Florida East Coast Railway
The Florida East Coast Railway is a Class II railroad operating in the U. S. state of Florida owned by Grupo México. The FEC was a Class I railroad owned by Florida East Coast Industries from 2000 to 2016, FOXX Holdings between 1983 and 2000, the St. Joseph Paper Company prior to 1983. Built in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, the FEC was a project of Standard Oil principal Henry Flagler, he visited Florida with his first wife, Mary. A key strategist who worked with John D. Rockefeller building the Standard Oil Trust, Flagler noted both great potential and a lack of services during his stay at St. Augustine, he subsequently began what amounted to his second career, developing resorts and communities all along Florida's shores abutting the Atlantic Ocean. The FEC is best known for building the railroad to Key West, completed in 1912; when the FEC's line from the mainland to Key West was damaged by the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935, the State of Florida purchased the remaining right-of-way and bridges south of Dade County, they were rebuilt into road bridges for vehicle traffic and became known as the Overseas Highway.
However, a greater and lasting Flagler legacy was the developments along Florida's eastern coast. During the Great Depression, control was purchased by heirs of the du Pont family. After 30 years of fragile financial condition, the FEC, under leadership of a new president, Ed Ball, took on the labor unions. Ball claimed the company could not afford the same costs as larger Class 1 railroads and needed to invest saved funds in its infrastructure, the condition of, fast becoming a safety issue; the company—using replacement workers—and some of its employees engaged from 1963 until 1977 in one of the longest and more violent labor conflicts of the 20th century. Federal authorities had to intervene to stop the violence, which included bombings and vandalism. However, the courts ruled in the FEC's favor with regard to the right to employ strikebreakers. During this time Ball invested in numerous steps to improve the railroad's physical plant, installed various forms of automation; the FEC was the first US railroad to operate two-man train crews, eliminate cabooses, end all of its passenger services by 1968.
In modern times, the company's primary rail revenues come from its rock trains. In January 2018, passenger rail service Brightline began using FEC tracks for its route from West Palm Beach to Fort Lauderdale; the Florida East Coast Railway was developed by Henry Morrison Flagler, an American tycoon, real estate promoter, railroad developer and John D. Rockefeller's partner in Standard Oil. Formed at Cleveland, Ohio as Rockefeller, Andrews & Flagler in 1867, Standard Oil moved its headquarters in 1877 to New York City. Flagler and his family relocated there as well, he was joined by Henry H. Rogers, another leader of Standard Oil who became involved in the development of America's railroads, including those on nearby Staten Island, the Union Pacific, in West Virginia, where he built the remarkable Virginian Railway to transport coal to Hampton Roads, Virginia. Flagler's non-Standard Oil interests went in a different direction, when in 1878, on the advice of his physician, he traveled to Jacksonville, Florida for the winter with his first wife, quite ill.
Two years after she died in 1881, he married Ida Alice Shourds. After their wedding, the couple traveled to St. Augustine, Florida in 1883. Flagler found the city charming, he recognized Florida's potential to attract out-of-state visitors. Though Flagler remained on the Board of Directors of Standard Oil, he gave up his day-to-day involvement in the firm in order to pursue his Florida interests; when Flagler returned to Florida, in 1885 he began building a grand St. Augustine hotel, the Ponce de Leon Hotel. Flagler realized that the key to developing Florida was a solid transportation system, purchased the 3 ft narrow gauge Jacksonville, St. Augustine and Halifax River Railway on December 31, 1885, he discovered that a major problem facing the existing Florida railway systems was that each operated on different gauge systems, making interconnection impossible. He converted the line to 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge in 1890 and the small operation was incorporated in 1892; the earliest predecessor of the FEC was the narrow gauge St. John's Railway, incorporated in 1858, which constructed a now-abandoned line between St. Augustine and Tocoi, a small settlement on the east bank of the St. Johns River, midway between Palatka and Green Cove Springs.
