The Crew (video game)
The Crew is an online-only racing video game developed by Ivory Tower and Ubisoft Reflections and published by Ubisoft for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4 and Xbox One, with an Xbox 360 port developed by Asobo Studio. The Crew received a mixed reception upon release. Critics praised the game's world design but criticized the always-online aspect, which created technical glitches and other issues, the difficult-to-understand user interface, the presence of microtransactions; the game shipped two million copies by January 1, 2015. It received an expansion, titled The Crew: Wild Run, released on November 17, 2015. Another expansion, entitled The Crew: Calling All Units, was announced at Gamescom 2016 and released on November 29, 2016. A sequel, The Crew 2, was released worldwide on June 29, 2018; the Crew is a racing game set in a persistent open world environment for free-roaming across a scaled-down recreation of the contiguous United States. The map is split into five regions: The Midwest, East Coast, The South, Mountain States, West Coast.
Each region has its own unique geographical features. Six main cities are featured in the game: Detroit and Chicago in the Midwest, New York City on the East Coast, Miami in The South, Las Vegas in the Mountain States, Los Angeles on the West Coast. Various other cities, namely St. Louis, Washington, D. C. New Orleans, Salt Lake City, Santa Fe, San Francisco, Seattle, are featured in the game. Over thirty smaller cities and towns line the countryside, such as Nashville and others, it takes 45 minutes in real time to drive from coast to coast in-game. The Single-player campaign is up to 20 hours long, entails infiltrating criminal groups with protagonist Alex Taylor. Players can participate in mini-games called skills challenges that are peppered across the world, they are triggered when a player drives through them and involve completing challenges such as weaving through gates and staying as close to a racing line as possible for a period of time. Players' scores are automatically saved so friends can try and beat their scores, in similar fashion to how Autolog works in games of the Need for Speed franchise.
Missions can be played alone, with online co-op matchmaking. The multiplayer mode lets a maximum of eight players to compete in other gametypes. There are no in-game loading pauses. Players can build cars with a tie-in app for iOS and Android; the Crew creative director Julian Gerighty has called the game a role-playing game with large-scale multiplayer elements. The multiplayer is not separate from the single-player. Players can form "crews" to race together or against ghost records. Though the player can play alone, the game requires a constant internet connection to play; the story begins with main character Alex Taylor being pursued by local law enforcement near Detroit. After losing the cops, he finds a Chevrolet Camaro loaned to him by Harry. Harry explains to him that Alex's older brother and the founder of the 5-10 motor club, wants to speak with him. Dayton arrives and orders Alex to drive him to Ambassador Bridge. Once there, Dayton tells him to keep his head down. A Ford GT pulls up, Dayton goes and talks with the driver before walking back to the Camaro, but before he can get there, the driver shoots him and drives off.
Alex rushes to Dayton's side. The police restrain Alex as Dayton succumbs to his wound. Alex is charged and convicted of Dayton's murder by FBI Special Agent Bill Coburn, is sent to prison. Five years Alex encounters FBI Agent Zoe Winters, who informs him that he will be temporarily released from prison if he agrees to cooperate with the FBI in exposing Coburn's corruption, finding the truth behind Dayton's murder. In doing so, Alex has to climb up its hierarchy; this way, Alex makes his way to exact revenge on Coburn for framing him and bring Coburn to Zoe, find his brother's murderer, the new leader of the 5-10s, Dennis "Shiv" Jefferson. After getting released from prison, Alex accepts his first mission to help Troy. After doing a series of missions for him, Alex is sent to St. Louis to kill that city's V2. Alex and Zoe frame the V2's death. Troy sends his crew to get Alex and the V2. Alex manages to escape, but Troy finds and kills the V2. Alex gets a call from Herschel Craig, the Chicago 5-10, competing for the V4 of the Midwest along with Troy.
