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The Crestones are a group of four 14,000 foot peaks in the Sangre de Cristo Range above Crestone, central southern Colorado, comprising: Crestone Peak Crestone Needle Kit Carson Mountain Humboldt Peak Snow is mostly melted by early July. Climbers can expect afternoon rain and lightning from the seasonal monsoon in late July and August. For climbing details, see the individual peaks' articles, their references therein. Crestone Peak and Crestone Needle are rock scrambles with some exposure. Kit Carson Mountain is a walk-up, but only if the correct route is followed. Challenger Point and Columbia Point are sub-peaks of Kit Carson Mountain. Humboldt Peak is the easiest of the four, with a straightforward walk-up route. Sometimes Humboldt is not included in the term "The Crestones."Broken Hand Peak, 13,573 ft, southeast of Crestone Needle, is included within the official name "Crestone Peaks". Mount Adams is a notable peak just to the north of the Crestones, is quite rugged. Note that Crestone Peak and Crestone Needle are somewhat more technical climbs than many Colorado fourteeners.

About one person per year is killed on the Crestones. Rocky Mountains Southern Rocky Mountains Sangre de Cristo Mountains Sangre de Cristo Range Geography of Colorado Mountain ranges of Colorado Mountain peaks of Colorado Mountain passes of Colorado Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles The Crestones on TopoQuest U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Crestone Peaks or Crestone Group Well illustrated trip report of climbs of Crestone Needle and Crestone Peak via Broken Hand Pass

Rake (stock character)

In a historical context, a rake was a man, habituated to immoral conduct womanising. A rake was prodigal, wasting his fortune on gambling, wine and song, incurring lavish debts in the process. Comparable terms are "libertine" and "debauchee"; the Restoration rake was a carefree, sexually irresistible aristocrat whose heyday was during the English Restoration period at the court of Charles II. They were typified by the "Merry Gang" of courtiers, who included as prominent members the Earl of Rochester. At this time the rake featured as a serial rapist in Restoration comedy. After the reign of Charles II, after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the cultural perception of the rake took a dive into squalor; the rake became the butt of moralistic tales, in which his typical fate was debtor's prison, venereal disease, or, in the case of William Hogarth's A Rake's Progress, insanity in Bedlam. The defining period of the rake was at the court of Charles II in the late seventeenth century. Dubbed the "Merry Gang" by poet Andrew Marvell, their members included King Charles himself.

Following the tone set by the monarch himself, these men distinguished themselves in drinking and witty conversation, with the Earl of Rochester outdoing all the rest. Many of them were inveterate brawlers; some were duelists, but not with the approval of King Charles, who discouraged the practice of duelling. Highlights of their careers include Sedley and the Earl of Dorset preaching naked to a crowd from an alehouse balcony in Covent Garden, as they simulated sex with each other, the lowlight was Buckingham's killing of Francis Talbot, 11th Earl of Shrewsbury in a duel for the latter's wife. In 1682 Thomas Wharton, 5th Baron Wharton, broke into a church at night and relieved himself against the communion table and in the pulpit. A group of aristocratic rakes were associated with the Hell Fire Club in the eighteenth century; these included John Wilkes. Other rakes include Colonel Charteris. On the whole, rakes may be subdivided into the penitent and persistent ones, the first being reformed by the heroine, the latter pursuing their immoral conduct.

Libertinistic attitudes, such as licentiousness, vagabonding and gambling, can be discerned in characters belonging to the satiric norm as well as to the satiric scene. However, only the degree of wit brings the rakish gentleman, the Truewit, closer to the satiric norm, whereas Falsewits are always exploded in the satiric scene; the motivation of a rake to change his libertinistic ways is either honest. In other words, penitent rakes among the falsewits only abandon their way of life for financial reasons, while penitent truewits so succumb to the charms of the witty heroine and, at least, go through the motions of vowing constancy. Another typology distinguishes between the "polite rake" and the "debauch", using criteria of social class and style. In this case, the young and well-bred male character, who dominates the drawing rooms, is in sharp contrast to a contemptible debauch, who indulges in fornication and hypocrisy. Still other assessments of the libertine concentrate on the kind and intensity of libertinistic demeanour.

