Cameroon the Republic of Cameroon, is a country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Nigeria to the north. Cameroon's coastline lies on the Bight of part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. Although Cameroon is not an ECOWAS member state, it is geographically and in West Africa with the Southern Cameroons which now form her Northwest and Southwest Regions having a strong West African history; the country is sometimes identified as West African and other times as Central African due to its strategic position at the crossroads between West and Central Africa. French and English are the official languages of Cameroon; the country is referred to as "Africa in miniature" for its geological and cultural diversity. Natural features include beaches, mountains and savannas; the highest point at 4,100 metres is Mount Cameroon in the Southwest Region of the country, the largest cities in population-terms are Douala on the Wouri river, its economic capital and main seaport, Yaoundé, its political capital, Garoua.
The country is well known for its native styles of music makossa and bikutsi, for its successful national football team. Early inhabitants of the territory included the Sao civilisation around Lake Chad and the Baka hunter-gatherers in the southeastern rainforest. Portuguese explorers reached the coast in the 15th century and named the area Rio dos Camarões, which became Cameroon in English. Fulani soldiers founded the Adamawa Emirate in the north in the 19th century, various ethnic groups of the west and northwest established powerful chiefdoms and fondoms. Cameroon became a German colony in 1884 known as Kamerun. After World War I, the territory was divided between France and the United Kingdom as League of Nations mandates; the Union des Populations du Cameroun political party advocated independence, but was outlawed by France in the 1950s, leading to the Bamileke War fought between French and UPC militant forces until early 1971. In 1960, the French-administered part of Cameroon became independent as the Republic of Cameroun under President Ahmadou Ahidjo.
The southern part of British Cameroons federated with it in 1961 to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. The federation was abandoned in 1972; the country was renamed the United Republic of Cameroon in 1972 and the Republic of Cameroon in 1984. Large numbers of Cameroonians live as subsistence farmers. Since 1982 Paul Biya has been President, governing with his Cameroon People's Democratic Movement party; the country has experienced tensions coming from the English-speaking territories. Politicians in the English-speaking regions have advocated for greater decentralisation and complete separation or independence from Cameroon. In 2017, tensions in the English-speaking territories escalated into open warfare; the territory of present-day Cameroon was first settled during the Neolithic Era. The longest continuous inhabitants are groups such as the Baka. From here, Bantu migrations into eastern and central Africa are believed to have originated about 2,000 years ago; the Sao culture arose around Lake Chad, c. 500 AD, gave way to the Kanem and its successor state, the Bornu Empire.
Kingdoms and chiefdoms arose in the west. Portuguese sailors reached the coast in 1472, they noted an abundance of the ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus turneranus in the Wouri River and named it Rio dos Camarões, which became Cameroon in English. Over the following few centuries, European interests regularised trade with the coastal peoples, Christian missionaries pushed inland. In the early 19th century, Modibo Adama led Fulani soldiers on a jihad in the north against non-Muslim and Muslim peoples and established the Adamawa Emirate. Settled peoples who fled the Fulani caused a major redistribution of population; the Bamum tribe have a writing system, known as Shu Mom. The script was given to them by Sultan Ibrahim Njoya in 1896, is taught in Cameroon by the Bamum Scripts and Archives Project. Germany began to establish roots in Cameroon in 1868 when the Woermann Company of Hamburg built a warehouse, it was built on the estuary of the Wouri River. Gustav Nachtigal made a treaty with one of the local kings to annex the region for the German emperor.
The German Empire claimed the territory as the colony of Kamerun in 1884 and began a steady push inland. The Germans ran into resistance with the native people who did not want the Germans to establish themselves on this land. Under the influence of Germany, commercial companies were left to regulate local administrations; these concessions used forced labour of the Africans to make a profit. The labour was used on banana, palm oil, cocoa plantations, they initiated projects to improve the colony's infrastructure, relying on a harsh system of forced labour, much criticised by the other colonial powers. With the defeat of Germany in World War I, Kamerun became a League of Nations mandate territory and was split into French Cameroons and British Cameroons in 1919. France integrated the economy of Cameroon with that of France and improved the infrastructure with capital investments and skilled workers, modifying the system of forced labour; the British administered their territory from neighbouring Nigeria.