In 1883, Henry Flagler, now retired from Standard Oil, moved to St. Augustine, built the mentioned Ponce de Leon and the Alcazar Hotels, purchased the Casa Monica, just east of the Alcazar, changing the name to Cordova; the east coast of Florida was undeveloped at that time, Flagler found it difficult to obtain the construction materials he needed. His purchase of the JStA&HR Railway was intended to make it faster and easier to supply his building projects; the JStA&HR Railway served the northeastern portion of the state and was the first operation in the Flagler Railroad system. Before Flagler bought the line, the railroad stretched only between South Jacksonville and St. Augustine and lacked a depot sufficient to accommodate travelers to his St. Augustine resorts, he built a modern depot facility as well as schools, h
Seal of Florida
The Great Seal of the State of Florida is used to represent the government of the state of Florida, for various official purposes, such as to seal official documents and legislation. It is used on state government buildings and other effects of the state government, it appears on the state flag of Florida. The University of Florida was bestowed the honor of using the seal as its university seal; the seal features a shoreline. Legend says that the woman is the historical heroine Milly Francis, but there is no documentation supporting this. Two Sabal palms are growing. In the background a steamboat sails before a sun breaking the horizon, with rays of sunlight extending into the sky; the seal is encircled with the words "Great Seal of the State of Florida", "In God We Trust". The Florida Legislature in 1868 specified in a Joint Resolution the design of Florida's first seal. "The Resolution specified. It stated that the seal should contain the sun's rays, a cocoa tree, a steamboat, a female Indian scattering flowers.
These images were to be circled by the words'Great Seal of the State of Florida: In God We Trust.'" Several changes have occurred on the seal over the years. The Indian woman no longer has a feathered headdress. "A mountain in the background has been flattened. The steamboat has been repaired a few times, and a sabal palm has been transplanted in place of the original cocoa tree to reflect the state's adoption of the sabal palmetto palm as the official state tree in 1953. The latest revisions took place in 1985." The Florida Secretary of State is the official custodian of the seal. Use or display of the seal must be for an official purpose and approved by the Florida Department of State. One exception is that other Florida state or local agencies can use or display the seal for official business if approved by head of their agency. Illegal use of the seal in Florida is a second-degree misdemeanor. List of Florida state symbols Flag of Florida The Great Seal of the State of Florida
Geology of Florida
The Floridian peninsula is a porous plateau of karst limestone sitting atop bedrock known as the Florida Platform. The emergent portion of the platform was created during the Eocene to Oligocene as the Gulf Trough filled with silts and sands. Flora and fauna began appearing during the Miocene. No land animals were present in Florida prior to the Miocene; the largest deposits of rock phosphate in the country are found in Florida. Most of this is in Bone Valley. Extended systems of underwater caves and springs are found throughout the state and supply most of the water used by residents; the limestone is topped with sandy soils deposited as ancient beaches over millions of years as global sea levels rose and fell. During the last glacial period, lower sea levels and a drier climate revealed a much wider peninsula savanna. While there are sinkholes in much of the state, modern sinkholes have tended to be in West-Central Florida. During the early Mesozoic Era the supercontinent of Pangea began to break apart.
As North America separated from Africa a small portion of the African plate detached and was carried away with the North American plate. This provided some of the foundation upon; the emergent portion of the platform was created during the Eocene to Oligocene as the Gulf Trough filled with silts and sands. Flora and fauna began appearing during the Miocene. No land animals were present in Florida before the Miocene. Florida is tied for first place as having the fewest earthquakes of any US state; because Florida is not located near any tectonic plate boundaries, earthquakes are rare, but not unknown. In January, 1879, a shock occurred near St. Augustine. There were reports of heavy shaking that knocked plaster from articles from shelves. Similar effects were noted at Daytona Beach 50 miles south; the tremor was felt as far south as Tampa and as far north as Georgia. In January 1880, Cuba was the center of two strong earthquakes that sent severe shock waves through the city of Key West, Florida. Another earthquake centered outside Florida was the 1886 Charleston earthquake.
