet is restricted to Ethiopia, Sudan and Eritrea. In the southern part of its range, it comes into contact with the related vervet monkey and Bale Mountains vervet. Hybridization between them is possible, may present a threat to the vulnerable Bale Mountains vervet. Unlike that species, the grivet is common and rated as Least Concern by the IUCN; the grivet's facial skin and feet are black. The face has a white line above the eyes, it has long white whiskers on the cheeks. The fur on the back has an olive color; the skin on the stomach has a blue tint. The fur has a bristly feel; the approximate head and body length for males is 42.6 cm for females. The length of the tail for males is 30–50 cm; the body mass ranges from 3.4 to 8.0 kg with females at the smaller end of the scale.
The main habitat of the grivet is savanna woodlands. Its range is Sudan east of the White Nile and Ethiopia east to the Rift Valley, it is found in Djibouti and Eritrea. The grivet needs to live around a source of water during the dry season, it is able to adapt to many environments. The grivet is most active in the morning and in early evening, it stays on the ground most of the day to eat and at night it sleeps in trees. The grivet spends a lot of time grooming, playing and play fighting, its eating habits consist of eating fruits and sometimes small mammals and birds, making it an omnivore. It will scavenge for human food, it must drink water daily in the dry seasons. It is one of few species. In the hierarchy of males, an individual shows its dominance by putting its tail in a stiff upright position and strolling past lower-ranked males, they travel in packs and move on all fours or quadrupedally, except when using both hands for carrying, when they manage to walk and run quite comfortably on two legs.
Groups can range from five to over 70. Females will have a limited number of mates. Swelling of the female's vulva alerts males as to. Giving birth to one baby at a time is common and the pregnancy lasts two to three months; when the baby is born the mother will bite off the umbilical cord. Young have black hair, it will take around two months for them to get their adult coats. The first few months, the infant will stay close to its mother, but after six months, the infant is weaned; the grivet is hunted as bushmeat. They are killed for either commercial or subsistence purposes. Although not endangered, it is threatened through destruction of habitat by way of disappearing forests, it is preyed on by large snakes, leopards and sometimes baboons. The grivet may live for 13 years; the grivet is one of five species of monkey known to have been kept in ancient Egypt, the others being the hamadryas baboon, the olive baboon, the patas monkey and the barbary macaque. Grivets were imported from the land of Punt, as attested in paintings and in the Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor.
They were sometimes traded as far afield as Assyria. They are rarer in representations than baboons and, unlike baboons, do not seem to have borne individual names. Grivets are depicted on Egyptian tombs on leashes. In some depictions the grivet may symbolize male sexuality. Early Dynastic statuettes of grivets have been found in sanctuaries, where they may have been votive offerings to the baboon god. A grivet shooting a bow was an aspect of the invisible god Atum and at Deltaic Babylon a grivet was the town god represented by a statue in the temple
The mandrill is a primate of the Old World monkey family. It is one of two species assigned to the genus Mandrillus, along with the drill. Both the mandrill and the drill were once classified as baboons in the genus Papio, but they now have their own genus, Mandrillus. Although they look superficially like baboons, they are more related to Cercocebus mangabeys. Mandrills are found in southern Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Congo. Mandrills live in tropical rainforests, they live in large groups. Mandrills have an omnivorous diet consisting of fruits and insects, their mating season peaks in July to September, with a corresponding birth peak in December to April. Mandrills are the world's largest monkeys; the mandrill is classified as vulnerable by IUCN. The mandrill has an olive dark grey pelage with yellow and black bands and a white belly, its hairless face has an elongated muzzle with distinctive characteristics, such as a red stripe down the middle and protruding blue ridges on the sides. It has red nostrils and lips, a yellow beard and white tufts.
