Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America. It is 34 kilometres in length and up to 23 km in width, covering an area of 432 km2, it is situated in the western area of the North Atlantic and 100 km east of the Windward Islands and the Caribbean Sea. It is about 168 km east of both the countries of Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and 400 km north-east of Trinidad and Tobago. Barbados is outside the principal Atlantic hurricane belt, its capital and largest city is Bridgetown. Inhabited by Kalinago people since the 13th century, prior to that by other Amerindians, Barbados was visited by Spanish navigators in the late 15th century and claimed for the Spanish Crown, it first appeared in a Spanish map in 1511. The Portuguese claimed the island in 1536, but abandoned it, with their only remnants being an introduction of wild hogs for a good supply of meat whenever the island was visited. An English ship, the Olive Blossom, arrived in Barbados in 1625.
In 1627, the first permanent settlers arrived from England, it became an English and British colony. As a wealthy sugar colony, it became an English centre of the African slave trade until that trade was outlawed in 1807, with final emancipation of slaves in Barbados occurring over a period of years from 1833. On 30 November 1966, Barbados became an independent state and Commonwealth realm with Elizabeth II as its queen, it has a population of 287,010 people, predominantly of African descent. Despite being classified as an Atlantic island, Barbados is considered to be a part of the Caribbean, where it is ranked as a leading tourist destination. Forty percent of the tourists come from the UK, with the US and Canada making up the next large groups of visitors to the island; the name "Barbados" is from either the Portuguese term Os Barbados or the Spanish equivalent, Los Barbados, both meaning "the bearded ones". It is unclear whether "bearded" refers to the long, hanging roots of the bearded fig-tree, indigenous to the island, or to the bearded Caribs who once inhabited the island, or, more fancifully, to a visual impression of a beard formed by the sea foam that sprays over the outlying reefs.
In 1519, a map produced by the Genoese mapmaker Visconte Maggiolo showed and named Barbados in its correct position. Furthermore, the island of Barbuda in the Leewards is similar in name and was once named "Las Barbudas" by the Spanish, it is uncertain. One lesser-known source points to earlier revealed works predating contemporary sources indicating it could have been the Spanish. Many if not most believe the Portuguese, en route to Brazil, were the first Europeans to come upon the island; the original name for Barbados in the Pre-Columbian era was Ichirouganaim, according to accounts by descendants of the indigenous Arawakan-speaking tribes in other regional areas, with possible translations including "Red land with white teeth" or "Redstone island with teeth outside" or "Teeth". Colloquially, Barbadians refer to their home island as "Bim" or other nicknames associated with Barbados, including "Bimshire"; the origin is uncertain. The National Cultural Foundation of Barbados says that "Bim" was a word used by slaves, that it derives from the Igbo term bém from bé mụ́ meaning'my home, kind', the Igbo phoneme in the Igbo orthography is close to.
The name could have arisen due to the large percentage of enslaved Igbo people from modern-day southeastern Nigeria arriving in Barbados in the 18th century. The words'Bim' and'Bimshire' are recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionaries. Another possible source for'Bim' is reported to be in the Agricultural Reporter of 25 April 1868, where the Rev. N. Greenidge suggested the listing of Bimshire as a county of England. Expressly named were "Wiltshire, Hampshire and Bimshire". Lastly, in the Daily Argosy of 1652, there is a reference to Bim as a possible corruption of'Byam', the name of a Royalist leader against the Parliamentarians; that source suggested the followers of Byam became known as'Bims' and that this became a word for all Barbadians. Amerindian settlement of Barbados dates to about the 4th to 7th centuries AD, by a group known as the Saladoid-Barrancoid; the Arawaks from South America became dominant around 800 AD, maintained that status until around 1200.
