Indigenous peoples in Argentina
Argentina has 35 indigenous groups or Argentine Amerindians or Native Argentines, according to the Complementary Survey of the Indigenous Peoples of 2004, in the first attempt by the government in more than 100 years to recognize and classify the population according to ethnicity. In the survey, based on self-identification or self-ascription, around 600,000 Argentines declared to be Amerindian or first-generation descendants of Amerindians, that is, 1.49% of the population. The most populous of these were the Aonikenk, Qom, Wichí, Mocoví, Huarpe peoples and Guarani In the 2010 census, 955,032 Argentines declared to be Amerindian or first-generation descendants of Amerindians, that is, 2.38% of the population. Many Argentines claim at least one indigenous ancestor: in a recent genetic study conducted by the University of Buenos Aires, more than 56% of the 320 Argentines sampled were shown to have at least one indigenous ancestor in one parental lineage and about 11% had indigenous ancestors in both parental lineages.
Jujuy Province, in the Argentine Northwest, is home to the highest percentage of households with at least one indigenous person or a direct descendant of an indigenous people. The earliest evidence of indigenous peoples yet discovered in what today is Argentina is the Piedra Museo archaeological site in Santa Cruz Province, found to date from 11,000 BCE; the Cueva de las Manos, in the same province, is over 10,000 years old. Both are among the oldest evidence of indigenous culture in the Americas, have, with a number of ancient sites elsewhere in the hemisphere, challenged the "Clovis First" hypothesis on the settlement of the Americas. By the year 1500, many different indigenous communities lived in, they were not a unified group but many independent ones, with distinct languages and relations with each other. As a result, they did not face the arrival of the Spanish colonization as a single block and had varied reactions toward the Europeans; the Spanish people looked down on the indigenous population, to the point that they held in doubt whether they had souls, following the general thought in Europe.
For this reason, they kept little historical information about them. In the 19th century major population movements altered the original Patagonian demography. Between 1820 and 1850 the original Aonikenk people were conquered and expelled from their territories by invading Mapuche armies. By 1870 most of northern Patagonia and the south east Pampas were Araucanized. During the Generation of 1880, European immigration was encouraged as a way of occupying an empty territory, configuring the national population and, through their colonizing effort incorporating the nation into the world market; these changes were best summarized by the anthropological metaphor which states that “Argentines descend from ships.” The strength of the immigration and its contribution to the Argentine ethnography is evident by observing that Argentina became the second country in the world that received the most immigrants, with 6.6 millions, second only to the United States with 27 millions, ahead of countries such as Canada, Australia, etc.
The expansion of European immigrant communities and the railways westward into the Pampas and south into Patagonia was met with Malón raids by displaced tribes. This led to the Conquest of the Desert in the 1870s. Indigenous cultures in Argentina were affected by a process of invisibilization, promoted by the government during the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th; the extensive explorations and writing by Juan Bautista Ambrosetti and other ethnographers during the 20th century encouraged wider interest in indigenous people in Argentina, their contributions to the nation's culture were further underscored during the administration of President Juan Perón in the 1940s and 1950s as part of the rustic criollo culture and values exalted by Perón during that era. Discriminatory policies toward these people and other minorities ended, with the August 3, 1988, enactment of the Antidiscrimination Law by President Raúl Alfonsín, were countered further with the establishment of a government bureau, the National Institute Against Discrimination and Racism, in 1995.
Corrientes Province, in 2004, became the first in the nation to award an indigenous language with co-official status, all 35 native peoples were recognized by both the 2004 Indigenous Peoples Census and by their inclusion as self-descriptive categories in the 2010 census. In addition to the indigenous population in Argentina, most Argentines are descended from indigenous peoples or have some indigenous ancestry. Many genetic studies have shown that Argentina's genetic footprint is but not overwhelmingly European. In one of the most comprehensive genetic studies involving the population of Argentina, 441 Argentines from across the North East, North West and Central provinces of the country, it was observed that the Argentine population comprised on average of 65% European, followed by 31% Amerindian, 4% of African ancestry, it was found there were great differences in the ancestry amongst Argentines as one traveled across the country. For example, the population in the Nort
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Argentine Federal Police
The Argentine Federal Police is the national civil police force of the Argentine federal government. The PFA has detachments throughout the country, but until January 1, 2017, when the Buenos Aires City Police took over, its main responsibility was policing the Federal District of Buenos Aires; the history of this police force can be traced to 1580, when the founder of Buenos Aires, Captain Juan de Garay, established a local militia for defense against potential Native American raids. The Policía de Buenos Aires operated for the first three hundred years up to 1880, when the Federalization of Buenos Aires resulted in the creation of the Policía de la Capital. Incidents of social unrest in subsequent years helped prompt the Fraga Law in 1904, which provided for the inclusion of neighborhood representatives as commissioners in their respective precincts; the failed Revolution of 1905, by which the UCR sought to bring about reforms to the undemocratic electoral system, led to the appointment of a conservative congressman, retired Col. Ramón Falcón, to the post of chief of police.