The areas around the genitals and the anus are multi-colored, being red, blue and purple. They have pale pink ischial callosities; the coloration of the animal is more pronounced in dominant adult males. Both sexes have chest glands. These, are more prominent in dominant adult males. Males have longer canines than females, which can be up to 6.35 cm and 1.0 cm, respectively. The mandrill is one of the most sexually dimorphic mammals due to strong sexual selection which favors males in both size and coloration. Males weigh 19–37 kg, with an average mass of 32.3 kg. Females weigh half as much as the male, at 10–15 kg and an average of 12.4 kg. Exceptionally large males can weigh up to 54 kg, with unconfirmed reports of outsized mandrills weighing 60 kg per the Guinness Book of World Records; the mandrill is the heaviest living monkey, somewhat surpassing the largest baboons such as chacma baboon and olive baboons in average weight considering its more extreme sexual dimorphism, but the mandrill averages both shorter in the length and height at the shoulder than these species.
The average male is 75–95 cm long and the female is 55–66 cm, with the short tail adding another 5–10 cm. The shoulder height while on all fours can range from 45–50 cm in females and 55–65 cm in males. Compared to the largest baboons, the mandrill is more ape-like in structure, with a muscular and compact build, thicker limbs that are longer in the front and no tail. Mandrills can live up to 31 years in captivity. Females reach sexual maturity at about 3.5 years. Mandrills are noted as being exceptionally colorful by mammalian standards. Charles Darwin wrote in The Descent of Man: "no other member in the whole class of mammals is colored in so extraordinary a manner as the adult male mandrill's"; the bright colors of mandrills are indeed not produced conventionally, being derived from light refraction in facial collagen fibers. The mandrill is found in Nigeria, southern Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Congo, its distribution is bounded by the Sanaga River to the north and the Ogooué and White Rivers to the east.
Recent research suggests that mandrill populations north and south of the Ogooué river are so genetically different as to be separate subspecies. Mandrills live in tropical rainforests, they live in gallery forests adjacent to savannas, as well as rocky forests, riparian forests, cultivated areas and flooded forests and stream beds. Mandrills will cross grass areas within their forest habitats; the mandrill is an omnivore. It consumes plants, of which it eats over a hundred species, it prefers to eat fruits, but will eat leaves, bark and fibers. It consumes mushrooms and soil. Carnivorously, mandrills eat invertebrates ants, termites, spiders and scorpions, it will eat eggs, vertebrates such as birds, frogs, porcupines and shrews. Mandrills will eat larger vertebrates when they have the opportunity, such as juvenile bay duikers and other small antelope. Large prey are killed with a bite to the nape with the mandrill's long canines. One study found the mandrill's diet was composed of fruit, leaves, pith and animal foods, with other foods making up the remaining.
Mandrills are preyed on by leopards. Additional predators known to attack both adult and young mandrills include crowned eagles and African rock pythons, they may be killed by Gaboon vipers when they accidentally rouse the venomous snake. It is thought that most predators are a threat to young mandrills, with the likelihood of predation decreasing in adult females and adult males, which may be invulnerable to all but the ambush by a leopard. In a study where a mandrill troop was exposed to stimuli relating to their natural predators, only the leopard caused the larger part of the group to flee into trees. However, the large, dominant males were observed to remain in response to the images of the natural predators the leopard, pace back and forth whilst baring their teeth indicating aggression and the defensive role they may play in such circumstances. Mandrills are terrestrial but they are more arboreal than baboons and feed as high as the canopy; when on the ground, mandrills walk by digitigrade quadrupedalism.
Baboons are primates comprising the genus Papio, one of the 23 genuses of Old World monkeys. The common names of the five species of baboons are the hamadryas, the Guinea, the olive, the yellow, the chacma baboons, they are each native to one of five specific areas of Africa, the hamadryas baboon is native to part of the Arabian Peninsula. They are among the largest non-hominoid primates. Baboons have existed for at least two million years. Baboons vary in weight depending on the species; the smallest, the Guinea baboon, is 50 cm in length and weighs only 14 kg, while the largest, the chacma baboon, is up to 120 cm in length and weighs 40 kg. All baboons have long, dog-like muzzles, powerful jaws with sharp canine teeth, close-set eyes, thick fur except on their muzzles, short tails, nerveless, hairless pads of skin on their protruding buttocks called ischial callosities that provide for sitting comfort. Male hamadryas baboons have large white manes. Baboons exhibit sexual dimorphism in colour and/or canine teeth development.
