Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.
A clicker, sometimes called a cricket, is any device that makes a clicking sound when deliberately activated by its user. They consist of a piece of thin metal or plastic held in a casing so that the metal is torqued. With some clickers, the user depresses the metal directly with finger. Clickers were first used by marine mammal trainer Karen Pryor as a way of communicating with their animals. Dolphins and whales communicate underwater through a series of clicks and whistles known as echolocation, the clicker allowed a trainer to produce signals they were more to understand. Nowadays, clickers are used to train all kinds of animals, most dogs; when associated with a treat, a click allows the owner to mark the precise moment the desired behavior is executed. In contemporary society, clickers are used by pet owners as a behavioral tool. Clickers are used to provide audible feedback for human students learning using a method called TAGteach. In World War II Clickers were used by Allied paratroopers preceding and during Operation Overlord as a way of covertly identifying friend from foe.
A soldier would click once and if two clicks were received in return from an unidentifiable soldier his identification was confirmed. Clickers are used as a handheld counting device, sometimes digital but more mechanical, used to keep a count of the numbers of people entering a venue, it is used by nightclub doorstaff to make sure fire limits are not exceeded. A Clicker is a device used on recurve bows to signal to the archer that correct draw length has been achieved, thus aiding consistency; some board games designed after game shows come with clickers that are meant to emulate the buzzers common on such shows
Chrząszcz by Jan Brzechwa is a poem famous for being considered one of the hardest-to-pronounce texts in Polish literature. It may cause problems for adult, native Polish speakers; the first line "W Szczebrzeszynie chrząszcz brzmi w trzcinie" is a well-known Polish tongue-twister. Thanks to the poem, the town of Szczebrzeszyn is known in Poland. A monument to the beetle was erected there in 2002, a yearly sculpture festival has been held there since. Chrząszcz was translated into English by Walter Whipple as Cricket. Polish literature
Fire on the Mountain (Bisson novel)
Fire on the Mountain is a 1988 novel by the American author Terry Bisson. It is an alternate history describing the world as it would have been had John Brown succeeded in his raid on Harper's Ferry and touched off a slave rebellion in 1859, as he intended; the difference from actual history starts with the participation of Harriet Tubman in Brown's uprising in 1859. As a result, instead of the American Civil War, the U. S. faces a full-scale slave revolt throughout the South—-helped by a handful of white sympathizers. After a great deal of bloody fighting and an increasing dissatisfaction in the North, required to send troops to fight the rebellious slaves, the blacks succeed in emancipating themselves and create a republic in the Deep South, led by Tubman and Frederick Douglass. Abraham Lincoln - a Whig politician who never got to be President - tries to start a war to bring back the secessionist black states into the Union, but he fails and is himself killed in that war. Blacks remember him as their archenemy.
The black state becomes Socialist, touching off a whole string of revolutions and civil wars in Europe. The Paris Commune wins out in 1871 instead of being crushed by the French Third Republic, Ireland breaks away from British rule in the 1880s, the Russian Revolution is just one of many similar revolutions in different countries. Socialism wins out in the rump U. S. following a revolutionary outbreak in Chicago. Socialism works out as predicted by the German philosopher Karl Marx, bringing happiness and prosperity to all of humanity; the book has two levels. The overt plot takes place in 1959, in a Utopian Socialist world far in advance of ours in all ways. To mark the centennial of Brown's raid, black astronauts lead a manned landing on Mars. However, the story of the protagonist, a young black woman grieving the death of her husband on an earlier Mars mission, is the framework for excerpts from the vivid diaries of two people who lived through the stirring events of 1859 and its aftermath—her ancestor, a young black slave, a white Virginian doctor who sympathized with the rebellion.