Craig gives tasks to Alex to claim territory from Troy by beating his records. Alex is able to get his 5-10 ink by helping Craig recover a stolen car from Europe. Alex is sent to New York City soon after to help Eric Tsu. Alex is reunited with Harry, who agrees to help him with his mission. Alex gets a dirt car and meets Eric, racing him and doing missions for him. Meanwhile and Alex are suspicious of Harry when he gets secretive, it is revealed that Harry is trying to help Dayton's girlfriend, Connie, by stealing and selling cars, but first Alex and Eric have to recover them. Alex has to deliver something to a mysterious person revealed to be Coburn. Harry has Alex follow him with her son in the car so they can get on a bus going upstate. Alex gets his V2 ink, is asked to go to Miami. Alex meets Alita, Shiv's ex-girlfriend, she challenges Alex to a race to see. After winning, he is tasked with claiming The South from Cameron Rockport, a dangerous former 5-10. Coburn calls Alex for help in taking down Shiv from the V8.
Coburn has him take down much of Cam's crew, but things turn difficult when Cam's
Stagecraft is the technical aspect of theatrical and video production. It includes rigging scenery. Stagecraft is distinct from the wider umbrella term of scenography. Considered a technical rather than an artistic field, it is the practical implementation of a scenic designer's artistic vision. In its most basic form, stagecraft may be executed by a single person who arranges all scenery, costumes and sound, organizes the cast. Regional theatres and larger community theatres will have a technical director and a complement of designers, each of whom has a direct hand in their respective designs. Within larger productions, for example a modern Broadway show bringing a show to opening night requires the work of skilled carpenters, electricians, stitchers and the like. Modern stagecraft is technical and specialized: it comprises many sub-disciplines and a vast trove of history and tradition. Greeks were the earliest recorded practitioners of stagecraft. "Skene" is Greek, translating into "scene" or "scenery", refers to a large scenic house, about one story tall, with three doors.
On the audience-side of the Skene, what are now known. Flats developed to two-sided painted flats which would be mounted, centered, on a rotating pin, with rope running around each consecutive pin, so the flats could be turned for a scene-change; the double-sided-flat evolved into the periaktos. As well as flats, the Greeks used such machines as the ekkyklema a platform on wheels, the deus ex machina, a hand-cranked lift to be used to lift a character/scenery over the skene. Over 20 such scenic inventions can be traced back to the Greeks. No light but that of the sun was used. Plays of Medieval times were held in different places such as the streets of towns and cities, performed by traveling, secular troupes; some were held in monasteries, performed by church-controlled groups portraying religious scenes. The playing place could represent many different things such as outdoors, they were played in certain places. Songs and spectacles were used in plays to enhance participation. More modern stagecraft was in developed in England between 1576–1642.
There were three different types of theaters in London – public and court. The size and shape varied but many were suggested to be round theaters. Public playhouses such as the Globe Theatre used rigging housed in a room on the roof to lower and raise in scenery or actors, utilized the raised stage by developing the practice of using trap-doors in theatrical productions. Most of the theatres had circular-design, with an open area above the pit to allow sunlight to enter and light the stage, it was a penny admission to stand in the pit. Prices increase for seating. Court plays were used for special occasions. Proscenium stages, or picture-box stages, were constructed in France around the time of the English Restoration, maintain the place of the most popular form of stage in use to-date, combined elements of the skene in design building a skene on-stage. Lighting of the period would have consisted of candles, used as foot-lights, hanging from chandeliers above the stage. Stagecraft during the Victorian era in England developed with the emergence of the West End.
Prompted by and influx of urbanites in the greater London area, Parliament was forced to do away with previous licensing laws and allowed all theatres to perform straight plays in 1843. Electric lighting and hydraulics were introduced to draw large audiences to see on-stage storms and miraculous transformations. Technologies developed during the latter part of the 19th-century paved the way for the development of special effects to be used in film. Lighting continued to develop. In England, a form lamp using a blowpipe to heat lime to incandescence was developed, for navigation purposes – it was soon adapted to theatrical performances and the limelight became a widespread form of artificial light for theatres. To control the focus of the light, a Fresnel lens was used. Intended to replace large, convex lenses in lighthouses, Dr. Fresnel sectioned out the convex lens in a series of circles, like tree-rings, keeping the angle of the specific section, moved the section much closer to the flat side of the convex lens.