Here, the rake falls into any one of three categories: extravagant libertine, vicious libertine, philosophical libertine. The extravagant rake is characterised by anti-normative conduct throughout though he settles down in matrimony. Between 1663 and 1668, examples are Wellbred in James Howard's The English Mounsieur, Philidor in James Howard's All Mistaken, Celadon in Dryden's Secret Love. In the 1690s, Sir Harry Wildair in George Farquhar's The Constant Couple represents this kind of gentlemanly rake; the extravagant rake is as promiscuous and impulsive as he is wild and frivolous, he finds his match in an extravagant and witty heroine. He is, above all, a self-aware character who "is what he wants to be", who delights in those qualities "with which he is endowed", who provides "carnival release". Thus, the extravagant rake is a comic figure, but he is never a comic fool. The vicious rake is invariably presented as a despicable, if wealthy person, who thrives on scheming and intrigue, he is married and abuses his wife.

The philosophical rake, the most attractive libertine figure, is characterised by self-control and refined behaviour as well as by a capacity for manipulating others. His pronounced libertinistic leanings are not supposed to contribute anything to the comic development of the plot. Rather, his libertinism is serious, thus reflecting the philosophical principles of the pleasure-seeking, cynical Court Wits, it is this kind of libertinism that has secured the notoriety of, William Wycherley's The Country Wife, George Etherege's The Man of Mode, Sir Charles Sedley's Bellamira: or, The Mistress. Not only characters like Horner and Dorimant spring to mind but Rodophil and Palamede in Dryden's Marriage-a-la-Mode, Longvi

Emotional contagion

Emotional contagion is the phenomenon of having one person's emotions and related behaviors directly trigger similar emotions and behaviors in other people. Emotions can be shared across individuals in many different ways both implicitly or explicitly. For instance, conscious reasoning and imagination have all been found to contribute to the phenomenon. Emotional contagion is important to personal relationships because it fosters emotional synchrony between individuals. A broader definition of the phenomenon suggested by Schoenewolf is "a process in which a person or group influences the emotions or behavior of another person or group through the conscious or unconscious induction of emotion states and behavioral attitudes"; the behaviour has been found in humans, other primates, dogs. One view developed by Elaine Hatfield, et al. is that this can be done through automatic mimicry and synchronization of one's expressions, vocalizations and movements with those of another person. When people unconsciously mirror their companions' expressions of emotion, they come to feel reflections of those companions' emotions.

The phrase "emotional contagion" embodies the idea that humans synchronize their own emotions with the emotions expressed by those around them, whether consciously or unconsciously. In a 1993 paper, Psychologists Elaine Hatfield, John Cacioppo, Richard Rapson define it as "the tendency to automatically mimic and synchronize expressions, vocalizations and movements with those of another person's and to converge emotionally". Hatfield, et al. theorize emotional contagion as a two-step process: Firstly, we imitate people, e.g. if someone smiles at you, you smile back. Secondly, our own emotional experiences change based on the non-verbal signals of emotion that we give off. For example, smiling makes one feel happier and frowning making one feel worse. Mimicry seems to be one foundation of emotional movement between people. Emotional contagion and empathy have an interesting relationship, in that they share similar characteristics, with the exception of the ability to differentiate between personal and pre-personal experiences, a process known as individuation.

In The Art of Loving, social psychologist Erich Fromm explores these differences, suggesting that autonomy is necessary for empathy, not found in emotional contagion. There are several factors that determine the extent of emotional convergence in a group; some of these are: membership stability, mood-regulation norms, task interdependence and social interdependence. Besides these event-structure properties, there are personal properties of the group's members, such as openness to receive and transmit feelings, demographic characteristics and dispositional affect that influence the intensity of emotional contagion. Research regarding the concept of emotional contagion has been conducted from a variety of perspectives, including organizational, familial and neurological contexts. While early research suggested that conscious reasoning and imagination accounted for the idea of emotional contagion, it has been concluded that some forms of more primitive emotional contagion are far more subtle and universal.

Hatfield and Rapson's 1993 research into emotional contagion reported that people's conscious assessments of others' feelings were influenced by what others said. People's own emotions, were more influenced by others' nonverbal clues as to what they were feeling. Recognizing emotions and acknowledging their origin can be one way to avoid emotional contagion. Transference of emotions has been studied in a variety of situations and settings, with social and physiological causes being two of the largest areas of research. In addition to the social contexts discussed above, emotional contagion is a concept, studied within organizations. Schrock and Rohr discuss that organizations, like societies, have emotion cultures that consist of languages and meaning systems, including rules about the feelings workers should, should not and display, they state that the concept of emotion culture is quite similar to the notion of "emotion climate", synonymously referred to as morale, organizational morale, corporate morale.