Baboons have diurnality and are terrestrial. They are found in open woodlands across Africa, they are omnivorous: common sources of food are insects, shellfish, birds, vervet monkeys, small antelopes. Their principal predators are Nile crocodiles, large cats, hyenas. Most baboons live in hierarchical troops containing harems. Baboons can determine from vocal exchanges. In general, each male can mate with any female: the mating order among the males depends on their social ranking. Females give birth after a six-month gestation to a single infant; the females tend to be the primary caretaker of the young, although several females may share the duties for all of their offspring. Offspring are weaned after about a year, they reach sexual maturity in five to eight years. Males leave their birth group before they reach sexual maturity, whereas females stay in the same group their entire lives. Baboons in captivity live up to 45 years. Five species of Papio are recognized, although there is some disagreement about whether they are full species or subspecies.
They are P. papio, P. hamadryas, P. anubis and P. cynocephalus. The five species of baboons in the genus Papio are: Hamadryas baboon, Papio hamadryas Guinea baboon, Papio papio Olive baboon, Papio anubis Yellow baboon, Papio cynocephalus Central yellow baboon, Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus Ibean baboon, Papio cynocephalus ibeanus Kinda baboon, Papio cynocephalus kindae Chacma baboon, Papio ursinus Cape chacma, Papio ursinus ursinus Gray-footed chacma, Papio ursinus griseipes Ruacana chacma, Papio ursinus raucanaMany authors distinguish P. hamadryas as a full species, but regard all the others as subspecies of P. cynocephalus and refer to them collectively as "savanna baboons". This may not be helpful: it is based on the argument that the hamadryas baboon is behaviorally and physically distinct from other baboon species, that this reflects a separate evolutionary history. However, recent morphological and genetic studies of Papio show the hamadryas baboon to be more related to the northern baboon species than to the southern species.
The traditional five-form classification under-represents the variation within Papio. Some commentators argue that at least two more forms should be recognized, including the tiny Kinda baboon from Zambia, DR Congo, Angola, the gray-footed baboon found in Zambia, Zimbabwe and northern South Africa. However, current knowledge of the morphological and behavioral diversity within Papio is too poor to make any final, comprehensive judgment on this matter. In 2015 researchers found the oldest baboon fossil dating 2 million years ago. All baboons have long, dog-like muzzles, powerful jaws with sharp canine teeth, close-set eyes, thick fur except on their muzzles, short tails, rough spots on their protruding buttocks, called ischial callosities; these calluses are nerveless, hairless pads of skin that provide for the sitting comfort of the baboon. All baboon species exhibit pronounced sexual dimorphism in size, but sometimes in colour or canine development. Males of the hamadryas baboon species have large white manes.
Baboons are able to acquire orthographic processing skills. Baboons are found in open savannah, open woodland and hills across Africa, their diets are omnivorous: they eat insects, shellfish, birds, vervet monkeys, small antelopes. They are active at irregular times throughout the day and night, they can raid human dwellings, in South Africa, they have been known to prey on sheep and goats. Their principal predators are Nile crocodiles, lions and striped hyenas and cheetahs, they are considered a difficult prey for the leopard, a threat to young baboons. Large males will confront them by flashing their eyelids, showing their teeth by yawning, making gestures, chasing after the intruder/predator. Although they are not a prey species, baboons have been killed by the black mamba snake. T
Haplorhini is a suborder of primates containing the tarsiers and the simians, as sister of the Strepsirrhini. The name is sometimes spelled Haplorrhini; the simians include catarrhines, the platyrrhines. The extinct omomyids, which are considered to be the most basal haplorhines, are believed to be more related to the tarsiers than to other haplorhines; the exact relationship is not yet established – Williams and Kirk prefer the view that tarsiers and simians share a common ancestor, that common ancestor shares a common ancestor with the omomyids, citing evidence from analysis by Bajpal et al. in 2008. Haplorhines share a number of derived features that distinguish them from the strepsirrhine "wet-nosed" primates, the other suborder of primates from which they diverged some 63 million years ago; the haplorhines, including tarsiers, have all lost the function of the terminal enzyme that manufactures Vitamin C, while the strepsirrhines, like most other orders of mammals, have retained this enzyme.