After candles, came gas lighting, utilizing pipes with small openings which were lit before every performance, could be dimmed by controlling the flow of gas, so long as the flame never went out. With the turn of the 20th century, many theatre companies making the transition from gas to electricity would install the new system right next to the old one, resulting in many explosions and fires due to the electricity igniting the gas lines. Modern theatrical lighting is electrically-based. Many lamps and lighting instruments are in use today, the field is becoming one of the most diverse and complex in the industry. Stagecraft comprises many disciplines divided into a number of main disciplines: Lighting: Lighting design, which involves the process of determining the angle, intensity and color of light for a given scene. Hanging, focusing and maintenance of lighting and special effects equipment, aspects of show control Make-up/Wigs: The application of makeup and wigs to accentuate an actor's features.
Television crew positions are derived from those of film crew, but with several differences. Work before shooting begins is called the pre-production stage; the crew in this stage include the casting director, costume designer, location manager, make-up artist, screenwriter, set designer, television producer. The casting director casts actors, so is one of the first crew members on the project. In fact, during initial casting for a television pilot, the executive producer and casting director are the only crew members; the costume designer makes all the clothing and costumes worn by all the Actors on screen, as well as designing and organizing the construction of the garments down to the fabric and sizes. They contribute to the appearance of the production, set a particular mood, feeling, or genre, they alter the overall appearance of a project with their designs and constructions, including impacting on the style of the project, how the audience interprets the show's characters. A television director is responsible for directing the actors and other filmed aspects of a television production.
The role differs from that of a film director because the major creative control belongs to the producer. In general and other regular artists on a show are familiar enough with their roles that the director's input is confined to technical issues; the director is responsible for all creative aspects of a production. The director helps hire the cast; the Director helps decide on locations, creates a shooting plan. During shooting, the director supervises the overall project, manages shots, keeps the assignment on budget and schedule. Though directors hold much power, they are second in command after the producer; the producer hires the director. Some directors produce their own television programs, with formal approval of the funding studio, enjoy a tighter grip on what makes the final cut than Directors have. Associate director An associate director in television production is responsible for floor directing in the studio and ensuring that the sets and technical equipment are safe, ready to use and positioned before filming.
Associate directors are responsible for communications with the audience and any guests, for example ensuring they are seated in good time, assisting the Director with production. In scripted television series, an associate director serves as an episode's director, in which case someone else substitutes for the AD; until the mid-2000s in the United States, associate directors were credited as technical coordinators, for most sitcoms were shot on film. Drama programs don't use ADs; the location manager manages film locations. Most pictures are shot in the controllable environment of a studio sound stage but outdoor sequences call for filming on location. A professional make-up artist is a cosmetology beautician, applies makeup to anyone who appears on screen, they concentrate on the area above the chest, the face, the top of the head, the fingers, hands and elbows. Their role is to manipulate the actor's on-screen appearance to make them look younger, larger, etc. Body makeup artists concentrate on the body rather than the head.
Make-up itself is substances to enhance the beauty of the human body, but can change the appearance, disguise, or costume someone. Make-up artists, hair stylists, costume designers, dress technicians combine their efforts to transform actors into characters, etc; the production designer is responsible for the production's visual appearance. They design, plan and arrange set design, equipment availability, control a production's on-screen appearance; the production designer is called the set designer, or scenic designer. They are trained professionals with Master of Fine Arts degrees in scenic design; the set designer collaborates with the theater director to create an environment for the production—and communicates details of this environment to the technical director, charge scenic artist and property master. Scenic designers create drawings and scale models of the scenery; the set designer takes instructions from the art director to create the appearance of the stage, design its technical assembly.
The art director, who may be the production designer and oversees the formation of settings for a project. They must be well versed including architecture and interior design, they work with the Cinematographer to accomplish the precise appearance for the project. Researchers research the project ahead of shooting time to increase truth, factual content, creative content, original ideas, background information, sometimes performs minor searches such as flight details, location conditions, accommodation details, etc, they inform the director and writer of factual information—technical, historical, etc.—that relates to events that the production portrays. The scenic designer collaborates with the theatre director and other members of the production design team to create an environment for the production, communicates details of this environment to the technical director, production manager, charge artist, property master. Scenic designers create scale models of the scenery, artistic renderings, paint elevations, scale construction drawings to communicate with other production staff.