In this world, an alternate history book is published called John Brown's Body, which describes a world in which Brown failed and was executed, the slaves were emancipated by Lincoln rather than by themselves after a war between two white factions, capitalism survived as a political and economic system. It is considered a dystopia, describing a horrible world in all ways inferior to the one which the people in the book know. David Pringle rated Fire on the Mountain three stars out of four and described the novel as "a skilful evocation of an unlikely alternate history". American Civil War alternate histories James R. Knight, John Brown - History and Myth, pp 87–94 Retrospective review by Jo Walton
Float (b-boy move)
The float is a b-boying move coming from basic Gymnastics alongside variants the Turtle. Though it appears to demand great strength, the float requires balance above all because the breaker's weight is supported on the elbows which are planted into the lower abdomen near the anterior superior iliac spine. Stationary floats are employed as freeze poses. On the other hand, breakers can "walk" with floats by shifting weight from one hand to the other and thus moving in a straight line or circle; these moving floats can be made to spin fast and become the first power moves that were done in the 80's. Crab - The Crab is a specific term for a two-handed stabbed float that may walk in a line but does not entail any of the variations below. Turtle AirFlares/Criticals - This move is considered a combination of an AirFlare, a Cricket; the legs rotate as if doing a windmill and the breaker spins. The breaker lands in the stabbing position again. Turtle Freeze - A stationary Turtle. Handglide Freeze - A stationary Handglide Turtle - This is a standard spinning float.
The breaker shifts weight from one hand to the next, moving one hand forward and the other backward to produce rotation or a circular "walk". Pumping Turtle or Darkhammers - A Turtle in which the breaker hops/jumps with the hands instead of just shifting from hand to hand. Handglide - A one-handed Turtle. Cricket - Much like the Handglide, but the breaker hops on the central hand rather than spinning; the free hand pulls until the centered wrist can twist no further. The free hand pushes off from ground, allowing the centered hand to hop and turn itself to allow for the process to repeat. Bboy Pop of Gamblers crew is famous for his beautiful crickets as well as jackhammers. Jackhammer/Hydro - A Cricket performed with one hand. Jackhammers are faster, the free hand is placed on the back or in some other position that shows control with the centered hand. Many world records have been conducted on the number of Jackhammers a bboy could do, with a top record of 113 in a row by Bboy RYUTA. Airchair Spin - A floating chair freeze.
This move can be located during a breaker's Flare or Airflare/Airtrack set. Those powermoves are used to exert proper momentum to do such floats. Chair Flares - A flare variation, pumping with the stabbing arm from airchair position while maintaining the motion of flares; these are not used in rapid succession, but incorporated into a bboy/bgirl's performance. Floats may be performed with arms locked meaning the elbows do not support the body. Rather, these floats speed to keep the entire body up. To assist this difficult athletic move the legs bend upwards, the body leans forward and/or the hands are turned in the direction of spin. UFO or Air Turtle - Movement is like that of a turtle, with legs pointing back, except that arms are extended and locked. Knees may be bent or legs may flail outward. Reverse UFO - A UFO float executed with hands behind the back, near the bottom. Buddha - Similar to Air Turtles except that the knees are kept locked together and behind the arms, shins parallel to the floor, back as parallel to the floor as possible.
Bboy Waka of Headhunterz was one of the first to perform Buddhas in his sets. Deadman - Similar to UFO's where the legs are held straight together, it is a seen movement done in gymnastics floor routines. Bboy Junior is a famous bboy, known to use Deadman floats in his sets. Boomerang - While sitting with legs in front and in a V shape, the hands are placed in between the thighs; the legs are kept straight while the hands walk in a circle. This looks quite different from most other floats
Insects in the family Tettigoniidae are called katydids, or bush crickets. They have been known as long-horned grasshoppers. More than 6,400 species are known. Part of the suborder Ensifera, the Tettigoniidae are the only extant family in the superfamily Tettigonioidea, they are nocturnal in habit with strident mating calls. Many katydids exhibit mimicry and camouflage with shapes and colors similar to leaves; the family name Tettigoniidae is derived from the genus Tettigonia, first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. In Latin tettigonia means leafhopper. All of these names such as tettix with repeated sounds are onomatopoeic, imitating the stridulation of these insects; the common name katydid is onomatopoeic and comes from the loud, three-pulsed song, ka-ty-did, of the nominate subspecies of the North American Pterophylla camellifolia called the common true katydid. Tettigoniids range in size from as small as 5 mm to as large as 130 mm; the smaller species live in drier or more stressful habitats which may lead to their small size.
