Steger is a village that straddles the border which separates Cook County and Will County, Illinois. It is 35 miles south of Chicago and had a population at the 2010 census of 9,570. Steger was founded in 1891 by Chicago real estate interests and named Columbia Heights in honor of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition which the City of Chicago had been preparing to host since 1889; the character, financial fortunes and the name of the community were set thereafter when John Valentine Steger began to build a piano factory there on a parcel of land south of Chicago Heights, sited west of the Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railroad tracks and bordered by the tracks, Vincennes Avenue and 33rd and 34th Streets. This first building of the complex replaced Steger's original factory which had adjoined his showrooms at Wabash Avenue and Jackson Boulevard in downtown Chicago, which had a capacity of only two pianos per week; this new building was three stories tall, 40 x 225 and designed by the Chicago architectural firm Mayo and Curry to accommodate 200 workers.
By 1904 the factory at Steger had grown to cover twenty-three acres and had a capacity of sixteen thousand pianos per year. A piano by the company was displayed at the World's Columbian Exposition, the instrument was commented on as follows: Any work dealing with the Piano Industries of this country would be incomplete did it not contain a reference to the celebrated Steger; the particular excellence of the Steger piano consists of its fine quality of tone found in other high-grade instruments. The finest material obtainable is used in all parts of the Steger, the one aim being to obtain excellence in every feature -- tone, touch and durability; the name Steger upon the piano is sufficient guarantee of its superior worth. The company built exceptionally high quality pianos under several names and in a wide range of prices, they are quite rare today. For a time after 1896, Steger & Sons shared this block with another piano factory which produced instruments for the Smith and Nixon Piano Manufacturing Company of Cincinnati.
For years after the community changed its name in 1896, Smith and Nixon continued to use the name Columbia Heights when referring to the location of its factory in Illinois. Smith and Nixon were gone from the area by 1911. Steger was born in Ulm, Germany on March 24, 1854 and had learned the art of cabinetmaking there before coming to the United States in 1871 with 12 cents in his pocket, he died on June 11, 1916, after having created over time the largest piano manufactory in the world, which at one time employed 1,400 persons. The Steger family remained active in the community for many years. John's grandson Robert M. Steger was the president of the village's Chamber of Commerce in 1953 and led an ambitious effort that year to work "for a greater Steger" The Village of Steger was incorporated in 1896 with 324 residents, at which time John Steger agreed to pay $400 toward incorporation costs with the understanding that the town would change its name to Steger, he subsequently served two terms as the village's board president.
He avoided the issues that had plagued George Pullman in his "model town" by encouraging private home ownership and commerce. By 1920, Steger was considered by some to be the "piano capital of the world", producing more than a hundred pianos a day. After changing American tastes diminished the demand for the piano the plant closed its doors in 1928, the Amico Macaroni Company of Chicago Heights moved into a portion of the vacated building. In 1932 another section of the complex became the home of the Steger Furniture Company, who manufactured radio cabinets there for many years. In 1945, Steger Furniture was acquired by the automobile parts manufacturer Sparton Corporation, who had invented the first electric automobile horn in 1911 and the first all-electric radio after World War I. After a fire, the Steger Piano complex was demolished in the early 1970s. Steger has been a regular stop on the annual "Driving the Dixie" event from the time it began; the drive involves participants travelling down the historic Dixie Highway in the Chicago Southland and visiting various communities along the way.
Steger is located at 41°28′20″N 87°37′04″W. According to the 2010 census, Steger has a total area of all land. Steger has two main parks: Veteran's Park; as of the census of 2000, there were 9,682 people, 3,862 households, 2,506 families residing in the village. The population density was 2,747.3 people per square mile. There were 4,051 housing units at an average density of 1,149.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 87.61% White, 6.30% African American, 0.34% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 3.08% from other races, 2.10% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.07% of the population. There were 3,862 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.6% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.1% were non-families. 29.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.15.