The current entity resulted from an initiative by the chief of police, Col. Emilio Ramírez, assisted by LTCOL Enrique Fentanes. A panel convened by the police chief presented its findings to support the establishment of the Federal Police on November 8, 1943, on December 24, Decree 17.750 was signed by President Pedro Pablo Ramírez. The new force did not replace the Capital Police, but was instead transferred duties under the latter's purview incrementally; the first important such transfer was the February 7, 1944, assignment as the Presidential Guard of the Casa Rosada, on March 10, the process of unifying the two forces was initiated by decree, concluding on January 1, 1945. The Federal Police changed in its organizational structure in subsequent decades. Maintaining 45 precincts, it added five in 1946, two in 1976, a 53rd in 1999, its subordinate role to the national executive made the force a political instrument during the country's authoritarian regimes. General Juan Carlos Onganía, president after a 1966 coup, named a Federal Police director, Luis Margaride, who shared his distaste for modern culture, resulting in crusades against nightclubs, long hair, miniskirts.
Facing a government policy backdrop such as this, numerous avant-garde artists left Argentina, many never to return. The return of exiled President Juan Perón in 1973 resulted in conflict with the PFA, when the calculating populist had Alberto Villar named as chief at the behest of adviser José López Rega. Villar was a member of López Rega's newly organized paramilitary group, the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance, Villar's participation in spiraling violence between the group and those on the far left led to his assassination in 1974; the institution's prestige was further damaged following the March 1976 coup, when the force participated in the abduction and murder of thousands of dissidents and others. It was only with the 1983 presidential elections that the FP began restoring its prestige and its relations with the Argentine people with the 1986 appointment of Juan Angel Pirker as police commissioner general; the 1993 Olivos Pact between President Carlos Menem and his predecessor, UCR leader Raúl Alfonsín resulted in the 1994 reform of the Argentine Constitution, whose article 129 granted the City of Buenos Aires greater self-governance.
This in principle included the transfer of control of the 25,000-strong Federal Police to the Jefe de Gobierno, the Buenos Aires City Legislature. Shortly before the historic, June 30, 1996, elections to these posts, however, a senior Peronist Senator, Antonio Cafiero, succeeded in limiting the city's autonomy by advancing National Law 24.588, which reserved control of the force, among other faculties, to the national government. The controversial bill, signed in 1996 by President Menem, remained a sticking point between successive Presidents and Buenos Aires Mayors. A 2005 agreement on principles between Mayor Aníbal Ibarra and President Néstor Kirchner was followed by the modification of the contentious article 7, which denied the city its own, local police force, in 2007 - though the "Cafiero Law" otherwise remains in force. Efforts since 2007 by Mayor Mauricio Macri to declare it unconstitutional have thus far failed, though the Mayor inaugurated a Metropolitan Police, issues of revenue sharing for its financing remain pending.