The small size is associated with greater agility, faster development, lower nutritional needs. Tettigoniids are tree-living insects that are most heard at night during summer and early fall. Tettigoniids may be distinguished from the grasshopper by the length of their filamentous antennae, which may exceed their own body length, while grasshoppers' antennae are always short and thickened; the lifespan of a katydid is about a year, with full adulthood developing late. Females most lay their eggs at the end of summer beneath the soil or in plant stem holes; the eggs are oval and laid in rows on the host plant. The way their ovipositor is formed relates to its function; the ovipositor is an organ used by insects for laying eggs. It consists of up to three pairs of appendages formed to transmit the egg, to make a place for it, place it properly. Tettigoniids have either sickle-shaped ovipositors which lay eggs in dead or living plant matter, or uniform long ovipositors which lay eggs in grass stems.
When tettigoniids hatch, the nymphs look like smaller versions of the adults, but in some species, the nymphs look nothing at all like the adult and rather mimic other species such as spiders and assassin bugs, or flowers, to prevent predation. The nymphs remain in a mimic state. Once they complete their last molt, they are prepared to mate. Tettigoniids are found on every continent except Antarctica; the vast majority of katydid species live in the tropical regions of the world. For example, the Amazon basin rain forest is home to over 2000 species of katydids. However, katydids are found in the cool, dry temperate regions, as well, with about 255 species in North America; the Tettigoniidae are a large family and have been divided into a number of subfamilies: The Copiphorinae were considered a subfamily, but are now placed as tribe Copiphorini in the subfamily Conocephalinae. The genus Acridoxena is now placed in the tribe Acridoxenini of the Mecopodinae; the genus Triassophyllum may be placed in the Archaeorthoptera.
The diet of most tettigoniids includes leaves, flowers and seeds, but many species are predatory, feeding on other insects, snails, or small vertebrates such as snakes and lizards. Some are considered pests by commercial crop growers and are sprayed to limit growth, but population densities are low, so a large economic impact is rare. Tettigoniids are serious insect pests of karuka; the species Segestes gracilis and Segestidea montana eat the leaves and can sometimes kill trees. Growers will stuff leaves and grass in between the leaves of the crown to keep insects out. By observing the head and mouthparts, where differences can be seen in relation to function, it is possible to determine what type of food the tettigoniids consume. Large tettigoniids can inflict a painful bite or pinch if handled, but break the skin; some species of bush crickets are consumed by people, such as the nsenene in Uganda and neighbouring areas. The males of tettigoniids have sound-producing organs located on the hind angles of their front wings.
In some species, females are capable of stridulation. Females chirp in response to the shrill of the males; the males use this sound for courtship. The sound is called stridulation. One is the comb that has tough ridges. For tettigoniids, the fore wings are used to sing. Tettigoniids produce continuous songs known as trills; the size of the insect, the spacing of the ridges, the width of the scraper all influence what sound is made. Many katydids stridulate at a tempo, governed by ambient temperature, so that the number of chirps in a defined period of time can produce a accurate temperature reading. For American katydids, the formula is given as the number of chirps in 15 seconds plus 37 to give the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit; some tettigoniids have spines on different parts of their bodies. The Listroscelinae have limb spines on the ventral surfaces of their bodies; this works in a way to confine their prey to make a temporary cage above their mouthparts. The spines are articulated and comparatively flexible, but blunt
Cricket St Thomas
Cricket St Thomas is a parish in Somerset, situated in a valley beside the A30 road between Chard and Crewkerne in the South Somerset district. The parish has a population of 50, it is noted for a manor house and estate home to a wildlife park. The name Cricket St Thomas is not related to the game of cricket, but is derived from the Anglo-Saxon word "cruc," meaning a hill or ridge; the estate is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086, where it is described as "Land of the Count of Martin" paying tax to the king for six hides, or about 720 acres. It had two slaves, six villagers, five smallholders and a variety of livestock — all valued at 100 shillings; the parish of Cricket St Thomas was part of the South Petherton Hundred. The parish council has responsibility for local issues, including setting an annual precept to cover the council’s operating costs and producing annual accounts for public scrutiny; the parish council evaluates local planning applications and works with the local police, district council officers, neighbourhood watch groups on matters of crime and traffic.