In the 13th century, the Kalinago arrived from South America. The Spanish and Portuguese claimed Barbados from the late 16th to the 17th centuries; the Arawaks are believed to have fled to neighbouring islands. Apart from displacing the Caribs, the Spanish and Portuguese made little impact and left the island uninhabited; some Arawaks continue to live in Barbados. In the early years the majority of the labour was provided by European indentured servants English and Scottish, with enslaved Africans and enslaved Amerindian providing little of the workforce. During the Cromwellian era this included a large number of prisoners-of-war and people who were illicitly kidnapped, who were forcibly transported to the island and sold as servants; these last two groups were predominately Irish, as several thousand were infamously rounded up by Engli
West Indies cricket team
The West Indies cricket team, traditionally known as the Windies, is a multi-national cricket team representing the Anglophone Caribbean region and administered by Cricket West Indies. The players on this composite team are selected from a chain of fifteen Caribbean territories, which are parts of several different countries and dependencies; as of 24 June 2018, the West Indian cricket team is ranked ninth in the world in Tests, ninth in ODIs and seventh in T20Is in the official ICC rankings. From the mid-late 1970s to the early 1990s, the West Indies team was the strongest in the world in both Test and One Day International cricket. A number of cricketers who were considered among the best in the world have hailed from the West Indies: Sir Garfield Sobers, Lance Gibbs, George Headley, Brian Lara, Clive Lloyd, Malcolm Marshall, Sir Andy Roberts, Rohan Kanhai, Sir Frank Worrell, Sir Clyde Walcott, Sir Everton Weekes, Sir Curtly Ambrose, Michael Holding, Courtney Walsh, Joel Garner, Sir Viv Richards and Sir Wes Hall have all been inducted into the ICC Hall of Fame.
The West Indies have won the ICC Cricket World Cup twice, the ICC World Twenty20 twice, the ICC Champions Trophy once, the ICC Under 19 Cricket World Cup once, have finished as runners-up in the Cricket World Cup, the Under 19 Cricket World Cup, the ICC Champions Trophy. The West Indies appeared in three consecutive World Cup finals, were the first team to win back-to-back World Cups; the West Indies has hosted the 2007 Cricket World Cup and the 2010 ICC World Twenty20. The current side represents: Sovereign states Antigua and BarbudaL Barbados DominicaW GrenadaW Guyana Jamaica Saint LuciaW Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesW Trinidad and Tobago Parts of Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint KittsL NevisL British Overseas Territories AnguillaL MontserratL British Virgin IslandsL Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Sint MaartenL Territory of the United States US Virgin IslandsLLegends L = Participant of the Leeward Islands team and member of the Leeward Islands Cricket Association W = Participant of the Windward Islands team and member of the Windward Islands Cricket Board of ControlNotes Cricket West Indies, the governing body of the team, consists of the six cricket associations of Barbados, Jamaica and Tobago, Leeward Islands and Windward Islands.
The Leeward Islands Cricket Association consists of associations of one sovereign state, the two entities of Saint Kitts and Nevis, three British Overseas Territories and two other dependencies. The Windward Islands Cricket Board of Control consists of associations of four sovereign states. Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands, other historical parts of the former West Indies Federation and now British Overseas Territories, have their own teams. National teams exist for the various islands, which, as they are all separate countries much keep their local identities and support their local favourites; these national teams take part in the Carib Beer Cup. It is common for other international teams to play the island teams for warm-up games before they take on the combined West Indies team; the population of these countries and dependencies is estimated at around 6 million, more than Scotland and the Republic of Ireland. The member associations of Cricket West Indies are: Barbados Cricket Association Guyana Cricket Board Jamaica Cricket Association Trinidad & Tobago Cricket Board Leeward Islands Cricket Association.
The WICB joined the sport's international ruling body, the Imperial Cricket Conference, in 1926, played their first official international match, granted Test status, in 1928, thus becoming the fourth Test nation. In their early days in the 1930s, the side represented the British colonies that would form the West Indies Federation plus British Guiana; the last series the West Indies played before the outbreak of the Second World War was against England in 1939. There followed a hiatus. Of the West Indies players in that first match after the war only Gerry Gomez, George Headley, Jeffrey Stollmeyer, Foffie Williams had played Test cricket. In 1948, leg spinner Wilfred Ferguson became the first West Indian bowler to take ten wickets in a Test, finishing with 11/229 in a match against England.