In the entertainment industry, a television producer is in charge of, or helps coordinate, the financial, administrative and artistic aspects of
Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. Aircraft includes fixed-wing and rotary-wing types, morphable wings, wing-less lifting bodies, as well as lighter-than-air craft such as balloons and airships. Aviation began in the 18th century with the development of the hot air balloon, an apparatus capable of atmospheric displacement through buoyancy; some of the most significant advancements in aviation technology came with the controlled gliding flying of Otto Lilienthal in 1896. Since that time, aviation has been technologically revolutionized by the introduction of the jet which permitted a major form of transport throughout the world; the word aviation was coined by the French writer and former naval officer Gabriel La Landelle in 1863. He derived the term from the verb avier, itself derived from the Latin word avis and the suffix -ation. There are early legends of human flight such as the stories of Icarus in Greek myth and Jamshid and Shah Kay Kāvus in Persian myth.
Somewhat more credible claims of short-distance human flights appear, such as the flying automaton of Archytas of Tarentum, the winged flights of Abbas ibn Firnas, Eilmer of Malmesbury, the hot-air Passarola of Bartholomeu Lourenço de Gusmão. The modern age of aviation began with the first untethered human lighter-than-air flight on November 21, 1783, of a hot air balloon designed by the Montgolfier brothers; the practicality of balloons was limited. It was recognized that a steerable, or dirigible, balloon was required. Jean-Pierre Blanchard flew the first human-powered dirigible in 1784 and crossed the English Channel in one in 1785. Rigid airships became the first aircraft to transport passengers and cargo over great distances; the best known aircraft of this type were manufactured by the German Zeppelin company. The most successful Zeppelin was the Graf Zeppelin, it flew over one million miles, including an around-the-world flight in August 1929. However, the dominance of the Zeppelins over the airplanes of that period, which had a range of only a few hundred miles, was diminishing as airplane design advanced.
The "Golden Age" of the airships ended on May 6, 1937 when the Hindenburg caught fire, killing 36 people. The cause of the Hindenburg accident was blamed on the use of hydrogen instead of helium as the lift gas. An internal investigation by the manufacturer revealed that the coating used in the material covering the frame was flammable and allowed static electricity to build up in the airship. Changes to the coating formulation reduced the risk of further Hindenburg type accidents. Although there have been periodic initiatives to revive their use, airships have seen only niche application since that time. In 1799, Sir George Cayley set forth the concept of the modern airplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift and control. Early dirigible developments included machine-powered propulsion, rigid frames and improved speed and maneuverability There are many competing claims for the earliest powered, heavier-than-air flight; the first recorded powered flight was carried out by Clément Ader on October 9, 1890 in his bat-winged self-propelled fixed-wing aircraft, the Ader Éole.
It was the first manned, heavier-than-air flight of a significant distance but insignificant altitude from level ground. Seven years on 14 October 1897, Ader's Avion III was tested without success in front of two officials from the French War ministry; the report on the trials was not publicized until 1910. In November 1906 Ader claimed to have made a successful flight on 14 October 1897, achieving an "uninterrupted flight" of around 300 metres. Although believed at the time, these claims were discredited; the Wright brothers made the first successful powered and sustained airplane flight on December 17, 1903, a feat made possible by their invention of three-axis control. Only a decade at the start of World War I, heavier-than-air powered aircraft had become practical for reconnaissance, artillery spotting, attacks against ground positions. Aircraft began to transport people and cargo as designs grew more reliable; the Wright brothers took aloft the first passenger, Charles Furnas, one of their mechanics, on May 14, 1908.
During the 1920s and 1930s great progress was made in the field of aviation, including the first transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown in 1919, Charles Lindbergh's solo transatlantic flight in 1927, Charles Kingsford Smith's transpacific flight the following year. One of the most successful designs of this period was the Douglas DC-3, which became the first airliner to be profitable carrying passengers starting the modern era of passenger airline service. By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, there were numerous qualified pilots available; the war brought many innovations to aviation, including the first jet aircraft and the first liquid-fueled rockets. After World War II in North America, there was a boom in general aviation, both private and commercial, as thousands of pilots were released from military service and many inexpensive war-surplus transport and training aircraft became available. Manufacturers such as Cessna and Beechcraft expanded production to provide light aircraft for the new middle-class market.