The PFA, since 1974, maintains a university specializing in criminology, is associated with Interpol, participates in special forces training programs at the Los Angeles Police Department. When the Buenos Aires City Police was created in 2017, the city PFA stations under the Superintendencia de Seguridad Metropolitana were integrated into the new force alongside the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Police; the PFA is subordinate to the Ministry of Security. The organization is headed by the Chief of the PFA, the Comisario General Nestor Ramon Roncaglia, assisted by the Deputy Chief of the PFA, Comisario General Ester Mabel Franco; the PFA's headquarters, known as the Departamento Central de Policía, is located at 1650 Moreno Street, in the Montserrat section of Buenos Aires. The over 12,000 m² resulted from an 1868 proposal for its construction, approved in 1884. Designed by Juan Antonio Buschiazzo, engineered by Francesco Tamburini, the ornate headquarters
Femicide or feminicide is a sex-based hate crime term, broadly defined as "the intentional killing of females because they are females", though definitions vary depending on the cultural context. Feminist author Diana E. H. Russell was the first person to define and disseminate this term in 1976, she defines the word as "the killing of females by males because they are female." Other feminists place emphasis on the intention or purpose of the act being directed at females because they are female. This is done as part of sexism; the necessity of defining the murder of females separately from overall homicide is questioned. Intimate partner violence affects 3 in 10 women over a lifetime, it is estimated that 13.5% of homicides globally involved intimate partners, these percentage of killings are gendered. Opponents argue that since over 80% of all murder victims are men, the term places too much emphasis on the less prevalent murder of females. In addition, the study of femicide is a social challenge.
An alternative term offered is gendercide, more ambivalent and inclusive. However, some feminists argue that the term gendercide perpetuates the taboo of the subject of the murder of females. Feminists argue that the motives for femicide are vastly different than those for androcide. Instead of centering in street violence, much of femicide is centered within the home, i.e. domestic violence. The word femicide was first recorded in 1820 to 1830. In 1848, this term was published in Wharton's Law Lexicon. Another term used is feminicide, properly formed from the Latin femina, meaning "woman"; the current usage emerged with the 1970s feminist movements, which aimed to raise feminine consciousness and resistance against gender oppression. The term was coined by radical feminists to bring to a political light the violence against women. American author, Carol Orlock, is credited with initiating the usage of the term in this context in her unpublished anthology on femicide. Diana Russell publicised the term at the Crimes Against Women Tribunal in 1976 while “testifying at the first International Tribunal on Crimes against Women in Belgium".
Here is part of what she wrote for the proceedings: "We must realize that a lot of homicide is in fact femicide. We must recognize the sexual politics of murder. From the burning of witches in the past, to the more recent widespread custom of female infanticide in many societies, to the killing of women for "honor," we realize that femicide has been going on a long time, but since it involves mere females, there was no name for it until Carol Orlock invented the word'femicide.'" Until femicide was invisible in much of the scientific literature. Intimate femicide can be identified as such by using the “severity of violence, such as access to and threats with firearms, forced sex, threats to kill, strangulation” to determine whether a case can be considered an act of femicide or not; the definition of femicide relies on "inequalities in gender “in terms of education, economic level, employment"". Feminist author Diana Russell narrows the definition of femicide to "the killing of females by males because they are female".
Russell places emphasis on the idea. She chooses to replace the word woman with female to show that femicide can occur to both girls and infants as well. Russell believes her definition of femicide applies to all forms of sexist killing, whether they be motivated by misogyny, by a sense of superiority over females, by sexual pleasure, or by assumption of ownership over women. Russell's broader definition of femicide is stated as this, "Femicide is on the extreme end of a continuum of antifemale terror that includes a wide variety of verbal and physical abuse, such as rape, sexual slavery and extrafamilial child sexual abuse and emotional battery, sexual harassment, genital mutilation, unnecessary gynecological operations, forced heterosexuality, forced sterilization, forced motherhood, denial of food to women in some cultures, cosmetic surgery, other mutilations in the name of beautification. Whenever these forms of terrorism result in death, they become femicides."She includes covert killings of women as well, such as the mass murder of female babies due to male preference in cultures such as India and China, as well as deaths related to the failure of social institutions, such as the criminalization of abortion or the prevalence of female genital mutilation.