Furthermore, Worline and Rafaeli mention that organizations have an overall "emotional capability", while McColl-Kennedy and Smith examine the concept of "emotional contagion" in customer interactions. These terms are arguably all attempting to describe a similar phenomenon. Future research might consider where and how the meanings of these terms intersect, as well as how they differ. A controversial experiment demonstrating emotional contagion using the social media platform Facebook was carried out in 2012 on 689,000 users by filtering positive or negative emotional content from their news feeds; the experiment sparked uproar among people. The 2014 publication of a research paper resulting from this experiment, "Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks", a collaboration between Facebook and Cornell University, is described by Tony D. Sampson, Stephen Maddison, Darren Ellis as a "disquieting disclosure that corporate social media and Cornell academics were so engaged with unethical experiments of this kind."

Tony D. Sampson et al. criticize the notion that “academic researchers can be insulated from ethical guidelines on the protection for human research subjects because they are working with a social media business that has

Narendra Modi

Narendra Damodardas Modi is an Indian politician serving as the 14th and current Prime Minister of India since 2014. He is the Member of Parliament for Varanasi. Modi is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party and of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, a Hindu nationalist volunteer organisation, he is the first prime minister outside of the Indian National Congress to win two consecutive terms with a full majority and the second to complete five years in office after Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Born to a Gujarati family in Vadnagar, Modi helped his father sell tea as a child and has said he ran his own stall, he was introduced to the RSS at the age of eight, beginning a long association with the organisation. Modi left home after finishing high-school in part due to an arranged marriage to Jashodaben Chimanlal, which he abandoned and publicly acknowledged only many decades later. Modi travelled around India for two years and visited a number of religious centres before returning to Gujarat. In 1971 he became a full-time worker for the RSS.

During the state of emergency imposed across the country in 1975, Modi was forced to go into hiding. The RSS assigned him to the BJP in 1985 and he held several positions within the party hierarchy until 2001, rising to the rank of general secretary. Modi was appointed Chief Minister of Gujarat in 2001 due to Keshubhai Patel's failing health and poor public image following the earthquake in Bhuj. Modi was elected to the legislative assembly soon after, his administration has been considered complicit in the 2002 Gujarat riots or otherwise criticised for its handling of it. A Supreme Court-appointed Special Investigation Team found no evidence to initiate prosecution proceedings against Modi personally, his policies as chief minister, credited with encouraging economic growth, have received praise. His administration has been criticised for failing to improve health and education indices in the state. Modi led the BJP in the 2014 general election which gave the party a majority in the Indian lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha, the first time for any single party since 1984.

Modi's administration has tried to raise foreign direct investment in the Indian economy and reduced spending on healthcare and social welfare programmes. Modi has attempted to improve efficiency in the bureaucracy, he weakened or abolished environmental and labour laws. He initiated a controversial demonetisation of high-denomination banknotes. Following his party's victory in the 2019 general election, his administration revoked the special status of Jammu and Kashmir, his administration introduced the Citizenship Amendment Act, which resulted in widespread protests across the country. Described as engineering a political realignment towards right-wing politics, Modi remains a figure of controversy domestically and internationally over his Hindu nationalist beliefs and his role during the 2002 Gujarat riots, cited as evidence of an exclusionary social agenda. Narendra Modi was born on 17 September 1950 to a family of grocers in Vadnagar, Mehsana district, Bombay State, he was the third of six children born to Damodardas Mulchand Hiraben Modi.

Modi's family belonged to the Modh-Ghanchi-Teli community, categorised as an Other Backward Class by the Indian government. As a child, Modi helped his father sell tea at the Vadnagar railway station, said that he ran a tea stall with his brother near a bus terminus. Modi completed his higher secondary education in Vadnagar in 1967, where a teacher described him as an average student and a keen debater, with interest in theatre. Modi had an early gift for rhetoric in debates, his teachers and students noted this. Modi preferred playing larger-than-life characters in theatrical productions, which has influenced his political image; when eight years old, Modi discovered the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and began attending its local shakhas. There, Modi met Lakshmanrao Inamdar, popularly known as Vakil Saheb, who inducted him as a balswayamsevak in the RSS and became his political mentor. While Modi was training with the RSS, he met Vasant Gajendragadkar and Nathalal Jaghda, Bharatiya Jana Sangh leaders who were founding members of the BJP's Gujarat unit in 1980.