The shock was felt throughout northern Florida, ringing church bells at St. Augustine and jolting other towns along that section of Florida's east coast. Jacksonville residents felt many of the strong aftershocks that occurred in September and November 1886; as as 2006, a magnitude 6.0 earthquake centered about 260 miles southwest of Tampa and west of Fort Myers in the Gulf of Mexico sent shock waves through southwest and central Florida. The earthquake was too small to trigger a tsunami and no damage was reported. Minor shaking was felt in Southwest Florida; some taller buildings in the city of Cape Coral reported swaying
Government of Florida
The government of Florida is established and operated according to the Constitution of Florida and is composed of three branches of government: the executive branch consisting of the Governor of Florida and the other elected and appointed constitutional officers. The state allows direct participation of the electorate by initiative and ratification; the executive branch of the government of Florida consists of the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Florida Cabinet, several executive departments. Each office term is limited for two four-year terms; the Governor of Florida is the chief executive of the government of Florida and the chief administrative officer of the state responsible for the planning and budgeting for the state, serves as chair when the Governor and the Florida Cabinet sit as a decision-making body in various constitutional roles. The Governor has the power to execute Florida's laws and to call out the state militia to preserve the public peace, being Commander-in-Chief of the state's military forces that are not in active service of the United States.
At least once every legislative session, the Governor is required to deliver the "State of the State Address" to the Florida Legislature regarding the condition and operation of the state government and to suggest new legislation. Florida is unique among U. S. states in having a strong cabinet-style government. Members of the Florida Cabinet are independently elected, have equal footing with the Governor on issues under the Cabinet's jurisdiction; the Cabinet consists of the Attorney General, the Commissioner of Agriculture and the Chief Financial Officer. Along with the Governor, each member carries one vote in the decision making process. In the event of a tie, the side of the Governor is the prevailing side. Cabinet elections are held every four years, on numbered years not divisible by four; the Florida Attorney General is the state's chief legal officer. As defined in the Florida Constitution, the Attorney General appoints a statewide prosecutor who may prosecute violations of criminal law occurring in or affecting two or more judicial circuits.
The Attorney General is responsible for the Department of Legal Affairs. The Attorney General is head of the Florida Department of Legal Affairs; the Florida Chief Financial Officer's duties include monitoring the state's finances and fiscal well being and assuring that state programs are properly spending money and overseeing the proper management of the revenue and spending of the state. The Chief Financial Officer is the head of the Florida Department of Financial Services; the Florida Commissioner of Agriculture is the head of the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. The purpose of agencies is to promulgate rules to implement legislation. In April 2014, there were 25,362 administrative rules, eight agencies have over 1,000 rules each, of which the most regulated agencies are the Department of Financial Services and Department of Health; the Florida Administrative Register is the daily publication containing proposed rules and notices of state agencies. The regulations are codified in the Florida Administrative Code.
There are numerous decisions and rulings of state agencies. The state had about 122,000 employees in 2010; the Florida Constitution mandates a bicameral state legislature, consisting of a Florida Senate of 40 members and a Florida House of Representatives of 120 members. The two bodies meet in the Florida State Capitol; the Florida House of Representative members serve for two-year terms, while Florida Senate members serve staggered four-year terms, with 20 Senators up for election every two years. Members of both houses are term limited to serve a maximum of eight years. There are state auditors led by the Florida Auditor General, appointed by the Joint Legislative Auditing Committee, the utility-regulating Florida Public Service Commission, the Florida Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability; the legislature's session is part-time. The regular session of the Florida Legislature commences on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in March with the Governor's State of the State speech before a joint session and ends on the last Friday in April or the first Friday in May.
The Florida Legislature meets in special sessions, sometimes as many as a half dozen in a year, that are called for particular purposes, such as budget reduction or reforming property insurance. A special session may be called by the governor, by joint proclamation of the Speaker of the House and Senate President or by three-fifths vote of the members of both houses. Outside of these regular and special sessions, the members of both houses participate in county delegation meetings and interim committee meetings throughout the year from November to February in advance of the regular session, its session laws are compiled into the Laws of Florida, the Florida Statutes are the codified statutory laws of the state which have general applicability. The Florida State Courts System is the unified state court system; the Florida State Courts System consists of the: the state supreme court. The Supreme Court of Florida is the highest court of Florida and consists of seven judges: the Chief
Capital punishment known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is killed by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes or capital offences, they include offences such as murder, mass murder, treason, offenses against the State, such as attempting to overthrow government, drug trafficking, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide, but may include a wide range of offences depending on a country. Etymologically, the term capital in this context alluded to execution by beheading. Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment, 106 countries have abolished it de jure for all crimes, eight have abolished it for ordinary crimes, 28 are abolitionist in practice. Capital punishment is a matter of active controversy in several countries and states, positions can vary within a single political ideology or cultural region.
