Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza the Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza, is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. Coahuila borders the Mexican states of Nuevo León to the east and San Luis Potosí to the south, Durango and Chihuahua to the west. To the north, Coahuila accounts for a 512 kilometres stretch of the Mexico–United States border, adjacent to the U. S. state of Texas along the course of the Rio Grande. With an area of 151,563 square kilometres, it is the nation's third-largest state, it comprises 38 municipalities. In 2010, Coahuila's population is 2,748,391 inhabitants; the five largest cities in Coahuila are the state capital city of Saltillo. The name Coahuila derives from native terms for the region, has been known by variations such as Cuagüila and Cuauila; some historians believe that this means “flying serpent”, “place of many trees”, or “place where serpents creep”. The official name of the state is Coahuila de Zaragoza, in honor of General Ignacio Zaragoza.
The Spanish explored the north of Mexico some decades after their victory in Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztecs. Such exploration was delayed because the northern climate was harsher and there was no gold; the first Spanish settlement in the region now called Coahuila was at Minas de la Trinidad in 1577. Saltillo was settled in 1586, to form part of the province of Nueva Vizcaya of the Vice-royalty of New Spain, it became one of the first provinces of Nueva Extremadura to be explored by Europeans. Among the 16th century settlers of Saltillo and other communities in Nueva Vizcaya were Tlaxcalans, who founded an independent community bordering Saltillo, called San Esteban de Nueva Tlaxcala. "Coahuila and Texas" was one of the constituent states of the newly independent United Mexican States under their 1824 Constitution, included Texas and Nuevo León. In the same year Nuevo León was detached, but Texas remained a part of the state until 1836, when it seceded to form the Republic of Texas. Monclova was the capital of the state from 1833 to 1835.
In 1840 Coahuila became a member of the short lived Republic of the Rio Grande. On February 19, 1856, Santiago Vidaurri annexed Coahuila to his state, Nuevo León, but it regained its separate status in 1868. During the Mexican Revolution, Francisco Villa attacked the city of Torreón. On April 4, 2004, the border city of Piedras Negras was flooded. More than 30 people died and more than 4,000 lost their homes. In 2007 Coahuila became the first state in Mexico to offer civil unions to same-sex couples; the Sierra Madre Oriental runs northwest to southeast through the State, the higher elevations are home to the Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests. The northernmost fingers of the Sierra Madre Oriental, the Sierra del Burro and the Sierra del Carmen, reach to the border with the United States at the Rio Grande. East of the range, the land slopes toward the Rio Grande, is drained by several rivers, including the Salado and its tributary, the Sabinas River; the Tamaulipan mezquital, a dry shrubland ecoregion, occupies the eastern portion of the State, extends across the Rio Grande into southern Texas.
The portion of the State west of the Sierra Madre Oriental lies on the Mexican Plateau, is part of the Chihuahuan Desert. The Bolsón de Mapimí is a large endorheic basin which covers much of the western portion of the State and extends into adjacent portions of Chihuahua and Zacatecas; the Nazas River, which flows east from Durango, the Aguanaval River, which flows north from Zacatecas, empty into lakes in the Bolsón. Torreón, the most populous city in the State, lies on the Nazas in the irrigated Laguna Region, which straddles the border of Coahuila and Durango. Coahuila contains two biosphere reserves. Maderas del Carmen lies on the northern border of the State, includes sections of the Chihuahuan desert and sky islands of pine-oak forest in the Sierra del Carmen; the springs and wetlands of Cuatro Ciénegas lie west of Monclova on the west slope of the Sierra Madre. Coahuila is arid or semi-arid, but the rivers of the State support extensive irrigated agriculture cotton; the Parras district in the southern part of the State produces brandies.
The pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre produce timber. The last population census run across Mexico in the year 2015, reports Coahuila de Zaragoza as having 2,954,915 inhabitants, considering its size, means that the state has a low density, in fact as low as only 15 persons per square kilometer. Coahuila's population is made up of Criollos along with Mestizos. Fewer than 7,500 natives reside in Coahuila, or 0.3% of the total population. The rest of the population is composed of Americans and Japanese communities; the rest of the demographic particulars in the state are similar to national averages, such as a high life expectancy and a Catholic majority. Basic public education in Coahuila is managed by the state's Secretary of Education, but federal-sustained schools are very common. There are a lot of private schools in the main cities of the state; some of the most recognized universities in Coahuila include: A private university part of the Jesuit Uni
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia. Modern amphibians are all Lissamphibia, they inhabit a wide variety of habitats, with most species living within terrestrial, arboreal or freshwater aquatic ecosystems. Thus amphibians start out as larvae living in water, but some species have developed behavioural adaptations to bypass this; the young undergo metamorphosis from larva with gills to an adult air-breathing form with lungs. Amphibians use their skin as a secondary respiratory surface and some small terrestrial salamanders and frogs lack lungs and rely on their skin, they are superficially similar to lizards but, along with mammals and birds, reptiles are amniotes and do not require water bodies in which to breed. With their complex reproductive needs and permeable skins, amphibians are ecological indicators; the earliest amphibians evolved in the Devonian period from sarcopterygian fish with lungs and bony-limbed fins, features that were helpful in adapting to dry land.