Diana Russell's definition is not accepted by all scholars as the standard definition for femicide. Jacquelyn Campbell and Carol Runyan use the word femicide to reference "all killings of women regardless of motive or perpetrator status" These authors argue that motive is not always empirically possible to be determined, so must be removed from the qualification for femicide in order to gather data. On the other hand, authors Desmond Ellis and Walter Dekesedery take a different approach by viewing the definition for femicide as "the intentional killing of females by males"; these feminists require that femicide always be intentional unlike the inclusion of covert femicide in Diana Russell's definition. Femicides are identified “as “slip-ups” in a power struggle in which men strive to control women and d
Climate of Argentina
The climate of Argentina is a vastly complex subject, as the vast size of the country and wide variation in altitude make for a wide range of climate types. Summers are the warmest and wettest season in most of the country except in most of Patagonia where it is the driest season. Winters are mild in the north, cool in the center and cold in the southern parts experiencing frequent frost and snow; because southern parts of the country are moderated by the surrounding oceans, the cold is less intense and prolonged than areas at similar latitudes in the northern hemisphere. Spring and autumn are transition seasons that feature mild weather. Many regions have different contrasting, microclimates. In general, northern parts of the country are characterized by hot, rainy summers and mild winters with periodic droughts. Mesopotamia, in the northeast is characterized by high temperatures and abundant precipitation throughout the year with droughts being uncommon. West of this lies the Chaco region, the warmest region in Argentina.
Precipitation in the Chaco region decreases westwards, resulting in the vegetation changing from forests in the east to shrubs in the west. Northwest Argentina is predominantly dry and hot although the rugged topography makes it climatically diverse, ranging from the cold, dry Puna to thick jungles; the center of the country, which includes the Pampas to the east and the drier Cuyo region to the west has hot summers with occasional tornadoes and thunderstorms, cool, dry winters. Patagonia, in the southern parts of the country has a dry climate with warm summers and cold winters characterized by strong winds throughout the year and one of the strongest precipitation gradients in the world. High elevations at all latitudes experience cooler conditions, the mountainous zones can see heavy snowfall; the geographic and geomorphic characteristics of Argentina tend to create extreme weather conditions leading to natural disasters that negatively impact the country both economically and socially. The Pampas, where many of the large cities are located, has a flat topography and poor water drainage, making it vulnerable to flooding.
Severe storms can lead to tornados, damaging hail, storm surges, high winds, causing extensive damage to houses and infrastructure, displacing thousands of people and causing significant loss of life. Extreme temperature events such as heat waves and cold waves impact rural and urban areas by negatively impacting agriculture, one of the main economic activities of the country, by increasing energy demand, which can lead to energy shortages. Argentina is vulnerable and will be impacted by climate change. Temperatures have increased in the last century while the observed changes in precipitation are variable, with some areas receiving more and other areas less; these changes have impacted river flow, increased the frequency of extreme weather events, led to the retreat of glaciers. Based on the projections for both precipitation and temperatures, these climatic events are to increase in severity and create new problems associated with climate change in the country. In Argentina, the climate is divided into four, well defined seasons, those being winter, spring and autumn.
In winter, the northern parts of Argentina are warm, the central parts mild, the southern parts cold with frequent frost and snow. The climate of the southern parts of the country is moderated by the surrounding oceans, resulting in cold weather, less intense and prolonged than at comparable latitudes in the northern hemisphere; the northern parts of the country have the warmest temperatures, with an average of 14 °C. In the extreme south, mean temperatures are below 4 °C. At higher altitudes in the Andes, average winter temperatures are below 0 °C. June and July temperatures are similar to each other. Precipitation varies a lot during the winter months; the highest are in the extreme northern part of the Littoral region and northwestern parts of Patagonia, where mean winter precipitation exceeds 250 mm. Most of the humid Pampas, averages between 75 and 200 mm while in the north, in areas bordering the Andes, it averages less than 10 mm. Spring is similar to autumn, with mild days and cool nights.