Barbados national cricket team
The Barbados national cricket team is the national cricket team of Barbados, organised by the Barbados Cricket Association. Barbados is a member of the West Indies Cricket Board, a member of the International Cricket Council in its own right, Barbadians play internationally for the West Indies cricket team. Barbados does not take part in any international competitions, but rather in inter-regional competitions in the Caribbean, such as the Professional Cricket League; the team competes in the Professional Cricket League under the franchise name Barbados Pride. The most prominent Barbadian cricketers include George Challenor, Joel Garner, Gordon Greenidge, Wes Hall, Desmond Haynes, Conrad Hunte, Malcolm Marshall, Garry Sobers, Clyde Walcott, Everton Weekes and Frank Worrell. Cricket in Barbados dates from at least the late 18th century, with the Barbados cricket buckle depicting a slave playing cricket around 1780. In February 1865, Barbados took part in what was designated the inaugural first-class match in the West Indies, hosting Demerara at the Garrison Savannah in Bridgetown.
Barbados won the match by 138 runs, but lost the return fixture, played in Georgetown in the year, by two wickets. In September 1891, the Inter-Colonial Tournament was inaugurated, which saw Barbados, British Guiana, Trinidad engaged in regular competition for the first time; the tournament was played every two seasons until the 1907–08 season, annually until the 1938–39 season. Barbados won the tournament 11 out of the 28 times it was played, only failed to make the final on five occasions. In January 1888, Barbados played their first match against a team, not another British colony in the West Indies, appearing in a fixture against an amateur team representing the United States; that match was not classed as first-class, but the 1890s saw several tours from English sides that were granted first-class status. In 1896, Barbados played against Jamaica for the first time, winning by an innings and eight runs. A representative West Indies team was organised for the first time in 1897, to play a touring English team led by Arthur Priestley.
The inaugural team included three Barbadians – Harold Austin, Donald McAuley, Clifford Goodman. Austin, a future speaker of the Barbados House of Assembly became the first Barbadian to captain the West Indies, doing so in January 1902 against another English team, led by Richard Bennet; the West Indies played their first Test matches on a 1928 tour of England, with five members of the 17-man touring party being Barbadians. The most experienced Barbadian on tour was the 40-year-old George Challenor, called the "first of the great West Indian batsmen"; the first Barbadian to captain the West Indies in a Test match was Teddy Hoad, who did so when England toured during the 1929–30 season. That match was played at Bridgetown's Kensington Oval, was the first Test to be held in the West Indies; when the West Indies toured Australia for the first time during the 1930–31 season, another Barbadian, Herman Griffith, became the first bowler to dismiss Don Bradman for a Test match duck. In February 1946, two Barbadian batsmen, Clyde Walcott and Frank Worrell, set a new record for the highest partnership in first-class cricket, putting on 574 not out against Trinidad.
Walcott and another Barbadian, Everton Weekes, all made their Test debuts during England's 1947–48 tour of the West Indies. The trio became known as the "three Ws", as "one of the greatest middle-order line-ups the game has seen", were key members of the West Indies from the late 1940s through to the late 1950s. All three received knighthoods, were inaugural inductees into the ICC Hall of Fame in 2009. Worrell was esteemed as the first black man to captain the West Indies, doing so on the team's 1960–61 tour of Australia, he was succeeded as captain by another Barbadian, Garfield Sobers, whose 365 not out against Pakistan in 1958 set a record for the highest Test score, not passed for another 36 years. Barbados gained full independence on 30 November 1966, having earlier been a part of the short-lived West Indies Federation; the inaugural season of the Shell Shield had been played earlier in the year, marking the return of a formal first-class structure for the first time since 1939, when the last Inter-Colonial Tournament was played.
In 1973, Barbados won the inaugural edition of what is now the Regional Super50, the West Indian limited-overs competition. Barbados were the dominant team throughout the early years of the Shell Shield, winning 12 out of the first 20 editions. In the one-day format, Barbados won the first three editions of the tournament, but did not secure a fourth title until the 1987–88 season, a fifth title until the 2002–03 season; the West Indian teams that won the 1975 and 1979 World Cups included three and four Barbadians, respectively. Joel Garner, who took a five-wicket haul against England in the 1979 final, was a Barbadian, as was Malcolm Marshall, in the squad but did not play any matches. Marshall, who had only made his Test debut the previous year, was one of the world's leading fast bowlers during the 1980s, established a new record for the most Test wickets taken by a West Indian; the West Indian opening batsmen throughout the 1980s were Gordon Greenidge and Desmond Haynes, both Barbadians.