A hierarchy is an arrangement of items in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. Hierarchy is an important concept in a wide variety of fields, such as philosophy, computer science, organizational theory, systems theory, the social sciences. A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, either vertically or diagonally; the only direct links in a hierarchy, insofar as they are hierarchical, are to one's immediate superior or to one of one's subordinates, although a system, hierarchical can incorporate alternative hierarchies. Hierarchical links can extend "vertically" upwards or downwards via multiple links in the same direction, following a path. All parts of the hierarchy which are not linked vertically to one another can be "horizontally" linked through a path by traveling up the hierarchy to find a common direct or indirect superior, down again; this is akin to colleagues. Organizational forms exist that are both complementary to hierarchy.
Heterarchy is one such form. Hierarchies have their own special vocabulary; these terms are easiest to understand. In an organizational context, the following terms are used related to hierarchies: Object: one entity System: the entire set of objects that are being arranged hierarchically Dimension: another word for "system" from on-line analytical processing Member: an at any in a Terms about Positioning Rank: the relative value, complexity, importance, level etc. of an object Level or Tier: a set of objects with the same rank OR importance Ordering: the arrangement of the Hierarchy: the arrangement of a particular set of members into. Multiple hierarchies are possible per, in which selected levels of the dimension are omitted to flatten the structure Terms about Placement Hierarch, the apex of the hierarchy, consisting of one single orphan in the top level of a dimension; the root of an inverted-tree structure Member, a in any level of a hierarchy in a dimension to which members are attached Orphan, a member in any level of a dimension without a parent member.
The apex of a disconnected branch. Orphans can be grafted back into the hierarchy by creating a relationship with a parent in the superior level Leaf, a member in any level of a dimension without subordinates in the hierarchy Neighbour: a member adjacent to another member in the same. Always a peer. Superior: a higher level or an object ranked at a higher level Subordinate: a lower level or an object ranked at a lower level Collection: all of the objects at one level Peer: an object with the same rank Interaction: the relationship between an object and its direct superior or subordinate a direct interaction occurs when one object is on a level one higher or one lower than the other Distance: the minimum number of connections between two objects, i.e. one less than the number of objects that need to be "crossed" to trace a path from one object to another Span: a qualitative description of the width of a level when diagrammed, i.e. the number of subordinates an object has Terms about Nature Attribute: a heritable characteristic of in a level Attribute-value: the specific value of a heritable characteristic In a mathematical context, the general terminology used is different.
Most hierarchies use a more specific vocabulary pertaining to their subject, but the idea behind them is the same. For example, with data structures, objects are known as nodes, superiors are called parents and subordinates are called children. In a business setting, a superior is a supervisor/boss and a peer is a colleague. Degree of branching refers to the number of direct subordinates or children an object has a node has. Hierarchies can be categorized based on the "maximum degree", the highest degree present in the system as a whole. Categorization in this way yields two broad classes: branching. In a linear hierarchy, the maximum degree is 1. In other words, all of the objects can be visualized in a line-up, each object has one direct subordinate and one direct superior. Note that this is referring to the objects and not the levels. An example of a linear hierarchy is the hierarchy of life. In a branching hierarchy, one or more objects has a degree of 2 or more. For many people, the word "hierarchy" automatically evokes an image of a branching hierarchy.
Branching hierarchies are present within numerous systems, including organizations and classification schemes. The broad category of branching hierarchies can be furt
Rowing referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times. It involves propelling a boat on water using oars. By pushing against the water with an oar, a force is generated to move the boat; the sport can be either recreational for enjoyment or fitness, or competitive, when athletes race against each other in boats. There are a number of different boat classes in which athletes compete, ranging from an individual shell to an eight-person shell with a coxswain. Modern rowing as a competitive sport can be traced to the early 10th century when races were held between professional watermen on the River Thames in London, United Kingdom. Prizes were offered by the London Guilds and Livery Companies. Amateur competition began towards the end of the 18th century with the arrival of "boat clubs" at the British public schools of Eton College, Shrewsbury School, Westminster School. Clubs were formed at the University of Oxford, with a race held between Brasenose College and Jesus College in 1815.