During mid-October a large variety of wild and urban flora are in bloom. Temperatures range from 20 °C in the north to 14 °C in the center, 8 to 14 °C in most of Patagonia. Tierra del Fuego Province and the higher altitudes of the Andes have the coolest springs, with mean temperatures below 8 °C. Temperatures grow. During spring, precipitation in the country varies, with the greatest amounts being in northern Buenos Aires Province and the Littoral region, where the average precipitation exceeds 250 mm. Arid regions have the lowest spring precipitation, with an average precipitation of less than 50 mm. In summer, temperatures range from an average of 26 °C in the north to a mean of 20 °C in the center of the country except for the southeastern parts of Buenos Aires Province, where temperatures are cooler in summer due to the maritime influence. In the extreme south of the country, the temperature averages 12 °C. During summer, mean precipitation varies throughout the country: the eastern parts of Salta Province, Jujuy Province, northern Tucumán Province and all of Misiones Province are the wettest, receiving more than 400 mm of precipitati
Individual nation articles should be consulted on specific national responses to corruption. In general, corruption is a form of dishonesty or criminal activity undertaken by a person or organization entrusted with a position of authority to acquire illicit benefit. Corruption may include many activities including bribery and embezzlement, though it may involve practices that are legal in many countries. Political corruption occurs when an office-holder or other governmental employee acts in an official capacity for personal gain. Corruption is most commonplace in kleptocracies, narco-states and mafia states. Corruption can occur on different scales. Corruption ranges from small favors between a small number of people, to corruption that affects the government on a large scale, corruption, so prevalent that it is part of the everyday structure of society, including corruption as one of the symptoms of organized crime. Corruption and crime are endemic sociological occurrences which appear with regular frequency in all countries on a global scale in varying degree and proportion.
Individual nations each allocate domestic resources for the control and regulation of corruption and crime. Strategies to counter corruption are summarized under the umbrella term anti-corruption. Stephen D. Morris, a professor of politics, writes that political corruption is the illegitimate use of public power to benefit a private interest. Economist Ian Senior defines corruption as an action to secretly provide a good or a service to a third party so that he or she can influence certain actions which benefit the corrupt, a third party, or both in which the corrupt agent has authority. Daniel Kaufmann, from the World Bank, extends the concept to include'legal corruption' in which power is abused within the confines of the law—as those with power have the ability to make laws for their protection; the effect of corruption in infrastructure is to increase costs and construction time, lower the quality and decrease the benefit. The research work on social corruption developed at The Unicist Research Institute defines that corruption allows individuals to profit from the environment through illegitimate actions while they disintegrate the system they are part of.
Corruption can occur on different scales. Corruption ranges from small favors between a small number of people, to corruption that affects the government on a large scale, corruption, so prevalent that it is part of the everyday structure of society, including corruption as one of the symptoms of organized crime. A number of indicators and tools have been developed which can measure different forms of corruption with increasing accuracy. Petty corruption occurs at a smaller scale and takes place at the implementation end of public services when public officials meet the public. For example, in many small places such as registration offices, police stations, state licensing boards, many other private and government sectors. Grand corruption is defined as corruption occurring at the highest levels of government in a way that requires significant subversion of the political and economic systems; such corruption is found in countries with authoritarian or dictatorial governments but in those without adequate policing of corruption.
The government system in many countries is divided into the legislative and judiciary branches in an attempt to provide independent services that are less subject to grand corruption due to their independence from one another. Systemic corruption is corruption, due to the weaknesses of an organization or process, it can be contrasted with individual agents who act corruptly within the system. Factors which encourage systemic corruption include discretionary powers. Specific acts of corruption include "bribery and embezzlement" in a system where "corruption becomes the rule rather than the exception." Scholars distinguish between centralized and decentralized systemic corruption, depending on which level of state or government corruption takes place. Some scholars argue that there is a negative duty of western governments to protect against systematic corruption of underdeveloped governments. Corruption can occur in many sectors, whether they be public or private industry or NGOs. However, only in democratically controlled institutions is there an interest of the public to develop internal mechanisms to fight active or passive corruption, whereas in private industry as well as in NGOs there is no public control.
Therefore, the owners' investors' or sponsors' profits are decisive. Public corruption includes corruption of the political process and of government agencies such as the police as well as corruption in processes of allocating public funds for contracts and hiring. Recent research by the World Bank suggests that who makes policy decisions can be critical in determining the level of corruption because of the incentives different policy-makers face. Political corruption is the abuse of public power, office, or resources by elected government officials for personal gain, by extortion, soliciting or offering bribes, it can take the form of office holders maintaining themselves in office by purchasing votes by enacting laws which use taxpayers' money. Evidence suggests that corruption can have political consequences- with citizens being asked for bribes becoming less to identify with their country or reg
The Heritage Foundation
The Heritage Foundation is an American conservative think tank based in Washington, D. C. geared towards public policy. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies were taken from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership. Heritage has since continued to have a significant influence in U. S. public policy making, is considered to be one of the most influential conservative research organizations in the United States. The Heritage Foundation was founded on February 16, 1973 by Paul Weyrich, Edwin Feulner, Joseph Coors. Growing out of the new business activist movement inspired by the Powell Memorandum, discontent with Richard Nixon's embrace of the "liberal consensus" and the nonpolemical, cautious nature of existing think tanks and Feulner sought to create a version of the Brookings Institution that advanced conservative activism. Coors was the primary funder of the Heritage Foundation in its early years. Weyrich was its first president.