Genetically, five short interspersed nuclear elements are common to all haplorhines whilst absent in strepsirrhines. The haplorhine upper lip, which has replaced the ancestral rhinarium found in strepsirrhines, is not directly connected to their nose or gum, allowing a large range of facial expressions, their brain-to-body mass ratio is greater than the strepsirrhines, their primary sense is vision. Haplorhines have a postorbital plate, unlike the postorbital bar found in strepsirrhines. Most species are diurnal. All anthropoids have a single-chambered uterus. Most species have single births, although twins and triplets are common for marmosets and tamarins. Despite similar gestation periods, haplorhine newborns are much larger than strepsirrhine newborns, but have a longer dependence period on their mother; this difference in size and dependence is credited to the increased complexity of their behavior and natural history. The taxonomic name Haplorhini rhinos, it refers to the lack of a rhinarium or "wet nose", found in many mammals, including strepsirrhine primates.
Haplorhini and its sister clade, diverged about 65 million years ago. 5 million years only a short time afterward from an evolutionary perspective, the infraorder Tarsiiformes, whose only remaining family is that of the tarsier, branched off from the other haplorhines. The fossil Archicebus may be similar to the most recent common ancestor at this time; the other major clade within Haplorhini, the simians, is divided into two parvorders: Platyrrhini and Catarrhini. The New World monkeys split from catarrhines about 40 mya, while the apes diverged from Old World monkeys about 25 mya; the available fossil evidence indicates that both the hominoid and cercopithecoid clades originated in Africa. The following is the listing of the living haplorhine families, their placement in the Order Primates: ORDER PRIMATES Suborder Strepsirrhini: lemurs, galagos etc. Suborder Haplorhini: tarsiers + monkeys, including apes Infraorder Tarsiiformes Family Tarsiidae: tarsiers Infraorder Simiiformes: monkeys, apes Parvorder Platyrrhini: New World monkeys Family Callitrichidae: marmosets, tamarins Family Cebidae: capuchins, squirrel monkeys Family Aotidae: night or owl monkeys Family Pitheciidae: titis, uakaris Family Atelidae: howler and woolly monkeys Parvorder Catarrhini Old World anthropoids Superfamily Cercopithecoidea Family Cercopithecidae Superfamily Hominoidea: apes Family Hylobatidae: lesser apes Family Hominidae: great apes and humans The exact placement of early haplorhine families is uncertain owing to limited evidence.
The following sets out a possible order put together by Williams and Kirk in 2010, based on cladograms put together by Seiffert et al, Marivaux and Bajpai et al, should not be seen as definitive. They do not include Propliopithecoidea. Included are Archicebidae, the discovery of, announced by Ni et al in 2013.. ORDER PRIMATES Suborder Strepsirrhini: lemurs, lorises and their ancestors stem Haplorhini †Omomyiformes Omomyids and their ancestors crown Haplorhini Tarsiiformes Tarsiers and their ancestors †Archicebidae Tarsiidae †Altiatlasius †Eosimiidae early anthropoids †Amphipithecidae †Parapithecoidea †Proteopithecoidea †Oligopithecidae Catarrhini Old World anthropoids Platyrrhini New World monkeysSigé et al describe Altiatlasius as an Omomyiform, but state that it could be an early anthropoid, with the latter view being supported by Godinot and Bajpai et al. Kay et al point out that a case can be made for Amphipithecidae being placed either as adapiformes or as early anthropoids, noting in particular that they had a long evolution separate from other groups, that key parts of their anatomy are missing from the fossil record.