Greenidge and Haynes opened the batting together in 148 innings between 1978 and 1991, put on 6,482
St. John's, Antigua and Barbuda
St. John's is the capital and largest city of Antigua and Barbuda, located in the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea and with a population of 22,193, St. John's is the commercial centre of the nation and the chief port of the island of Antigua; the settlement of St. John's has been the administrative centre of Antigua and Barbuda since the islands were first colonised in 1632, it became the seat of government when the nation achieved independence in 1981. St. John's is one of the most cosmopolitan municipalities in the Lesser Antilles; the city is famous for its shopping malls as well as boutiques throughout the city, selling designer jewellery and haute-couture clothing. There are independent, locally run establishments, selling fashions. St. John's attracts tourists from the resorts on the island and from the cruise ships which dock in its harbour at Heritage Quay and Redcliffe Quay several times a week; the investment banking industry has a strong presence in the city. Major world financial institutions have offices in St. John's.
There is a market on the southwestern edge of the city where fresh produce and fresh fish are sold daily. The Antigua Rum Distillery is the only rum distillery on the island. Annual production yields more than 180,000 gallons bottled; the majority of the population of St. John's reflects that of the rest of Antigua: people of African and mixed European-African ancestry, with a European minority, including British and Portuguese. There is a population of Levantine Christian Arabs; the Eastern Caribbean Civil Aviation Authority has its headquarters on Factory Road in St. John's. St John's is twinned with Waltham Forest borough in England. There are several museums, including the Museum of Antigua and Barbuda and the Museum of Marine Art, a small facility containing fossilised bedrock, volcanic stones, petrified wood, a collection of more than 10,000 shells, artefacts from English shipwrecks. Just east of St. John's is the Sir Vivian Richards Stadium, a multi-use stadium in North Sound, created for cricket matches, has hosted the matches during the 2007 Cricket World Cup.
The Antigua Recreation Ground and Barbuda's national stadium, is located in St. John's. Nearby villages and settlements include St. Johnston; the city's skyline is dominated by the white baroque towers of St. John's Cathedral; the Botanical Garden is near the intersection of Independence Avenue. This small park's shaded benches and gazebo provide a quiet refuge from the bustle of activity of St. John's. St. John's Antigua Light is a lighthouse located in the city's harbour. Fort James stands at the entrance to St. John's harbour. Other nearby forts include Fort George, Fort Charles, Fort Shirley, Fort Berkeley and Fort Barrington. Government House is the Governor's residence a 19th century parsonage building, it is included on the World Monuments Fund's 2018 list of monuments at risk, following exposure to severe weather events. St. John's is served by the V. C. Bird International Airport. St. John's is home to two medical schools - the American University of Antigua and University of Health Sciences Antigua.
Secondary schools include Christ the King High School, Princess Margaret School and the Antigua Girls High School. Private grade schools include St. John's Lutheran School of the WELS. St. John's travel guide from Wikivoyage Street map of St John's Antigua From Paradise Islands Map of St. John's at Caribbean-On-Line.com
Port of Spain
Port of Spain the City of Port of Spain, is the capital city of Trinidad and Tobago and the country's second-largest city after San Fernando and the third largest municipality after Chaguanas and San Fernando. The city has a municipal population of 37,074, an urban population of 81,142 and a transient daily population of 250,000, it is located on the Gulf of Paria, on the northwest coast of the island of Trinidad and is part of a larger conurbation stretching from Chaguaramas in the west to Arima in the east with an estimated population of 600,000. The city serves as a retail and administrative centre and it has been the capital of the island since 1757, it is an important financial services centre for the Caribbean and is home to two of the largest banks in the region. Port of Spain was the de facto capital of the short-lived West Indies Federation, which united the Caribbean. Caricom was established in Chaguaramas, west of Port of Spain; the city is home to the largest container port on the island and is one of several shipping hubs of the Caribbean, exporting both agricultural products and manufactured goods.