In the village, the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 33.1% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, 11.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.2 males. For every 100 fema
Lemont is a village located in Cook, DuPage, Will counties in the U. S. state of Illinois, is a suburb of Chicago. The population was 16,000 as of the 2010 census. Lemont is home to Argonne National Laboratory and other heavy industrial sites, has a substantial European immigrant population. Lemont was known as Keepataw and a post office was established in 1840 as Keepatau. After that, it was named Athens and Palmyra; the name Lemont was chosen in 1850 at the suggestion of Lemuel Brown, the postmaster and justice of the peace, or by his brother Nathaniel Brown. Before white settlers arrived in Lemont, Native Americans traveled the Des Plaines River in birch bark canoes on trading trips between the Mississippi River and Lake Michigan; the native Potawatomi lived off the land in this area, directly using natural resources for food, shelter and medicine. In the 18th century, French voyageurs traveled down the Des Plaines River, trading Native Americans metal and cloth for animal furs and changing the Native American lifestyle forever.
Established in 1836, the village of Lemont stands as one of the oldest American communities in northeastern Illinois. It is significant for its role in transforming the northern region of the state from a sparsely settled frontier to a commercial and industrial region that supplied Chicago and areas beyond with commodities. Lemont is unique in boasting an authentic historic district that remains intact and has been continually used since the 19th century. Both Lemont's history and architectural uniqueness connect to the Michigan Canal. Construction of the I&M Canal began in 1837 and stands as one of the last major canal undertakings in the United States; when it was completed in 1848, it provided a continuous waterway stretching from New York to the Gulf of Mexico. Immigrant workers Irish, settled in Lemont to work on the canal and moved along the corridor of the canal, improving farms within the many communities that sprang up along it, they were for the most part responsible for the many Lemont brothels during that time.
In digging, workers discovered Lemont yellow dolomite, a harder and finer grained version of limestone. This was the start of the area's second industry, quarrying. By the mid-19th century, limestone quarrying took over as the main economic factor in Lemont and sustained its growth; the town's important major buildings were faced with the Lemont limestone, abundant in local quarries. Today, 38 of those buildings remain as the Lemont downtown district. Lemont limestone was used to build the Chicago Water Tower, a building that "gained special significance as one of the few buildings to survive the destructive path of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871". In the early years, this stone was known as "Athens Marble" as a nod to its place of origin. An 1859 item in the Chicago Daily Tribune had this to say: “The Athens and DesPlaines quarries, situated on the Illinois and Michigan canal, embrace 335 acres of the finest stone in the West, known as “Athens Marble”; this stone has a high reputation for color and beauty, which renders it quite an article of commerce”.
Cargo and passengers were transported on the I&M until the early 20th century, when the wider, deeper Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal was built parallel to it. The Sanitary Canal is still used today as part of the Illinois Waterway system. Lemont's motto is "Village of Faith", its church spires reflect the many ethnic groups who came here to quarry stone, dig the Sanitary and Ship Canal and work in other industries. Lemont is credited with being the largest recruiting station for the Union Army during the American Civil War, the Old Stone Church, built in 1861 of limestone, was used as a recruiting depot, it served as the Lemont Methodist Episcopal Church for 100 years, from 1861 until 1970, when it became home to the Lemont Area Historical Society. The oldest building in Lemont, it now serves as a museum and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. During the Civil War, Lemont was required to sign up 33 soldiers, the village recruited 293 soldiers. A Lemont Civil War Memorial Committee has formed to build a statue in Memorial Park to honor Lemont's Civil War veterans.
By 1854, railroads transported goods faster than water, the I&M became obsolete as Lemont evolved into a railroad community. The canal was used to carry wastes away from Chicago. In 1900, the larger Sanitary and Ship Canal went into operation, carrying both wastes and larger, more modern barges. All use of the I&M Canal ended in 1933, with the opening of the canal's modern successor - the Illinois Waterway. By about 1920, the quarries declined as styles changed and builders began to use Bedford limestone from Indiana and less expensive materials like concrete. In 1984, President Ronald Reagan signed legislation establishing the Illinois & Michigan Canal National Heritage Corridor as the nation's first National Heritage Corridor; the status recognizes the historic importance of this region and the waterway that connected Lake Michigan and the Illinois River. Today, it is a 100-mile-long cultural park between Chicago and LaSalle/Peru, representing an ongoing partnership between the public and private sectors created to achieve a successful mixture of preservation, public use and industrial activity.