Natives complained that this made them a neglected "colony of a colony". Nigerian migrant workers flocked to Southern Cameroons, ending forced labour altogether but angering the local natives, who felt swamped. T
Mamfe or Mamfé is a city in and the capital of Manyu, a division of the Southwest Region in Cameroon. It is 74 km from the border of Nigeria, on the Manyu River, it has a population of 36,500. It is known as a centre for traditional medicine. Mamfe used to be known for bad infrastructure within the city limits the roads, but in recent times the roads have been tarred and are in good condition; the roads leading in and out of the city has been tarred e.g. Mamfe - Bamenda, Mamfe - Kumba, Mamfe - Ekok; the Peace Corps has maintained a presence in the Mamfe area since they entered the country in 1962. The name "Mamfe" comes from the Bayangi language; when Germans first arrived in the area via the Cross River, the Germans greeted a local man at the Egbekaw River site, carrying sand from the shore and tried interrogating him about where they were. The Banyang man didn't understand and only said in his dialect, "Mamfie fah?". The Germans named the area so; the Egbekaw village and small amfe village are the natives/pioneers of Mamfe town.
The inhabitants speak a Bayang language as their mother tongue, called Nyang, although English is the official language spoken along with Pidgin and several other dialects, including Ejagham. The city is noteworthy for the high proportion of Nigerians who live there. Mamfe has no university yet; the Queen of the Rosary Catholic College was Cameroon's first all-female boarding school. There is a Teacher's training college, several vocational schools. Popular local foods in Mamfe include eru and fu-fu, plantains with ndole, garri and agusi soup. Mamfe has a tropical monsoon climate; as Mamfe is in a river valley, humidity can be over 90% and temperatures can exceed 120 F during the Dry Season. During the rest of the year, temperatures remain in the 80-90s and only fall during the Rainy Season, sometimes to 70F; the climate can be uncomfortable for travellers, but tourism is beginning in the area, though small. Points of interest are the old German bridge, the Mamfe Cross, the Mamfe River by boat, the Mamfe Cathedral.
Hotels are few, but can and do accommodate western travellers
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. While these definitions may seem adequate, when looked at more they represent problematic species concepts. For example, the boundaries between related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, in a ring species. Among organisms that reproduce only asexually, the concept of a reproductive species breaks down, each clone is a microspecies. All species are given a two-part name, a "binomial"; the first part of a binomial is the genus.
The second part is called the specific epithet. For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the genus Boa. None of these is satisfactory definitions, but scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If species were fixed and distinct from one another, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, to grade into one another. Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being. In the 19th century, biologists grasped. Charles Darwin's 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection; that understanding was extended in the 20th century through genetics and population ecology. Genetic variability arises from mutations and recombination, while organisms themselves are mobile, leading to geographical isolation and genetic drift with varying selection pressures.
Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal gene transfer. Viruses are a special case, driven by a balance of mutation and selection, can be treated as quasispecies. Biologists and taxonomists have made many attempts to define species, beginning from morphology and moving towards genetics. Early taxonomists such as Linnaeus had no option but to describe what they saw: this was formalised as the typological or morphological species concept. Ernst Mayr emphasised reproductive isolation, but this, like other species concepts, is hard or impossible to test. Biologists have tried to refine Mayr's definition with the recognition and cohesion concepts, among others. Many of the concepts are quite similar or overlap, so they are not easy to count: the biologist R. L. Mayden recorded about 24 concepts, the philosopher of science John Wilkins counted 26. Wilkins further grouped the species concepts into seven basic kinds of concepts: agamospecies for asexual organisms biospecies for reproductively isolated sexual organisms ecospecies based on ecological niches evolutionary species based on lineage genetic species based on gene pool morphospecies based on form or phenotype and taxonomic species, a species as determined by a taxonomist.
A typological species is a group of organisms in which individuals conform to certain fixed properties, so that pre-literate people recognise the same taxon as do modern taxonomists. The clusters of variations or phenotypes within specimens would differentiate the species; this method was used as a "classical" method of determining species, such as with Linnaeus early in evolutionary theory. However, different phenotypes are not different species. Species named in this manner are called morphospecies. In the 1970s, Robert R. Sokal, Theodore J. Crovello and Peter Sneath proposed a variation on this, a phenetic species, defined as a set of organisms with a similar phenotype to each other, but a different phenotype from other sets of organisms, it differs from the morphological species concept in including a numerical measure of distance or similarity to cluster entities based on multivariate comparisons of a reasonably large number of phenotypic traits. A mate-recognition species is a group of sexually reproducing organisms that recognize one another as potential mates.