Bauxite from Guyana is trans-shipped via facilities at Chaguaramas, about 8 kilometres west of the city. The pre-lenten Carnival is tourist attraction. Today, Port of Spain is a leading city in the Caribbean region. Trinidad and Tobago hosted the Fifth Summit of the Americas in 2009 whose guests included US President Barack Obama and US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. Port of Spain is home to the biggest and most successful stock exchange in the Caribbean, the Trinidad and Tobago Stock Exchange; the iconic Nicholas Tower, as well as other skyscrapers, are well known throughout the region. These buildings dominate the city's skyline; some of the tallest skyscrapers in the Caribbean are located in Port of Spain. The Port of Spain was founded near the site of the Amerindian fishing village of Cumucurapo, located in the area today known as Mucurapo, west of the city centre; the name Conquerabia is recorded for an Amerindian settlement in this area. In 1560, a Spanish garrison was posted near the foot of the Laventille Hills, which today form the city's eastern boundary.
The part of today's downtown Port of Spain closest to the sea was once an area of tidal mudflats covered by mangroves. The first Spanish buildings here, in the 16th and 17th centuries, were open mud-plastered ajoupas, interspersed between large silk cotton trees and other trees; the fort was a mud-walled enclosure with a shack inside, a flagpole, two or three cannon, few Spanish soldiers. This was captured during Walter Raleigh's expedition in April 1595; the Caribs were transient, travelling up the Orinoco River. The French naval commander Comte D'Estrées visited in 1680, reported that there was no Port of Spain, but in 1690, Spanish governor Don Sebastien de Roteta reported in writing to the King of Spain: In 1699, the alcalde of Trinidad reported to the king that the natives "were in the habit of showering scorn and abuse upon the Holy Faith and ridiculed with jests the efforts of the Holy Fathers". By 1757, the old capital, San José de Oruña, about 11 kilometres inland, had fallen into disrepair, Governor Don Pedro de la Moneda transferred his seat to Port of Spain, which thus became Trinidad's de facto capital.
The last Spanish Governor of Trinidad, Don José Maria Chacón, devoted much of his time to developing the new capital. He compelled the island's Cabildo to move to Port of Spain, he limited its powers to the municipality; the 1783 Cedula of Population, which encouraged the settlement of French Catholics in the island, led to a rapid increase in the town's population and its geographical extension westwards. From the small cluster of buildings at the foot of the Laventille Hills, eleven streets were laid out west to the area bounded by the St. Ann's River, thus establishing the grid pattern which has survived in downtown Port of Spain to the present day. Along the sea shore was the Plaza de la Marina, a parade ground. By 1786, the town had a population of about 3,000. Realising that the St. Ann's River, prone to flooding, was impeding the expansion of the town, Chacón had its course diverted in 1787 so that it ran to the east of the city, along the foot of the Laventille Hills. Port of Spain was now able to continue spreading northwards and westwards, encroaching on the surrounding sugar-cane plantations.
In 1797, Trinidad was invaded by a British force under General Sir Ralph Abercromby. The British landed west of Port of Spain, at what is still called Invaders Bay, marched towards the town. Realising his military resources were inadequate to defend the colony and wishing to avoid unnecessary destruction, Governor Chacón capitulated and was able to negotiate generous terms with Abercromby. Port of Spain remained the capital. In 1803, Port of Spain began growing southwards, with the re
Robert Allen Stanford is an American former financier and sponsor of professional sports, serving a 110-year federal prison sentence, having been convicted of charges that his investment company was a massive Ponzi scheme and fraud. Stanford was the chairman of the now defunct Stanford Financial Group of Companies. A fifth-generation Texan who once resided in Saint Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, he holds dual citizenship, being a citizen of Antigua and Barbuda and the United States, he contributed millions of dollars to politicians in both Antigua and the United States amongst other countries. In early 2009, Stanford became the subject of several fraud investigations, on February 17, 2009, was charged by the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission with fraud and multiple violations of U. S. securities laws for alleged "massive ongoing fraud" involving $7 billion in certificates of deposits. The Federal Bureau of Investigation raided Stanford's offices in Texas. On February 27, 2009, the SEC amended its complaint to describe the alleged fraud as a "massive Ponzi scheme".