They diversified and became dominant during the Carboniferous and Permian periods, but were displaced by reptiles and other vertebrates. Over time, amphibians shrank in size and decreased in diversity, leaving only the modern subclass Lissamphibia; the three modern orders of amphibians are Anura and Apoda. The number of known amphibian species is 8,000, of which nearly 90% are frogs; the smallest amphibian in the world is a frog from New Guinea with a length of just 7.7 mm. The largest living amphibian is the 1.8 m Chinese giant salamander, but this is dwarfed by the extinct 9 m Prionosuchus from the middle Permian of Brazil. The study of amphibians is called batrachology, while the study of both reptiles and amphibians is called herpetology; the word "amphibian" is derived from the Ancient Greek term ἀμφίβιος, which means "both kinds of life", ἀμφί meaning "of both kinds" and βιος meaning "life". The term was used as a general adjective for animals that could live on land or in water, including seals and otters.
Traditionally, the class Amphibia includes all tetrapod vertebrates. Amphibia in its widest sense was divided into three subclasses, two of which are extinct: Subclass Lepospondyli† Subclass Temnospondyli† Subclass Lissamphibia Salientia: Jurassic to present—6,200 current species in 53 families Caudata: Jurassic to present—652 current species in 9 families Gymnophiona: Jurassic to present—192 current species in 10 families The actual number of species in each group depends on the taxonomic classification followed; the two most common systems are the classification adopted by the website AmphibiaWeb, University of California and the classification by herpetologist Darrel Frost and the American Museum of Natural History, available as the online reference database "Amphibian Species of the World". The numbers of species cited above follows Frost and the total number of known amphibian species as of March 31, 2019 is 8,000, of which nearly 90% are frogs. With the phylogenetic classification, the taxon Labyrinthodontia has been discarded as it is a polyparaphyletic group without unique defining features apart from shared primitive characteristics.
Classification varies according to the preferred phylogeny of the author and whether they use a stem-based or a node-based classification. Traditionally, amphibians as a class are defined as all tetrapods with a larval stage, while the group that includes the common ancestors of all living amphibians and all their descendants is called Lissamphibia; the phylogeny of Paleozoic amphibians is uncertain, Lissamphibia may fall within extinct groups, like the Temnospondyli or the Lepospondyli, in some analyses in the amniotes. This means that advocates of phylogenetic nomenclature have removed a large number of basal Devonian and Carboniferous amphibian-type tetrapod groups that were placed in Amphibia in Linnaean taxonomy, included them elsewhere under cladistic taxonomy. If the common ancestor of amphibians and amniotes is included in Amphibia, it becomes a paraphyletic group. All modern amphibians are included in the subclass Lissamphibia, considered a clade, a group of species that have evolved from a common ancestor.
The three modern orders are Anura and Gymnophiona. It has been suggested that salamanders arose separately from a Temnospondyl-like ancestor, that caecilians are the sister group of the advanced reptiliomorph amphibians, thus of amniotes. Although the fossils of several older proto-frogs with primitive characteristics are known, the oldest "true frog" is Prosalirus bitis, from the Early Jurassic Kayenta Formation of Arizona, it is anatomically similar to modern frogs. The oldest known caecilian is another Early Jurassic species, Eocaecilia micropodia from Arizona; the earliest salamander is Beiyanerpeton jianpingensis from the Late Jurassic of northeastern China. Authorities disagree as to whether Salientia is a superorder that includes the order Anura, or whether
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
All Species Foundation Catalogue of Life Encyclopedia of Life Tree of Life Web Project List of online encyclopedias The Plant List Wikispecies, The free species directory that anyone can edit Species Community Portal The Wikispecies Charter, written by Wales
Fossilworks is a portal which provides query and analysis tools to facilitate access to the Paleobiology Database, a large relational database assembled by hundreds of paleontologists from around the world. Fossilworks is housed at Macquarie University, it includes many analysis and data visualization tools included in the Paleobiology Database. "Fossilworks". Retrieved 2010-04-08
The Rocky Mountains known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than 4,800 kilometers from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico in the Southwestern United States. Located within the North American Cordillera, the Rockies are somewhat distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, the Sierra Nevada, which all lie farther to the west; the Rocky Mountains formed 80 million to 55 million years ago during the Laramide orogeny, in which a number of plates began sliding underneath the North American plate. The angle of subduction was shallow, resulting in a broad belt of mountains running down western North America. Since further tectonic activity and erosion by glaciers have sculpted the Rockies into dramatic peaks and valleys. At the end of the last ice age, humans began inhabiting the mountain range. After Europeans, such as Sir Alexander Mackenzie, Americans, such as the Lewis and Clark expedition, began exploring the range and furs drove the initial economic exploitation of the mountains, although the range itself never experienced dense population.