Expanding on this to allow for post-mating isolation, a cohesion species is the most inclusive population of individuals having the potential for phenotypic cohesion through intrinsic cohesion mechanisms. A further development of the recognition concept is provided by the biosemiotic concept of species. In microbiology, genes can move even between distantly related bacteria extending to the whole bacterial domain; as a rule of thumb, microbiologists have assumed that kinds of Bacteria or Archaea with 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences more similar than 97% to each other need to be checked by DNA-DNA hybridisation to decide if they belong to the same species or not. This concept was narrowed in 2006 to a similarity of 98.7%. DNA-DNA hybri
Eutheria is one of two mammalian clades with extant members that diverged in the Early Cretaceous or the Late Jurassic. Except for the Virginia opossum, from North America, a metatherian, all post-Miocene mammals indigenous to Europe, Africa and North America north of Mexico are eutherians. Extant eutherians, their last common ancestor, all extinct descendants of that ancestor are members of Placentalia. Eutherians are distinguished from noneutherians by various phenotypic traits of the feet, ankles and teeth. All extant eutherians lack epipubic bones; this allows for expansion of the abdomen during pregnancy. The oldest-known eutherian species is Juramaia sinensis, dated at 161 million years ago from the Jurassic in China. Eutheria was named in 1872 by Theodore Gill. Distinguishing features are: an enlarged malleolus at the bottom of the tibia, the larger of the two shin bones the joint between the first metatarsal bone and the entocuneiform bone in the foot is offset farther back than the joint between the second metatarsal and middle cuneiform bones—in metatherians these joints are level with each other various features of jaws and teeth Eutheria contains several extinct genera as well as larger groups, many with complicated taxonomic histories still not understood.
Members of the Adapisoriculidae and Leptictida have been placed within the out-dated placental group Insectivora, while Zhelestids have been considered primitive ungulates. However, more recent studies have suggested these enigmatic taxa represent stem group eutherians, more basal to Placentalia; the weakly favoured cladogram favours Boreoeuthearia as a basal Eutherian clade as sister to the Atlantogenata
A genet is a member of the genus Genetta, which consists of 14 to 17 species of small African carnivorans. Genet fossils from the Pliocene have been found in Morocco; the common genet occurs in the Iberian Peninsula and France. Genetta was named and described by Cuvier in 1817; the number of species in the genus is controversial. The following were proposed as valid in 2005: G. genetta —, 1758, under the name Viverra genetta G. tigrina —, 1778, under the name Viverra tigrina G. felina —, 1811, under the name Viverra felina G. maculata —, 1830, under the name Viverra maculata G. pardina — Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1832 G. abyssinica —, 1835, under Viverra abyssinica G. poensis — Waterhouse, 1838 G. servalina — Pucheran, 1855 G. angolensis — Bocage, 1882 G. victoriae — Thomas, 1901 G. thierryi — Matschie, 1902 G. letabae — Thomas and Schwann, 1906 G. johnstoni — Pocock, 1907 G. piscivora —, 1919 G. cristata —, 1940 G. schoutedeni — Crawford-Cabral, 1970 G. bourloni — Gaubert, 2003Genetta and Poiana are estimated to have diverged about 9.5–13.3 million years ago.
Genetta species are estimated to have diverged at least 8.5 million years ago starting with G. thierryi, followed by G. victoriae 3.98–6.01 million years ago. Genets are slender cat-like animals with a long body, a long ringed tail, large ears, a pointed muzzle and retractile claws, their fur is spotted, but melanistic genets have been recorded. They have musk glands and anal sacs, they have perineal glands. All genet species have a dark stripe along the spine, their size varies between species from 40.9 to 60 cm in head-to-body length with 40 to 47 cm long tails. They have large eyes with elliptical pupils, they can move their eyes within their sockets to a limited extent, move their heads to focus on moving objects. Their ear pinnae have a fine layer of hair outside, they can move the pinnae by about 80° from pointing forward to the side, from an erect position to pointing downwards. Their wet nose is important for both sensing smell and touch. All genet species are indigenous to Africa; the common genet was introduced to southwestern Europe during historical times.