Lemont is home to the Argonne Nati
Joliet is a city in Will and Kendall counties in the U. S. state of Illinois, 30 miles southwest of Chicago. It is a major part of the southwest Chicago metropolitan area. At the 2010 census, the city was the fourth largest in Illinois, with a population of 147,433. A population estimate in 2018 put Joliet's population at 150,495, which would make it the 3rd largest city in Illinois if accurate. In 1673, Louis Jolliet, along with Father Jacques Marquette, paddled up the Des Plaines River and camped on a huge mound, a few miles south of present-day Joliet. Maps from Jolliet's exploration of the area, placed a large hill or mound on what is now the southwest corner of the city, since there is no point, farther southwest; that hill was named Mound Jolliet. The spot is now a depression. In 1833, following the Black Hawk War, Charles Reed built a cabin along the west side of the Des Plaines River. Across the river in 1834, James B. Campbell, treasurer of the canal commissioners, laid out the village of "Juliet", named after his daughter.
Just before the economic depression of 1837, Juliet incorporated as a village, but to cut tax expenses, Juliet residents soon petitioned the state to rescind that incorporation. In 1845, local residents changed the community's name from "Juliet" to "Joliet". Joliet was reincorporated as a city in 1852. Cornelius Covenhoven Van Horne was active in getting the city its first charter, because of this he was elected Joliet's first Mayor; when the city built a new bridge it was named The Van Horne Bridge. Joliet is located at 41°31′14″N 88°09′02″W. According to the 2010 census, Joliet has a total area of 62.768 square miles, of which 62.11 square miles is land and 0.658 square miles is water. It has a sprawling, irregular shape that extends into nine different townships, more than any other Illinois city, they are: Joliet, Troy, New Lenox, Jackson and Lockport in Will County, Na-Au-Say and Seward in Kendall County. Joliet is a Des Plaines River town, with the downtown located in the river valley; this is evident on Interstate 80 if one is coming from the east or the west where it has been flat for many miles and the land drops as one approaches the river.
This offers a great view looking north to see downtown Joliet. For most of its existence Joliet geographically has had its "west side" and "east side", referring to areas to the west or the east of the Des Plaines River, which runs through the city. Both sides were proportionate throughout most of its history until the 2nd half of the 20th century when westward expansion began. Many businesses moved from the downtown area to the expanding areas west of the river. Many stores relocated to the west side in new strip malls and shopping centers with more parking and easier access; this began the decline of the downtown shopping district, still felt today. Today Joliet has a "west side" and a "far west side"; this has given rise to a newly referenced "Central Joliet" portion of the city, all land west of the Des Plaines River and east of Interstate 55. This new reference may soon change the current meaning of "west side" to west of Interstate 55. While the heart and history of Joliet is centered around the Des Plaines River Joliet expands across both the Des Plaines River and the DuPage River.
There are several other waterways that traverse through the city limits including Hickory Creek, Spring Creek, the historic Illinois and Michigan Canal, Jackson Creek, Aux Sable Creek. Some small lakes and bodies of water include Chase Lake, Lake Juco, Michigan Beach, the Brandon Road Quarry, Leisure Lake. Joliet has a hot summer humid continental climate with hot, wet summers, cold winters with moderate to heavy snowfall. |source 2 = https://w2.weather.gov/climate/xmacis.php?wfo=lot> As of July 2014, Joliet was the 169th most populous city in the United States. As of the census of 2010, there were 147,433 people, 48,019 households, 34,900 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,288.3 people per square mile. There were 51,285 housing units at an average density of 796 per square mile; the racial makeup of the city was 67.48% white, 15.98% African American, 0.32% Native American, 1.93% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 11.32% from other races, 2.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 27.84% of the population.
There were 48,019 households out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.1% were married couples living together, 14% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.3% were non-families. 22.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.01 and the average family size was 3.56. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.8% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 8.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.7 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.8 males. For 2015, the median income for a household in the city was $60,976, the median income for a family was $69,386. Full-time, year-round working males had a median income of $51,082 versus $39,235 for females; the per capita income for the city was $24,374. About 10.4% of families and 12.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.2% of those under age 18 and 8.4% of those age 65 or over.