Public parks and forest lands protect much of the mountain range, they are popular tourist destinations for hiking, mountaineering, hunting, mountain biking and snowboarding. The name of the mountains is a translation of an Amerindian name, related to Algonquian; the first mention of their present name by a European was in the journal of Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre in 1752, where they were called "Montagnes de Roche". The Rocky Mountains are defined as stretching from the Liard River in British Columbia south to the Rio Grande in New Mexico; the Rockies vary in width from 110 to 480 kilometres. The Rocky Mountains are notable for containing the highest peaks in central North America; the range's highest peak is Mount Elbert located in Colorado at 4,401 metres above sea level. Mount Robson in British Columbia, at 3,954 metres, is the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies; the eastern edge of the Rockies rises above the Interior Plains of central North America, including the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of New Mexico and Colorado, the Front Range of Colorado, the Wind River Range and Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming, the Absaroka-Beartooth ranges and Rocky Mountain Front of Montana and the Clark Range of Alberta.
The western edge of the Rockies includes ranges such as the Wasatch near Salt Lake City and the Bitterroots along the Idaho-Montana border. The Great Basin and Columbia River Plateau separate these subranges from distinct ranges further to the west. In Canada, the western edge of the Rockies is formed by the huge Rocky Mountain Trench, which runs the length of British Columbia from its beginnings in the middle Flathead River valley in western Montana to the south bank of the Liard River. Geographers define three main groups of the Canadian Rockies: the Continental Ranges, Hart Ranges, Muskwa Ranges; the Rockies do not extend into central British Columbia. Other mountain ranges continue beyond the Liard River, including the Selwyn Mountains in Yukon, the Brooks Range in Alaska, but those are not part of the Rockies, though they are part of the American Cordillera; the Continental Divide of the Americas is located in the Rocky Mountains and designates the line at which waters flow either to the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans.
Triple Divide Peak in Glacier National Park is so named because water falling on the mountain reaches not only the Atlantic and Pacific but Hudson Bay as well. Farther north in Alberta, the Athabasca and other rivers feed the basin of the Mackenzie River, which has its outlet on the Beaufort Sea of the Arctic Ocean. Human population is not dense in the Rocky Mountains, with an average of four people per square kilometer and few cities with over 50,000 people. However, the human population grew in the Rocky Mountain states between 1950 and 1990; the forty-year statewide increases in population range from 35% in Montana to about 150% in Utah and Colorado. The populations of several mountain towns and communities have doubled in the last forty years. Jackson, increased 260%, from 1,244 to 4,472 residents, in forty years; the rocks in the Rocky Mountains were formed. The oldest rock is Precambrian metamorphic rock. There is Precambrian sedimentary argillite, dating back to 1.7 billion years ago. During the Paleozoic, western North America lay underneath a shallow sea, which deposited many kilometers of limestone and dolomite.
In the southern Rocky Mountains, near present-day Colorado, these ancestral rocks were disturbed by mountain building 300 Ma, during the Pennsylvanian. This mountain-building produced the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, they consisted of Precambrian metamorphic rock forced upward through layers of the limestone laid down in the shallow sea. The mountains eroded throughout the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic, leaving extensive deposits of sedimentary rock. Terranes began colliding with the western edge of North America in the Mississippian, causing the Antler orogeny. For 270 million years, the focus of the effects of plate collisions were near the edge of the North American plate boundary, far to the west of the Rocky Mountain region, it was. The current Rocky Mountains arose in the Laramide orogeny from between 55 Ma. For the Canadi
Northern cricket frog
The northern cricket frog is a species of small hylid frog native to the United States and northeastern Mexico. Despite being members of the tree frog family, they are not arboreal, it has three recognized subspecies. The northern cricket frog is one of North America's two smallest vertebrates, ranging from 19–38 mm long, its dorsal coloration varies and includes greys and browns in irregular blotching patterns. One New York biologist has identified six distinct color morphs and four pattern morphs, several intergrades between these. There is dark banding on the legs and a white bar from the eye to the base of the foreleg; the skin has a bumpy texture. It is similar to the southern cricket frog, Acris gryllus, found in the US Southeastern Coastal Plain, but with some overlap along the Fall Line; the southern cricket frog has longer legs, with less webbing on the hind feet, a more pointed snout. The line on the back of its thigh is more defined than that of the northern cricket frog. Biologists have recorded northern cricket frogs in the northern fringes of their range with sharp posterior leg stripes.