In the European Union, Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits the use of capital punishment. The Council of Europe, which has 47 member states, has sought to abolish the use of the death penalty by its members through Protocol 13 of the European Convention on Human Rights. However, this only affects those member states which have signed and ratified it, they do not include Armenia and Azerbaijan; the United Nations General Assembly has adopted, in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, non-binding resolutions calling for a global moratorium on executions, with a view to eventual abolition. Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, over 60% of the world's population live in countries where the death penalty is retained, such as China, the United States, Pakistan, Nigeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, among all Islamic countries, as is maintained in Japan, South Korea and Sri Lanka. China is believed to execute more people than all other countries combined.
Execution of criminals and dissidents has been used by nearly all societies since the beginning of civilizations on Earth. Until the nineteenth century, without developed prison systems, there was no workable alternative to insure deterrence and incapacitation of criminals. In pre-modern times the executions themselves involved torture with cruel and painful methods, such as the breaking wheel, sawing, hanging and quartering, brazen bull, burning at the stake, slow slicing, boiling alive, schwedentrunk, blood eagle, scaphism; the use of formal execution extends to the beginning of recorded history. Most historical records and various primitive tribal practices indicate that the death penalty was a part of their justice system. Communal punishment for wrongdoing included compensation by the wrongdoer, corporal punishment, shunning and execution. Compensation and shunning were enough as a form of justice; the response to crimes committed by neighbouring tribes, clans or communities included a formal apology, blood feuds, tribal warfare.
A blood feud or vendetta occurs when arbitration between families or tribes fails or an arbitration system is non-existent. This form of justice was common before the emergence of an arbitration system based on state or organized religion, it may result from land disputes or a code of honour. "Acts of retaliation underscore the ability of the social collective to defend itself and demonstrate to enemies that injury to property, rights, or the person will not go unpunished." However, in practice, it is difficult to distinguish between a war of vendetta and one of conquest. In most countries that practise capital punishment, it is now reserved for murder, war crimes, treason, or as part of military justice. In some countries sexual crimes, such as rape, adultery, incest and bestiality carry the death penalty, as do religious crimes such as Hudud and Qisas crimes, such as apostasy, moharebeh, Fasad, Mofsed-e-filarz and witchcraft. In many countries that use the death penalty, drug trafficking is a capital offence.
In China, human trafficking and serious cases of corruption and financial crimes are punished by the death penalty. In militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offences such as cowardice, desertion and mutiny. Elaborations of tribal arbitration of feuds included peace settlements done in a religious context and compensation system. Compensation was based on the principle of substitution which might include material compensation, exchange of brides or grooms, or payment of the blood debt. Settlement rules could allow for animal blood to replace human blood, or transfers of property or blood money or in some case an offer of a person for execution; the person offered for execution did not have to be an original perpetrator of the crime because the social system was based on tribes and clans, not individuals. Blood feuds could be regulated at meetings, such as the Norsemen things. Systems deriving from blood feuds may survive alongside more advanced legal systems or be given recognition by courts.
One of the more modern refinements of the blood feud is the duel. In certain parts of the world, n
The Seminole Wars known as the Florida Wars, were three conflicts in Florida between the Seminole, a Native American tribe that formed in Florida in the early 18th century, the United States Army. Both in human and monetary terms, the Seminole Wars were the longest and most expensive of the Indian Wars in United States history; the First Seminole War began with General Andrew Jackson's excursions into West Florida and Spanish Florida against the Seminoles after the conclusion of the War of 1812. The governments of Great Britain and Spain both expressed outrage over the "invasion". However, Spain was unable to defend or control the territory, as several local uprisings and rebellions made clear; the Spanish Crown agreed to cede Florida to the United States per the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, the transfer took place in 1821. According to the Treaty of Moultrie Creek of 1823, the Seminoles were required to leave northern Florida and were confined to a large reservation in the center of the Florida peninsula.