They conclude that either possibility is e
Cercopithecini is a tribe of Old World monkey that includes several monkey species, including the vervet monkeys and the guenons, all in Africa. FAMILY CERCOPITHECIDAE Subfamily Cercopithecinae Tribe Cercopithecini Genus Allenopithecus - Allen's swamp monkey Genus Miopithecus - talapoins Genus Erythrocebus - patas monkey Genus Chlorocebus - vervets monkeys, etc. Genus Cercopithecus - guenons Tribe Papionini
Mammals are vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia, characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding their young, a neocortex, fur or hair, three middle ear bones. These characteristics distinguish them from reptiles and birds, from which they diverged in the late Triassic, 201–227 million years ago. There are around 5,450 species of mammals; the largest orders are the rodents and Soricomorpha. The next three are the Primates, the Cetartiodactyla, the Carnivora. In cladistics, which reflect evolution, mammals are classified as endothermic amniotes, they are the only living Synapsida. The early synapsid mammalian ancestors were sphenacodont pelycosaurs, a group that produced the non-mammalian Dimetrodon. At the end of the Carboniferous period around 300 million years ago, this group diverged from the sauropsid line that led to today's reptiles and birds; the line following the stem group Sphenacodontia split off several diverse groups of non-mammalian synapsids—sometimes referred to as mammal-like reptiles—before giving rise to the proto-mammals in the early Mesozoic era.
The modern mammalian orders arose in the Paleogene and Neogene periods of the Cenozoic era, after the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs, have been among the dominant terrestrial animal groups from 66 million years ago to the present. The basic body type is quadruped, most mammals use their four extremities for terrestrial locomotion. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm bumblebee bat to the 30-meter blue whale—the largest animal on the planet. Maximum lifespan varies from two years for the shrew to 211 years for the bowhead whale. All modern mammals give birth to live young, except the five species of monotremes, which are egg-laying mammals; the most species-rich group of mammals, the cohort called placentals, have a placenta, which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Most mammals are intelligent, with some possessing large brains, self-awareness, tool use. Mammals can communicate and vocalize in several different ways, including the production of ultrasound, scent-marking, alarm signals and echolocation.
Mammals can organize themselves into fission-fusion societies and hierarchies—but can be solitary and territorial. Most mammals are polygynous. Domestication of many types of mammals by humans played a major role in the Neolithic revolution, resulted in farming replacing hunting and gathering as the primary source of food for humans; this led to a major restructuring of human societies from nomadic to sedentary, with more co-operation among larger and larger groups, the development of the first civilizations. Domesticated mammals provided, continue to provide, power for transport and agriculture, as well as food and leather. Mammals are hunted and raced for sport, are used as model organisms in science. Mammals have been depicted in art since Palaeolithic times, appear in literature, film and religion. Decline in numbers and extinction of many mammals is driven by human poaching and habitat destruction deforestation. Mammal classification has been through several iterations since Carl Linnaeus defined the class.
No classification system is universally accepted. George Gaylord Simpson's "Principles of Classification and a Classification of Mammals" provides systematics of mammal origins and relationships that were universally taught until the end of the 20th century. Since Simpson's classification, the paleontological record has been recalibrated, the intervening years have seen much debate and progress concerning the theoretical underpinnings of systematization itself through the new concept of cladistics. Though field work made Simpson's classification outdated, it remains the closest thing to an official classification of mammals. Most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders, belong to the placental group; the three largest orders in numbers of species are Rodentia: mice, porcupines, beavers and other gnawing mammals. The next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates including the apes and lemurs. According to Mammal Species of the World, 5,416 species were identified in 2006.
These were grouped into 153 families and 29 orders. In 2008, the International Union for Conservation of Nature completed a five-year Global Mammal Assessment for its IUCN Red List, which counted 5,488 species. According to a research published in the Journal of Mammalogy in 2018, the number of recognized mammal species is 6,495 species included 96 extinct; the word "mammal" is modern, from the scientific name Mammalia coined by Carl Linnaeus in 1758, derived from the Latin mamma. In an influential 1988 paper, Timothy Rowe defined Mammalia phylogenetically as the crown group of mammals, the clade consisting of the most recent common ancestor of living monotremes and therian m