Northern cricket frogs are diurnal and active much of the year, except in midwinter in northern areas when the water is frozen. Their primary diet is small insects, including mosquitos, they are, in turn, preyed upon by a number of species, including birds and other frogs. To escape predators, they are capable of leaping up to 3 feet in a single jump and are excellent swimmers. Breeding occurs from May through July; the males call from emergent vegetation with a high-pitched, pebble-like call, repeated at an increasing rate. The sound suggests pebbles being clicked together, much like a cricket, hence the name. One egg is laid at a time attached to a piece of vegetation; the 14 millimetres tadpoles hatch in only a few days, undergo metamorphosis in early fall. Maturity is reached in less than a year. Cricket frogs prefer the edges of permanent bodies of water. Large groups of them can be found together along the muddy banks of shallow streams during premigratory clustering; the northern cricket frog has been observed to hibernate upland at considerable distances from water.
Blanchard's cricket frog, A. c. blanchardi Eastern cricket frog, A. c. crepitans Coastal cricket frog, A. c. paludicola A. c. crepitans is found from New York, south to Florida, west along the Gulf Coast states to Texas. A. c. paludicola occurs in southwestern Louisiana to East Texas. A. c. blanchardii is found from Michigan and Ohio, south through to most of Texas, Mexico. It has been recorded in Colorado. Frogs such as A. crepitans are important as an indicator of wetland health and general environmental quality in the areas they inhabit. Blanchard's cricket frogs, A. c. blanchardi, were once abundant in southern Michigan, but during the late 1970s and early 1980s, many populations in Michigan and the Great Lakes basin have disappeared. Thus, A. c. blanchardi is listed as a species of concern in the state of Michigan and listed as an endangered species in Minnesota. Animal Diversity Web: Acris crepitans USGS: Northern Cricket Frog Frogs & Toads of Georgia: Acris crepitans crepitans Conant et al..
A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-90452-8. Martof et al.. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Carolinas and Virginia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4252-4
The Hylidae are a wide-ranging family of frogs referred to as "tree frogs and their allies". However, the hylids include a diversity of frog species, many of which do not live in trees, but are terrestrial or semiaquatic. Most hylids show adaptations suitable for an arboreal lifestyle, including forward-facing eyes providing binocular vision, adhesive pads on the fingers and toes. In the nonarboreal species, these features may be reduced, or absent; the Cyclorana species are burrowing frogs. Hylids feed on insects and other invertebrates, but some larger species can feed on small vertebrates. Hylids lay their eggs depending on species. Many use ponds, or puddles that collect in the holes of their trees, while others use bromeliads or other water-holding plants. Other species lay their eggs on the leaves of vegetation hanging over water, allowing the tadpoles to drop into the pond when they hatch. A few species use fast-flowing streams, attaching the eggs to the substrate; the tadpoles of these species have suckers enabling them to hold on to rocks.
Another unusual adaptation is found in some South American hylids, which brood the eggs on the back of the female. The tadpoles of most hylid species have laterally placed eyes and broad tails with narrow, filamentous tips; the European tree frog, Hyla arborea, is common in the middle and south of Europe, ranges into Asia and North Africa. The species becomes noisy on the approach of rain and is sometimes kept in confinement as a kind of barometer. North America has many species of the family Hylidae, including the gray tree frog and the American green tree frog; the spring peeper is widespread in the eastern United States and is heard on spring and summer evenings. "Tree frog" is a popular name for several of the Hylidae. H. versicolor is the Gray tree frog, Trachycephalus lichenatus is the lichened tree frog, Trachycephalus marmoratus is the marbled tree frog. However, the name "treefrog" is not unique to this family being used for many species of the Rhacophoridae. Rabbs' fringe-limbed tree frog, Ecnomiohyla rabborum, was a species of Hydilae that went extinct in September 2016.
The last of its kind, a male named Toughie died on September 30, when it was pronounced that the species had become extinct. The family Hylidae is divided into these subfamilies and genera: Hylidae This article incorporates text from the Collier's New Encyclopedia. "Amero-Australian Treefrogs". William E. Duellman. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, Arthur V. Evans, Jerome A. Jackson, Devra G. Kleiman, James B. Murphy, Dennis A. Thoney, et al. Vol. 6: Amphibians. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2004. P225-243. Amnh.org: Amphibian Species of the World Data related to Hylidae at Wikispecies