The U. S. government enforced the treaty by building a series of forts and trading posts in the territory along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. The Second Seminole War was the result of the United States government attempting to force the Seminoles to leave Florida altogether and move to Indian Territory per the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Fighting began with the Dade Massacre in December 1835, raids, a handful of larger battles raged throughout the Florida peninsula over the next few years. At first, the outgunned and outnumbered Seminoles used guerrilla warfare to frustrate the more numerous American military forces. In October 1836, General Thomas Sidney Jesup was sent to Florida to take command of the campaign. After futilely chasing bands of Seminole warriors through the wilderness, Jesup changed tactics and began seeking out and destroying Seminole farms and villages, a strategy which changed the course of the war. Jesup authorized the controversial captures of Seminole leaders Osceola and Micanopy under signs of truce.
By the early 1840s, most of the Seminole population in Florida had been killed in battle, ravaged by starvation and disease, or relocated to Indian Territory. Several hundred Seminoles were allowed to remain in an unofficial reservation in southwest Florida; the Third Seminole War was again the result of Seminoles responding to settlers and U. S. Army scouting parties encroaching on their lands deliberately to provoke a violent response that would result in the removal of the last of the Seminoles from Florida. After an army surveying crew found and destroyed a Seminole plantation west of the Everglades in December 1855, Chief Billy Bowlegs led a raid near Fort Myers, setting off a conflict which consisted of raids and reprisals, with no large battles fought. American forces again strove to destroy the Seminoles' food supply, by 1858, most of the remaining Seminoles, weary of war and facing starvation, agreed to be shipped to Oklahoma in exchange for promises of safe passage and cash payments.
An estimated 500 Seminoles still refused to leave and retreated deep into the Everglades and the Big Cypress Swamp to live on land, unwanted by white settlers. The original indigenous peoples of Florida declined in number after the arrival of European explorers in the early 1500s because the Native Americans had little resistance to diseases newly introduced from Europe. Spanish suppression of native revolts further reduced the population in northern Florida until the early 1600s, at which time the establishment of a series of Spanish missions improved relations and stabilized the population. Raids from the newly-established English Province of Carolina beginning in the mid-1600s began another steep decline in the indigenous population. By 1707, English soldiers and their Yamasee Indian allies had killed, carried off, or driven away most of the remaining native inhabitants during a series of raids across the Florida panhandle and down the full length of the peninsula. In the first decade of the 18th century.
10,000–12,000 Indians were taken as slaves according to the governor of La Florida and by 1710, observers noted that north Florida was depopulated. The Spanish missions all closed; the few remaining natives fled west to Pensacola and beyond or east to the vicinity of St. Augustine; when Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain as part of the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the majority of surviving Florida Indians took passage with the Spanish to Cuba or New Spain. During the mid-1700s, small bands from various Native American tribes from the southeastern United States began moving into the unoccupied lands of Florida. In 1715, the Yamasee moved into Florida as allies of the Spanish, after conflicts with the English colonies. Creek people, at first the Lower Creek but including Upper Creek started moving into Florida from the area of Georgia; the Mikasuki, Hitchiti-speakers, settled around. Another group of Hitchiti speakers, led by Cowkeeper, settled in what is now Alachua County, an area where the Spanish had maintained cattle ranches in the 17th century.
Because one of the best-known ranches was called El Rancho de la Chúa, the region became known as the "Alachua Prairie". The Spanish in Saint Augustine began calling the Alachua Creek Cimarrones, which meant "wild ones" or "runaways"; this was the probable origin of the term "Seminole". This name was applied to the other groups in Florida, although the Indians still regarded themselves as members of different tribes. Other Native Am
Walt Disney World
The Walt Disney World Resort called Walt Disney World and Disney World, is an entertainment complex in Bay Lake and Lake Buena Vista, Florida, in the United States, near the cities Orlando and Kissimmee. Opened on October 1, 1971, the resort is owned and operated by Disney Parks and Products, a division of The Walt Disney Company, it was first operated by Walt Disney World Company. The property, which covers nearly 25,000 acres, only half of, used, comprises four theme parks, two water parks, twenty-seven themed resort hotels, nine non-Disney hotels, several golf courses, a camping resort, other entertainment venues, including the outdoor shopping center Disney Springs. Designed to supplement Disneyland, in Anaheim, which had opened in 1955, the complex was developed by Walt Disney in the 1960s. "The Florida Project", as it was known, was intended to present a distinct vision with its own diverse set of attractions. Walt Disney's original plans called for the inclusion of an "Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow", a planned community intended to serve as a test bed for new city-living innovations.