In Narendra Modi's childhood, in a custom traditional to his caste, his family arranged a betrothal to a girl, Jashodaben Chimanlal Modi, leading to their marriage when they were teenagers. Sometime thereafter, he abandoned the further marital obligations implicit in the custom, left home, the couple going on to lead separate lives, neither marrying again, the marriage itself remaining unmentioned in Modi's public pronouncements for many decades. In April 2014, shortly before the national elections that swept him to power, Modi publicly affirmed that he was married and his spouse was Jashodaben. Modi spent the ensuing two years travelling across Northern and North-eastern India, though few details of where he went have emerged. In interviews, Modi has described visiting Hindu ashrams founded by Swami Vivekananda: the Belur Math near Kolkata, followed by the Advaita Ashrama in Almora and the Ramakrishna Mission in Rajkot. Modi remained only a short time at each. Vivekananda has been described as a large influence in Modi's life.

In the early summer of 1968, Modi reached the Belur Math but was turned away, after which Modi wandered through Calcutta, West Be

Ernst Henke

Ernst Henke was a German lawyer and company manager. Henke, son of a grammar school director, attended grammar school in Barmen and Bremen, studied law and, after passing the assessor examination in 1909, became a legal adviser to Hugo Stinnes. From 1912 to 1945, he was director and legal director of Rheinisch-Westfälische Elektrizitätswerke AG, of which Stinnes was the main shareholder at the time. Furthermore, he was a member of the Supervisory Board of RWE until 1962, Elektrizitäts-AG W. Lahmeyer & Co. Main-Kraftwerke AG, Roddergrube AG and Westdeutsche Elektrizitätswirtschafts-AG, he was a member of the board of the Reich Association of German Industry, chairman of the specialist group of electrical and water works in Germany and chairman of the Vereinigung der Elektrizitätswerke and member of the Vorläufiger Reichswirtschaftsrat. On May 1, 1933, he joined the NSDAP in Essen with the entire RWE executive board. Henke owned a valuable art collection, which he built up in the thirties and forties.

Among them were Caspar David Friedrich's Wanderer above the Sea of Fog and Sonnenuntergang hinter der Dresdener Hofkirche and paintings by Emil Nolde and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. Dieter Spethmann called him a great friend of antiquity. From 1945 to 1970 Henke was chairman of the board of the Verein Kunstring Folkwang e. V. in Essen. In 1964 he founded Elly Henke. In 1930, Henke had a residential house built in Essen-Bredeney by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Georg Wenzel: German business leader. Life stories of German business personalities. A reference book about 13000 business personalities of our time. Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt, Hamburg/Berlin/Leipzig 1929, DNB 948663294, Sp. 913

Thomas Bowes (violinist)

Thomas Bowes is an English violinist and orchestra leader. Thomas Bowes was born in Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire and graduated from Trinity College of Music in 1982, where he studied violin under Bela Katona. Bowes played with the London Philharmonic beginning in 1985 and the Academy of St Martin in the Fields beginning in 1986, he made his debut as a soloist in London in 1987. Bowes was a founding member of the Maggini String Quartet and served as leader from 1988-92. In 1989 he began serving as leader of the London Mozart Players, where he led the ensemble at their BBC Proms debut in 1991. Bowes has served as guest leader of orchestras including the London Symphony Orchestra, the BBC Symphony Orchestra, London Sinfonietta, the Philharmonia, the French L’Orchestre National du Capitole de Toulouse. Bowes married pianist and composer Eleanor Alberga in 1992, they began to tour internationally. During this time, Bowes developed an expanded repertoire as a soloist, he took a position as Artistic Director of the Langvad Chamber Music Jamboree in Denmark and with Alberga founded the Arcadia music festival in northern Herefordshire.

Bowes masters film scores and maintains an extensive discography and filmography His most recent CD was released 2011, Walton and Barber Violin Concertos - Thomas Bowes/Malmo Opera Orchestra/Swensen, well received. He plays a Nicolo Amati violin from 1659. Official site Clip from Thomas Bowes recording of Walton Violin Concerto Thomas Bowes on IMDb