From April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011, Joliet was the fastest-growing city in the Mi
Lockport is a city in Will County, United States, located 30 miles southwest of Chicago. The city was incorporated in 1853, it is situated along the Illinois and Michigan Canal, was the headquarters of the canal when the canal was operating. A section of the canal runs through Lockport, including the remains of the canal's Lock No. 1 from which the town received its name. The canal right-of-way is now Michigan National Heritage Corridor; because of proactive efforts dating back several years, the city of Lockport is one of the best-preserved canal sites in existence today. Illinois is the nation's most populous inland state, its successful growth is due in large part to the Illinois and Michigan Canal, a revolutionary development that linked the Great Lakes to the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. The canal was vital to the development of the city of Chicago and to the economic development of the Midwest; the Des Plaines River Valley was a portage site for the Des Plaines River for the Miami and Potawatomi, explorers Louis Jolliet and Marquette traversed the region on their journeys.
Lockport is located on the east bank of the Des Plaines River just north of Joliet. The village of Lemont is about two miles to the north along the river; the city, along with Homer Township within the city limits, continues to develop both in terms of many new homes and new businesses entering the area. Although the population was 15,191 at the 2000 census, a special census of 2003 counted 25,191 people, 13,599 households, 12,137 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,144.3 people per square mile. There were 5,835 housing units at an average density of 823.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.82% White, 1.11% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.75% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.94% from other races, 1.15% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 4.34% of the population. There were 8,599 households out of which 38.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.9% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.1% were non-families.
20.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.17. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.2% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 36.1% from 25 to 44, 18.0% from 45 to 64, 10.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $72,231, the median income for a family was $81,717. Males had a median income of $65,759 versus $42,551 for females; the per capita income for the city was $32,939. About 3.2% of families and 3.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.3% of those under age 18 and 1.2% of those age 65 or over. The City of Lockport, Illinois has a park district titled the Lockport Township Park District, created in 1945, it manages and maintains 38 parks and several recreational programs with the goal to "enrich the quality of life of the community".
According to the City's website, each park should provide at least one of the following recreational activities: A place to engage in sports, open spaces in which children may play in, pavilions for picnics or gatherings and other facilities. Downtown Lockport contains all within walking distance of one another. Lockport has a unique outdoor museum known as the Lincoln Landing. Directly adjacent to the I&M Canal, the Lincoln Landing contains a number of historical markers that visitors can explore; the Gaylord Building played a vital role in one of the great enterprises of the 19th century: the Illinois & Michigan Canal. A landmark since 1838, its many tenants and uses exemplify the canal’s commercial success as the key to mastery of the American mid-continent; this handsome limestone warehouse stored canal construction materials and housed a variety of commercial ventures. Today it is a national example of adaptive re-use and serves as a gateway to the I&M Canal National Heritage Corridor. Guests can explore the heritage of the region in the exhibition galleries, dine in the renowned Public Landing Restaurant.
The Gaylord Building is a historic site of the National Trust for Historic Preservation. Located in the original 1837 Canal headquarters building, the Illinois and Michigan Canal Museum offers 10 rooms filled with artifacts and documents relating to the construction and operation of the Canal, as well as period items specific to the region during the height of the Canal’s operation; the Lockport Gallery celebrates Illinois through changing exhibits featuring paintings, sculptures and other media created by the state’s artists and artisans. These rotating, theme-based exhibits are supplemented and showcased through educational events, group tours and outreach programs for all ages. An Illinois State Museum facility, the Lockport Gallery is located in a structure, itself a work of art and history; the historic Norton Building was constructed on the banks of the Illinois and Michigan Canal in 1850 to serve as a grain-processing facility. Today the building is a multi-use facility housing residential lofts, commercial space and the Lockport Gallery.