At the University of Cambridge the first recorded races were in 1827. Public rowing clubs were beginning at the same time. In 1843, the first American college rowing club was formed at Yale University; the International Rowing Federation, responsible for international governance of rowing, was founded in 1892 to provide regulation at a time when the sport was gaining popularity. Across six continents, 150 countries now have rowing federations. Rowing is one of the oldest Olympic sports. Though it was on the programme for the 1896 games, racing did not take place due to bad weather. Male rowers have competed since the 1900 Summer Olympics. Women's rowing was added to the Olympic programme in 1976. Today, there are fourteen boat classes which race at the Olympics: Each year the World Rowing Championships are staged by FISA with 22 boat classes that race. In Olympic years, only the non-Olympic boat classes are raced at the World Championships; the European Rowing Championships are held annually, along with three World Rowing Cups in which each event earns a number of points for a country towards the World Cup title.
Since 2008, rowing has been competed at the Paralympic Games. Major domestic competitions take place in dominant rowing nations and include The Boat Race and Henley Royal Regatta in the United Kingdom, the Australian Rowing Championships in Australia, the Harvard–Yale Regatta and Head of the Charles Regatta in the United States, Royal Canadian Henley Regatta in Canada. Many other competitions exist for racing between clubs and universities in each nation. While rowing, the athlete sits in the boat facing toward the stern, uses the oars which are held in place by the oarlocks to propel the boat forward; this may be done on a canal, lake, sea, or other large bodies of water. The sport requires strong core balance, physical strength and cardiovascular endurance. Whilst the action of rowing and equipment used remains consistent throughout the world, there are many different types of competition; these include endurance races, time trials, stake racing, bumps racing, the side-by-side format used in the Olympic games.
The many different formats are a result of the long history of the sport, its development in different regions of the world, specific local requirements and restrictions. There are two forms of rowing: In sweep or sweep-oar rowing, each rower has one oar, held with both hands; this is done in pairs and eights. In some regions of the world, each rower in a sweep boat is referred to either as port or starboard, depending on which side of the boat the rower's oar extends to. In other regions, the port side is referred to as stroke side, the starboard side as bow side. In sculling each rower has two oars, one in each hand. Sculling is done without a coxswain, in quads, doubles or singles; the oar in the sculler's right hand extends to port, the oar in the left hand extends to starboard. The rowing stroke may be characterized by two fundamental reference points; the catch, placement of the oar blade in the water, the extraction known as the finish or release, when the rower removes the oar blade from the water.
The action between catch and release is the first phase of the stroke. At the catch the rower places the blade in the water and applies pressure to the oar by pushing the seat toward the bow of the boat by extending the legs, thus pushing the boat through the water; the point of placement of the blade in the water is a fixed point about which the oar serves as a lever to propel the boat. As the rower's legs approach full extension, the rower pivots the torso toward the bow of the boat and finally pulls the arms towards his or her chest; the hands meet the chest right above the diaphragm. At the end of the stroke, with the blade still in the water, the hands drop to unload the oar so that spring energy stored in the bend of the oar gets transferred to the boat, which eases removing the oar from the water and minimizes energy wasted on lifting water above the surface; the recovery phase follows the drive. The recovery starts with the extraction and involves coordinating the body movements with the goal to move th
An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for codeshare agreements. Airline companies are recognized with an air operating certificate or license issued by a governmental aviation body. Airlines vary in size, from small domestic airlines to full-service international airlines with double decker airplanes. Airline services can be categorized as being intercontinental, regional, or international, may be operated as scheduled services or charters; the largest airline is American Airlines Group. DELAG, Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft I was the world's first airline, it was founded on November 16, 1909, with government assistance, operated airships manufactured by The Zeppelin Corporation. Its headquarters were in Frankfurt; the first fixed wing scheduled airline was started on January 1, 1914, from St. Petersburg, Florida, to Tampa, Florida.