He "voluntarily surrendered" to authorities on June 18, 2009. On March 6, 2012, Stanford was convicted on all charges except a single count of wire fraud, he is serving his 110-year sentence at Coleman in Coleman, Florida. In September 2014, Stanford appealed his conviction. Stanford grew up in Texas, his father, James Stanford, is former mayor of Mexia and a member of the Board of Directors of Stanford Financial Group. His mother, Sammie, is a nurse. After his parents divorced in 1959, Stanford and his brother went to live with their mother. Both of his parents remarried. Stanford graduated from Eastern Hills High School in Texas. In 1974, Stanford graduated from Baylor University in Waco, earning a BA degree in finance. Stanford started in business in Waco, opening a bodybuilding gym that failed, his first success in business came from speculating in real estate in Houston after the Texas oil bubble burst in the early 1980s. The men made a fortune in the 1980s, buying up depressed real estate and selling it years as the market recovered.
After his father retired in 1993, Stanford took control of the company, which by had 500 employees. Stanford moved to the Caribbean in the 1980s, first to Montserrat to Antigua. With Stanford Finance, he started Guardian International Bank on the island of Montserrat in 1985. Early in 2007, Stanford and Baldwin Spencer, prime minister of Antigua and Barbuda and an ally, began verbally feuding in public. In 2009, Antigua's Financial Services Regulatory Commission named a British firm, Vantis Business Recovery Services, the receiver for Stanford International Bank and Stanford Trust Company, the Associated Press reported. Reports surfaced in early February 2009 that the SEC, the FBI, the Florida Office of Financial Regulation, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, a major U. S. private-sector oversight body, were investigating Stanford Financial Group, questioning the higher-than-market returns which Stanford International Bank claimed to make for its depositors. A former executive told SEC officials that Stanford presented hypothetical investment results as actual historical data in sales pitches to clients.
Stanford claimed his certificates of deposit were as safe as, or safer than, U. S. government-insured accounts. A leaked cable message from the U. S. Embassy in the Bahamas reported as early as 2006 that companies under Stanford's control were "rumored to engage in bribery, money laundering, political manipulation"; the U. S. Ambassador to the Bahamas at the time was reported to have "managed to stay out of any one-on-one photos with Stanford" during a charity breakfast event. Federal agents raided the offices of Stanford Financial on February 17, 2009, treated it as "a kind of crime scene—cautioning people not to leave fingerprints"; the SEC charged Stanford with "massive ongoing fraud" centered on an eight-billion-dollar investment scheme. Stanford's assets, along with those of his companies, were frozen and placed into receivership by a U. S. federal judge, who ordered Stanford to surrender his passport. CNBC reported that Stanford tried to flee the country on the same day as the raids on his headquarters.
He contacted a private jet owner and attempted to pay for a flight to Antigua with a credit card, but was refused because the company would accept only a wire transfer. On February 19, acting at the request of the SEC, FBI agents located Stanford at his girlfriend's house near Fredericksburg and served him with civil legal papers filed by the SEC; the SEC files civil charges before criminal charges are filed. Stanford was arrested on June 18, 2009, he surrendered his passport to federal prosecutors, hired criminal defense lawyer Brendan Sullivan, who had represented Oliver North. Various governments took over Stanford's business operations; the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank announced that it had taken over the local operations of the Bank of Antigua, renamed the Eastern Caribbean Amalgamated Bank. The Venezuelan government took over Stanford Bank Venezuela, the branch of Stanford's bank in that nation. On February 27, 2009, the SEC said that Stanford and his accomplices operated a "massive Ponzi scheme", misappropriating billions of dollars of investors' money and falsifying the Stanford International Bank's records to hide their fraud.
The Bank of Nova Scotia, operating as Scotiabank, is a Canadian multinational bank. It is the third largest bank in Canada by deposits and market capitalization, it serves more than 25 million customers around the world and offers a range of products and services including personal and commercial banking, wealth management and investment banking. With a team of more than 88,000 employees and assets of $998 billion, Scotiabank trades on the Toronto and New York Exchanges. Founded in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1832, Scotiabank moved its executive offices to Toronto, Ontario, in 1900. Scotiabank has billed itself as "Canada's most international bank" due to its acquisitions in Latin America and the Caribbean, in Europe and parts of Asia. Through its subsidiary ScotiaMocatta, it is a member of the London Bullion Market Association and one of five banks that participates in the London gold fixing. Scotiabank's Institution Number is 002; the company ranked at number 41 on the SNL Financial World's 100 biggest banks listing, September 2013 and is led by President and CEO Brian J. Porter.