It was brought from the Maghreb to the Mediterranean region as a semi-domestic animal about 1000 to 1500 years ago, from there spread to southern France and Italy. In Africa, it is found in wooded habitats north of the Sahara, in savanna zones south of the Sahara to southern Africa and along the coast of Arabia and Oman; the Cape genet is endemic to fynbos and coastal forests in South Africa. The South African small-spotted genet lives in woodland savannah, thickets, dry vlei areas in Angola, South Africa and Zambia; the rusty-spotted genet is distributed in sub-Saharan woodland savannah, savannah-forest mosaic, rain forest and montane forest up to an elevation of 3,400 m in Ethiopia. The pardine genet lives in primary and secondary rainforests, gallery forests, moist woodlands, but in plantations and suburban areas ranging from Senegal to the Volta River in Ghana; the Abyssinian genet has been recorded in montane dry forest up to 3,750 m in Ethiopia. The King genet is restricted to rainforest in the Congo Basin, Bioko Island and Liberia.
The servaline genet lives in Central African lowland forests to high-altitude bamboo forest and coral rag thicket on Zanzibar. The Angolan genet inhabits open miombo forest from Angola to central Tanzania; the giant forest genet lives in rainforests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and western UgandaThe Haussa genet inhabits savannah and moist woodlands in West Africa. G. Letabae has been recorded from woodland savannah in Lesotho, Mozambique and South Africa. Johnston's genet inhabits dense rainforest in Upper Guinea; the aquatic genet inhabits rainforests between the Rift Valley. The crested servaline genet is endemic to Nigeria and Cameroon, where it inhabits scrub and primary deciduous forests. Schouteden’s genet inhabits rainforest, woodland savannah and savannah-forest mosaic in tropical Africa. Bourlon's genet lives only in the Upper Guinean rainforests in West Africa. Genets are agile, have quick reflexes and exceptional climbing skills, they are the only viverrids able to stand on their hind legs.
They walk, run, climb up and down trees, jump. They live on the ground, but spend much of their time in trees, they are considered solitary, except during mating. They are omnivorous and opportunistically catch invertebrates and small vertebrates, but feed on plants and fruit. Aquatic genets feed on fish. Angolan genets are thought to feed on other arthropods. Johnston's genet feeds on insects. In 2014, a camera trap in the Hluhluwe–iMfolozi Park captured a large spotted genet riding on the back of two different buffalo and a rhinoceros; this was the first time. Females have up to five young in a litter, they rear their young alone. Common genet females become sexually mature at the age of two years. Once copulation has occurred, the gestation period lasts for 10 to 11 weeks, they give birth twice a year, during spring and late summer to autumn. Common genets have been known to live 13 years in captivity. A male genet lived for 22.7 years in captivity. Loss of habitat due to deforestation and conversion of land to agriculture is a major threat for the crested servaline genet and Johnston's genet.
Both genet species are hunted for meat and skins. T
The servaline genet is a genet species native to Central Africa. As it is distributed and considered common, it is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List; the servaline genet's fur is rufous with black spots on neck and sides. Its feet are black, its long tail is banded with wide narrow white rings. It has a dark broken stripe along the spine; the tip of its tail is bright. Measurements of male museum specimens range from 490 to 510 mm in head and body with a 450 to 465 mm long tail. Females range from 445 to 495 mm in body with a 368 to 485 mm long tail; the Servaline genet is distributed from the Sanaga River in Cameroon southwards to the Congo Basin and eastwards to Uganda and Tanzania. In the Republic of Congo, it was recorded by camera-traps in the Western Congolian forest–savanna mosaic of Odzala-Kokoua National Park during surveys in 2007. In Tanzania's Udzungwa Mountains, a Lowe's servaline genet was recorded in 2000 and photographed in 2002 for the first time. In 2005, camera trap records were obtained in the Uluguru and Nguru ranges at altitudes of 950–1,400 m.