The Gallery’s space gracefully incorporates the building’s original features, including large windows — once arched portals used for loading
Orland Park, Illinois
Orland Park is a village in Cook County, United States, a suburb of Chicago, which in 2010 had a population of 56,767.25 miles southwest of Chicago, Orland Park is close to several interstate highways, with the I-80 east-west coast connector as its southern border. The Metra commuter rail system links it to the Chicago Loop and from there to O'Hare and Midway airports; the village was incorporated on May 31, 1892. According to the 2015 census, Orland Park has a total area of 22.167 square miles, of which 21.88 square miles is land and 0.287 square miles is water. The main bodies of water in Orland are two lakes: McGinnis Slough. Communities bordering Orland Park include Homer Glen to the west, Orland Hills and Mokena to the south, Tinley Park to the southeast, Oak Forest to the east, Palos Park and Palos Heights to the north; as of the 2000 census, there were 51,077 people, 18,675 households, 14,361 families residing in the village. The population density was 2,668.4 people per square mile. There were 19,045 housing units at an average density of 995.0 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the village was 93.53% White, 0.73% African American, 0.07% Native American, 3.47% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.04% from other races, 1.13% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.67% of the population. The top five ancestries reported in Orland Park as of the 2000 census were Irish, Polish and English. There were 18,675 households out. 20.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.16. In the village, the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males. The median income for a household in the village was $67,574, the median income for a family was $77,507. Males had a median income of $57,275 versus $34,763 for females.
The per capita income for the village was $30,467. About 2.1% of families and 3.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.9% of those under age 18 and 3.0% of those age 65 or over. Since 2000, the average household income in the Orland Park area has risen to an estimated $90,917 in 2006. Orland Park's businesses and jobs include finance, retail and healthcare. Shopping complexes include Orland Square Mall. Orland Park plans to develop a new downtown district, the Orland Park Downtown called the Main Street Triangle, as well as the I-80 Business District. According to Orland Park's 2012 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city's top employers are: Orland Park has a large Recreation and Parks Department; the village has over 60 parks, with plenty of options for recreation, from sports complexes to nature trails. The Centennial Park Aquatic Center is a 192-acre park with a public pool. With six water slides, two large pools, a children's play area, it is one of the largest public pools in the area.
Since its debut in 1992, the Aquatic center has gone through multiple renovations. There have been several add-ons, including two new water slides, two outdoor sand volleyball courts. Just south of the Centennial Park Aquatic Center is the 95-acre Lake Segdewick, it has hiking paths, nature trails, boat ramps, pedal boats and kayaks for rent. Fishing is allowed; the Winter Wonderland Ice Rink is in Centennial Park. Open from November to March, this outdoor ice rink is free of charge. There is a small warming hut; the Sportsplex, on 159th Street, is Orland Park's largest indoor recreational facility. It has three full-sized basketball courts, an indoor soccer field, a full weight room with free weights, plenty of cardio options, a ¼-mile indoor track. Personal trainers are available, along with fitness classes, including Pilates, yoga and Zumba; the Sportsplex has a 35-foot rock wall with six different routes for all skill levels. The Recreation and Parks Department helps organize many public events.
Centennial Park hosts charity events and seasonal events, including the Orland Park Turkey Trot, a 5K run held on Thanksgiving morning at the John Humphrey Complex. These events are advertised and supported by students of Carl Sandburg High School. Orland Park is divided between the 1st and the 3rd; the village maintained an Aa2 bond rating from an AA + rating from Standard and Poor's. These are among the best bond ratings in the Chicago suburbs; the elected Board of Trustees makes local legislation for the village. The elected officials include the village president, village clerk, six village trustees, each of whom is elected at large to a four-year term. Orland Park is served by four grammar school districts, Orland School District #135, Community Consolidated School District #146, Palos School District #118 and Kirby School District #140. A majority of Orland Park is within Orland School District #135. St. Michael School is in Orland Park. A number of other parochial schools in the region provide bus s
Plainfield is a village in Will and Kendall counties, United States. The population was 39,581 at the 2010 census and an estimated 43,926 in 2017; the village includes land in Will County's Plainfield and Wheatland townships, as well as Na-Au-Say and Oswego townships in Kendall County. With the growth in the Chicago suburbs in the 1990s and 2000s, the village has seen a population increase, from 4,500 in 1990 to 28,000 in 2000 to nearly 44,000 in 2017, it is between the cities of Joliet. The village has established a community historic preservation ordinance, it is the home of the Lake Renwick Preserve, a county forest preserve used for birdwatching and other activities. Located south of Village Hall is Settlers' Park, which includes a lake, war monument, open space, more; the park presents outdoor concerts to the public in the summer. The area was called "Walkers' Grove" until it was platted as "Plainfield" in 1841, it was settled by a large community of Potawatomi people, the land was bequeathed to the United States as part of the Treaty of St. Louis with the Council of the Three Fires.