Under president Frank J. Walton, the Heritage Foundation began using direct mail fundraising and Heritage's annual income grew to $1 million per year in 1976. By 1981, the annual budget grew to $5.3 million. Heritage advocated for pro-business policies, anti-communism and neoconservatism in its early years, but distinguished itself from the conservative American Enterprise Institute by advocating for Christian conservatism. Through the 1970s, Heritage would remain small relative to Brookings and the AEI. In January 1981 Heritage published the Mandate for Leadership, a comprehensive report aimed at reducing the size of the federal government, providing public policy guidance to the incoming Reagan administration, including more than 2,000 specific suggestions to move the federal government in a conservative direction; the report was well received by the White House, several of its authors went on to take positions in the Reagan administration. Reagan liked the ideas so much. 60% of the 2,000 proposals were implemented or initiated by the end of Reagan's first year in office.
Ronald Reagan on said that the Heritage Foundation played a "vital force" in the successes during his presidency. Heritage was influential in developing and advancing of the so-called "Reagan Doctrine," a Reagan administration foreign policy initiative in which the U. S. provided military and other support to anti-communist resistance movements fighting Soviet-aligned governments in Afghanistan, Cambodia and other nations during the final years of the Cold War. Heritage advocated the development of new ballistic missile defense systems for the United States. Reagan adopted this as his top defense priority in 1983, calling it the Strategic Defense Initiative. By mid-decade, The Heritage Foundation had emerged as a key organization in the national conservative movement, publishing influential reports on domestic and defense issues, as well as pieces by prominent conservative figures, such as Bob Dole and Pat Robertson. In 1986, Time called Heritage "the foremost of the new breed of advocacy tanks".
During the Reagan and Bush administrations, The Heritage Foundation served as the President's brain trust on foreign policy. The Heritage Foundation remained an influential voice on domestic and foreign policy issues during President George H. W. Bush's administration, it was a leading proponent of Operation Desert Storm against Iraq, – according to Frank Starr, head of the Baltimore Sun's Washington bureau – the foundation's studies "laid much of the groundwork for Bush administration thinking" about post-Soviet foreign policy. In domestic policy, the Bush administration agreed with six of the ten budget reforms contained in Mandate for Leadership III and included them in their 1990 budget proposal. Heritage became involved in the culture wars of the 1990s with the publication of "The Index of Leading Cultural Indicators" by William Bennett; the Index documented how crime, divorce, teenage suicide, drug use and fourteen other social indicators had become measurably worse since the 1960s. Heritage continued to grow throughout the 1990s and its journal, Policy Review, hit an all-time-high circulation of 23,000.
Heritage was an opponent of the Clinton health care plan of 1993. President Clinton's welfare reforms were analogous with Heritage's recommendations and were adopted in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996. In 1995, Heritage published the first Index of Economic Freedom, co-authored by policy analyst Bryan T. Johnson and Thomas P. Sheehy. In 1997, the Index became a joint project between the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal. In 1994, Heritage advised Newt Gingrich and other conservatives on the development of the "Contract with America", credited with helping to produce a Republican majority in Congress; the "Contract" was a pact of principles that directly challenged both the political status-quo in Washington and many of the ideas at the heart of the Clinton administration. In 2005, The Washington Post criticized the Heritage Foundation for softening its criticism of Malaysia following a business relationship between Heritage's president and Malaysia's then-prime minister Mahathir Mohamad.
The Heritage Foundation denied any conflict of interest, stating its views on Malaysia changed following the country's cooperation with the U. S. after the September 11 attacks in 2001, changes by Malaysia "moving in the right economic and political direction." In December 2012, an announcement was made that Senator Jim DeMint would resign from the Senate to head the Heritage Foundation. Pundits predicted his tenure would bring a sharper, more politicized edge to the Foundati