The four oldest non-dirigible airlines that still exist are Netherlands' KLM, Colombia's Avianca, Australia's Qantas, the Czech Republic's Czech Airlines. The earliest fixed wing airline in Europe was Aircraft Transport and Travel, formed by George Holt Thomas in 1916. Using a fleet of former military Airco DH.4A biplanes, modified to carry two passengers in the fuselage, it operated relief flights between Folkestone and Ghent. On 15 July 1919, the company flew a proving flight across the English Channel, despite a lack of support from the British government. Flown by Lt. H Shaw in an Airco DH.9 between RAF Hendon and Paris – Le Bourget Airport, the flight took 2 hours and 30 minutes at £21 per passenger. On 25 August 1919, the company used DH.16s to pioneer a regular service from Hounslow Heath Aerodrome to Le Bourget, the first regular international service in the world. The airline soon gained a reputation for reliability, despite problems with bad weather, began to attract European competition.
In November 1919, it won the first British civil airmail contract. Six Royal Air Force Airco DH.9A aircraft were lent to the company, to operate the airmail service between Hawkinge and Cologne. In 1920, they were returned to the Royal Air Force. Other British competitors were quick to follow – Handley Page Transport was established in 1919 and used the company's converted wartime Type O/400 bombers with a capacity for 12 passengers, to run a London-Paris passenger service; the first French airline was Société des lignes Latécoère known as Aéropostale, which started its first service in late 1918 to Spain. The Société Générale des Transports Aériens was created in late 1919, by the Farman brothers and the Farman F.60 Goliath plane flew scheduled services from Toussus-le-Noble to Kenley, near Croydon, England. Another early French airline was the Compagnie des Messageries Aériennes, established in 1919 by Louis-Charles Breguet, offering a mail and freight service between Le Bourget Airport and Lesquin Airport, Lille.
The first German airline to use heavier than air aircraft was Deutsche Luft-Reederei established in 1917 which started operating in February 1919. In its first year, the D. L. R. Operated scheduled flights on routes with a combined length of nearly 1000 miles. By 1921 the D. L. R. Network was more than 3000 km long, included destinations in the Netherlands and the Baltic Republics. Another important German airline was Junkers Luftverkehr, which began operations in 1921, it was a division of the aircraft manufacturer Junkers, which became a separate company in 1924. It operated joint-venture airlines in Austria, Estonia, Hungary, Norway, Poland and Switzerland; the Dutch airline KLM made its first flight in 1920, is the oldest continuously operating airline in the world. Established by aviator Albert Plesman, it was awarded a "Royal" predicate from Queen Wilhelmina, its first flight was from Croydon Airport, London to Amsterdam, using a leased Aircraft Transport and Travel DH-16, carrying two British journalists and a number of newspapers.
In 1921, KLM started scheduled services. In Finland, the charter establishing Aero O/Y was signed in the city of Helsinki on September 12, 1923. Junkers F.13 D-335 became the first aircraft of the company, when Aero took delivery of it on March 14, 1924. The first flight was between Helsinki and Tallinn, capital of Estonia, it took place on March 20, 1924, one week later. In the Soviet Union, the Chief Administration of the Civil Air Fleet was established in 1921. One of its first acts was to help found Deutsch-Russische Luftverkehrs A. G. a German-Russian joint venture to provide air transport from Russia to the West. Domestic air service began around the same time, when Dobrolyot started operations on 15 July 1923 between Moscow and Nizhni Novgorod. Since 1932 all operations had been carried under the name Aeroflot. Early European airlines tended to favor comfort – the passenger cabins were spacious with luxurious interiors – over speed and efficiency; the basic navigational capabilities of pilots at the time meant that delays due to the weather were commonplace.
By the early 1920s, small airlines were struggling to compete, there was a movement towards increased rationalization and consolidation. In 1924, Imperial Airways was formed from the merger of Instone Air Line Company, British Marine Air Navigation, Daimler Airway and Handley Page Transport Co Ltd. to allow British airlines to compete with stiff competition from French and German airlines that were enjoying heavy government subsidies. The ai