Indian Boundary Road aligns with the western border of the tract of land ceded. The earliest Europeans in the area were French fur traders; the first European-American settler in the area was James Walker, who with his father-in-law, Methodist minister Jessie Walker, traveled here in 1826 where he established a small mission for the Potawatomi people. James Walker, Jesse Walker's son-in-law, traveled with him and became the first European-American to claim land in the area in 1828. In 1828, James Walker, in the company of several men, erected a sawmill around which the settlement of Walkers' Grove developed. Plainfield is identified as the oldest community in Will County because the earliest settlement of Walkers' Grove was established on the banks of the DuPage River by 1828. However, the actual village of Plainfield was platted north of Walkers' Grove in 1834 by Chester Ingersoll; the separate community of East Plainfield was platted in June 1836 by James Mathers, who began selling lots in July 1836.
He constructed a gristmill and a mill race west of Water Street, which would become Plainfield-Naperville Road. Ingersoll's "Planefield" which comprised lots in Section 16, along with Mather's East Plainfield lots in Section 10 and Levi Arnold's plat of Section 9, all became joined to create the present-day village after the death of Levi Arnolds in 1845. Walkers' Grove flourished because of the DuPage River and established routes to Fort Dearborn in Chicago, as well as to Ottawa to the west. Reuben Flagg hauled lumber from Walker's mill to Chicago in order to erect the first two frame structures in the city. Chicago depended upon the settlement for mail and supplies; the community's early prosperity was stunted when the Illinois and Michigan Canal opened in 1848, because the village was not located along the canal. Located within the village are numerous Greek Revival and Wing cottages, a school built in 1847, a number of early-19th-century homes. Plainfield has three buildings listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Plainfield Halfway House, Flanders House, a 1928 Standard Oil gas station.
Plainfield abolitionists offered food and shelter to runaway slaves following the Underground Railroad. North Central College was founded in the village in 1861 as Plainfield College; the Plainfield Public Library District was founded in the village in 1925 as the Nimmons Village of Plainfield Free Public Library. Plainfield is the birthplace of Eddie Gardner, one of the pilots credited with establishing the transcontinental air mail routes for the United States Postal Service; the earliest architects associated with buildings in Plainfield are J. E. Minott of Aurora. On August 28, 1990, an F5 tornado ran its course through Plainfield; the "Plainfield Tornado" killed 29 people, 24 of whom were killed and 350 were injured. More than 1,000 homes were destroyed; the tornado made it across more than 16 miles in only 8 minutes. It destroyed the only Plainfield high school at the time, now called Plainfield Central High School. A population boom started to take place at the end of the 20th century after the tornado, with a large number of new home subdivisions.
Before this, Plainfield was an agricultural town. Certain older parts of Plainfield once suffered from extreme traffic congestion. Before Interstate 55 was built just east of the village in the late 1950s, U. S. Route 30 and U. S. Route 66 merged into one street for three blocks in the center of town on what is now Illinois Route 59; the merge was between Plainfield/Joliet Road on the south to Lockport Street on the north, but continues to be an area of heavy traffic congestion outside heavy commuting periods. At one time, the two longest paved highways in the world crossed within Plainfield; the highways only crossed. The other location is in neighboring Joliet. Plainfield is located in northwestern Will County at 41°37′2″N 88°12′10″W; the village limits extend west into the eastern part of Kendall County. Plainfield is bordered to the north by the city of Naperville, to the northeast by the village of Bolingbrook, to the east by the village of Romeoville, to the south by the city of Joliet. Farmland in Kendall County is to the west.
Interstate 55 runs with access from two exits. I-55 leads north
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c