It is thought possible that it occurs in other parts of the Eastern Arc Mountains. The Zanzibar servaline genet is endemic to Unguja Island and became known to science in 1995 when a specimen was killed close to the Jozani forest. Several individuals were recorded by camera traps for the first time in January 2003 in the Jozani-Chwaka Bay National Park; the servaline genet was first described by Jacques Pucheran in 1855. Five subspecies are recognised: G. s. servalina, the nominate subspecies G. s. bettoni G. s. schwarzi Lowe's servaline genet was described on the basis of a single skin collected in 1932 in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Zanzibar servaline genet The crested servaline genet was considered to be a subspecies of the servaline genet, but is now regarded as a distinct species. National Geographic: Rare African Predator Photographed for First Time
Feliformia is a suborder within the order Carnivora consisting of "cat-like" carnivorans, including cats, mongooses and related taxa. Feliformia stands in contrast to the other suborder of Caniformia; the separation of the Carnivora into the broad groups of feliforms and caniforms is accepted, as is the definition of Feliformia and Caniformia as suborders. The classification of feliforms as part of the Feliformia suborder or under separate groupings continues to evolve. Systematic classifications dealing with only extant taxa include all feliforms into the Feliformia suborder, though variations exist in the definition and grouping of families and genera. Indeed, molecular phylogenies suggest; the extant families as reflected in the taxa chart at right and the discussions in this article reflect the most contemporary and well-supported views. Systematic classifications dealing with both extant and extinct taxa vary more widely; some separate the feliforms as: Feliformia. Others include all feliforms into the Feliformia suborder.
Some studies suggest. The extinct families as reflected in the taxa chart are the least problematic in terms of their relationship with extant feliforms. All extant feliforms share a common attribute: their auditory bullae; this is a key diagnostic in classifying species as feliform versus caniform. In feliforms, the auditory bullae are double-chambered. Caniforms have single-chambered or divided auditory bullae, composed of a single bone; this feature, however, is problematic for the classification of the extinct Nimravidae as feliforms. Nimravid fossils show no trace at all of the entire bulla, it is assumed. The specific characteristics of extant feliform bullae suggest a common ancestor, though one has not been identified in the fossil records. There are other characteristics that differentiate feliforms from caniforms and existed in their stem taxa. But, due to speciation, these do not apply unambiguously to all extant species. Feliforms tend to have shorter rostrums than caniforms, fewer teeth, more specialized carnassials.
Feliforms tend to be more carnivorous and are ambush hunters. Caniforms tend more toward opportunity-based feeders. Many feliforms have retractile or semi-retractile claws and many are arboreal or semi-arboreal. Feliforms tend to be more digitigrade. In contrast, most caniforms have non-retractile claws and tend to be plantigrade. There are seven extant families, twelve subfamilies, 56 genera and 114 species in the Feliformia suborder, they range natively across all continents except Antarctica. Most species are arboreal or semi-arboreal ambush hunters. Target prey varies based on available food sources. An overview of each family is provided here. For detailed taxa and descriptions of the species in each family, follow the links to other articles and external references. Family Eupleridae includes fossa, Malagasy civet and Malagasy mongooses, all of which are restricted to the island of Madagascar; the eight species in the family exhibit significant variations in form. These differences led to the species in this family sharing common names with, being placed in the different families of more similar species on the mainland.
However, phylogenetic analysis of DNA provides strong evidence that all Malagasy carnivorans evolved from a single common ancestor, a herpestid. Phylogenetic analysis supports this view and places all of the Malagasy carnivorans in the family Eupleridae; the differences in form make it difficult to concisely summarise the species in this family. The range in size is as diverse as the range in form, with smaller species at less than 500 g and the largest species at up to 12 kg; some have retractile or semi-retractile claws and others do not. They all tend to have pointed rostra. Diet varies with size and form of the species and, like their mainland counterparts, ranges from small mammals and invertebrates through to crustaceans and molluscs. Family Felidae are the most widespread of the "cat-like" carnivorans. There are 41 extant species, all but a few have retractile claws; this family is represented on all continents except the Antarctic. The species vary in size from the tiny black-footed cat at only 2 kg to the tiger at 300 kg.
Diet ranges from large to small mammals and insects Family Hyaenidae has four extant species and two subspecies. All show features of convergent evolution with canids, including non-retractile claws, long muzzles, adaptations to running for long distances, they are extant in the Middle East and Africa. Hyenas are large, powerful animals, up to 80 kg and represent