The bank was incorporated by the Legislative Assembly of Nova Scotia on March 30, 1832, in Halifax, Nova Scotia, with William Lawson serving as the first president. Scotiabank was founded in Nova Scotia, in 1832 under the name of The Bank of Nova Scotia; the bank intended to facilitate the trans-Atlantic trade of the time. In 1883, The Bank of Nova Scotia acquired the Union Bank of Prince Edward Island, although most of the bank's expansion efforts in the century took the form of branch openings; the bank launched its branch banking system by opening in Nova Scotia. The expansion was limited to the Maritimes until 1882, when the bank moved west by opening a branch in Winnipeg, Manitoba; the Manitoba branch closed, but the bank continued to expand into the American Midwest. This included opening a branch in Minneapolis in 1885, which transferred to Chicago in 1892. Following the collapse of the Commercial Bank of Newfoundland and Union Bank of Newfoundland on December 10, 1894, The Bank of Nova Scotia established on December 15, 1894, in Newfoundland.
In 1899, Scotiabank opened a branch in Massachusetts. The bank opened a branch in Kingston, Jamaica in 1889 to facilitate the trading of sugar and fish; this was Scotiabank's first move into the Caribbean and the first branch of a Canadian bank to open outside of the United States or the United Kingdom. By the end of the 19th century, the bank was represented in all of the Maritimes, Quebec and Manitoba. In 1900, the bank moved its headquarters to Ontario; the bank continued to expand in the 20th century, although its growth now took the form of acquisitions rather than branch openings. 1906 – The bank opened a branch in Havana, Cuba. By 1931, it had five branches in Havana, one branch each in Camagüey, Cienfuegos and Santiago de Cuba. In 1960, the Government of Cuba nationalized all banks in Cuba, the Scotiabank withdrew services from all eight branches. 1907 – The bank opened a branch in New York City. 1910 – The bank opened a branch in San Juan, Puerto Rico. 1913 – The Bank of Nova Scotia merged with the Bank of New Brunswick.
1914 – Toronto-based Metropolitan Bank was acquired, making Scotiabank the fourth largest financial institution in Canada. 1919 – The bank opened a branch in Fajardo, Puerto Rico, located in Puerto Rico's northeast. 1919 – Bank of Ottawa was amalgamated. 1920 – The bank opened a branch in London, another in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. 1961 – The bank became the first Canadian bank to appoint women bank managers on September 11, 1961. 1962 – The bank expanded into Asia with the opening of a Representative Office in Japan. 1975 – The bank adopted "Scotiabank" as its worldwide brand name. 1978 – The bank and Canadian Union of Public Employees signed the first collective agreement between a Canadian bank and a union on September 28, 1978, in Toronto. 1997 – The bank acquired Banco Quilmes in Argentina. 2000 – Scotiabank's stake in Mexican bank Grupo Financiero Inverlat was increased to 55 percent. The Mexican bank was subsequently renamed to Grupo Financiero Scotiabank Inverlat. 2002 – The bank shut its branches in Argentina during the currency crisis and massive sovereign default.
2003 -The bank's Guangzhou Branch was awarded the first licence to a Canadian bank by the Chinese government to deal in Chinese currency. 2003–2004 – The bank acquired Inverlat banking house in Mexico, taking over all of its branches and establishing a strong presence in the country. 2010 – The bank arrived in Bogotá, Colombia. 2012 - Scotiabank entered into an agreement to acquire ING Direct Bank of Canada from ING Groep N. V. In its early expansion, the bank followed trade and its customers' businesses rather than pursuing a strategy of expansion into international financial centres. Scotiabank is a member of the Global ATM Alliance, a joint venture of several major international banks that allows customers of the banks to use their ATM cards or check cards at certain other banks within the Global ATM Alliance without fees when traveling internationally. Other participating banks are Barclays, Bank of America, BNP Paribas, Deutsche Bank, Westpac. Scotiabank has spent $100 million implementing a controversial system to report to the United States the account holdings of close to one million Canadians of American origin and their Canadian-born spouses.
Scotiabank has been forced to implement this system in order to comply with FATCA. Ac