The parish council's role includes initiating projects for the maintenance and repair of parish facilities, as well as consulting with the district council on the maintenance and improvement of highways, footpaths, public transport, street cleaning. Conservation matters and environmental issues are the responsibility of the council; the parish falls within the Non-metropolitan district of South Somerset, formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, having been part of Chard Rural District. The district council is responsible for local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health and fairs, refuse collection and recycling and crematoria, leisure services and tourism. Somerset County Council is responsible for running the largest and most expensive local services such as education, social services, main roads, public transport and fire services, trading standards, waste disposal and strategic planning, it is part of the Yeovil county constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
It elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election, part of the South West England constituency of the European Parliament which elects seven MEPs using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation. The parish church is dedicated to St Thomas, it is based on Saxon and medieval origins, but was totally rebuilt in 1819 to 1820 for Samuel Hood, 2nd Baron Bridport. The church contains monuments to the families of Hood and their predecessors the Viscounts Nelson, who gained the title through Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson; these include, on the chancel south wall, a commemoration of Alexander Hood, who died in 1814, designed and signed by Sir John Soane, with a black marble base topped by a white marble monument on Ionic columns framing the memorial plaque. Mounted on the north nave wall is a fragment of the altar cloth used in the Coronation Service of Queen Elizabeth II; the church is designated by English Heritage as a Grade II* listed building.
In the churchyard is a white marble monument, dating from the early 20th century, showing a figure of St Michael. It commemorates Alexander Nelson Hood, 4th Duke of Bronté, 2nd First Viscount Bridport who died in 1904. A note in the church states that for many years the statue was laid flat, as the white figure at night scared too many locals. There are two 18th-century chest tombs, made from hamstone, one of which commemorates John Northcote, who died in 1738. Cricket St Thomas manor house, known as Cricket House, has 14th-century origins, but was rebuilt and modified at the beginning of the 19th century for Sir Alexander Hood under the direction of Sir John Soane; the 19th-century orangery attached to the house was turned into a parrot house but is now used for bowling by Warner holiday guests. In the grounds is a small garden house known as The Admirals Seat; the house was used as "Grantleigh Manor", the setting for the television series To the Manor Born which aired from 1979 to 1981. The Manor House was owned by the father-in-law of the writer Peter Spence.
Despite the closeness depicted on screen, the Manor and Lodge are in fact about one mile apart. The Lodge was given additional features such as gateposts to give the impression it was a gatehouse, following various previous alterations; the house was again used as "Grantleigh Manor" in a 25th anniversary special of To The Manor Born shown in 2007. In 2009, the estate was added to English Heritage's Heritage At Risk register due to development pressures from various businesses connected with the estate, its vulnerability is now classed as'Medium'. The grounds of the house, known as Cricket Park, were designed by D. D Davis, a noted Horticulturist at the start of the 19th Century, turned into a wildlife park; the grounds became home to Crinkley Bottom, a theme park created by Noel Edmonds around the Mr Blobby character from his hit television series Noel's House Party. The project was short-lived and was abandoned; the grounds reverted to their previous use and the wildlife park was home to 600 rare and endangered species including lemurs, camels and wildfowl.
Questions were raised in the UK parliament in 1995 after a rare Asian elephant was euthanised at the park. The wildlife park closed in 2009 and most of the larger animals were moved to other zoos around the country; some of the smaller animals, such as the lemurs, were kept and the park was r