Walt Disney died on December 1966, during construction of the complex. Without him spearheading the construction, the company built a resort similar to Disneyland, abandoning the experimental concepts for a planned community. Magic Kingdom was the first theme park to open in the complex, in 1971, followed by Epcot, Disney's Hollywood Studios, Disney's Animal Kingdom. Today, Walt Disney World is the most visited vacation resort in the world, with average annual attendance of more than 52 million; the resort is the flagship destination of Disney's worldwide corporate enterprise and has become a popular staple in American culture. In 1959, Walt Disney Productions began looking for land to house a second resort to supplement Disneyland in Anaheim, which had opened in 1955. Market surveys at the time revealed that only 5% of Disneyland's visitors came from east of the Mississippi River, where 75% of the population of the United States lived. Additionally, Walt Disney disliked the businesses that had sprung up around Disneyland and wanted more control over a larger area of land in the next project.
Walt Disney flew over a potential site in Orlando, Florida – one of many – in November 1963. After witnessing the well-developed network of roads and taking the planned construction of both Interstate 4 and Florida's Turnpike into account, with McCoy Air Force Base to the east, Disney selected a centrally-located site near Bay Lake. To avoid a burst of land speculation, Walt Disney World Company used various dummy corporations to acquire 30,500 acres of land. In May 1965, some of these major land transactions were recorded a few miles southwest of Orlando in Osceola County. In addition, two large tracts totaling $1.5 million were sold, smaller tracts of flatlands and cattle pastures were purchased by exotically-named companies such as the "Ayefour Corporation", "Latin-American Development and Management Corporation" and the "Reedy Creek Ranch Corporation". Some are now memorialized on a window above Main Street, U. S. A. in Magic Kingdom. The smaller parcels of land acquired were called "outs".
They were 5-acre lots sold to investors. Most of the owners in the 1960s were happy to get rid of the land, swamp at the time. Another issue was the mineral rights to the land. Without the transfer of these rights, Tufts could come in at any time and demand the removal of buildings to obtain minerals. Disney's team negotiated a deal with Tufts to buy the mineral rights for $15,000. Working in secrecy, real estate agents unaware of their client's identity began making offers to landowners in April 1964 in parts of southwest Orange and northwest Osceola counties; the agents were careful not to reveal the extent of their intentions, they were able to negotiate numerous land contracts with some including large tracts of land for as little as $100 an acre. With the understanding that the recording of the first deeds would trigger intense public scrutiny, Disney delayed the filing of paperwork until a large portion of the land was under contract. Early rumors and speculation about the land purchases assumed possible development by NASA in support of the nearby Kennedy Space Center, as well as references to other famous investors such as Ford, the Rockefellers, Howard Hughes.
An Orlando Sentinel news article published weeks on May 20, 1965, acknowledged a popular rumor that Disney was building an "East Coast" version of Disneyland. However, the publication denied its accuracy based on an earlier interview with Disney at Kennedy Space Center, in which he claimed a $50 million investment was in the works for Disneyland, that he had no interest in building a new park. In October 1965, editor Emily Bavar from the Sentinel visited Disneyland during the park's 10th-anniversary celebration. In an interview with Disney, she asked him if he was behind recent land purchases in Central Florida, his reaction, combined with other research obtained during her Anaheim visit, led Bavar to author a story on October 21, 1965, where she predicted that Disney was building a second theme park in Florida. Three days after gathering more information from various sources, the Sentinel published another article headlined, "We Say:'Mystery Industry' Is Disney". Walt Disney had planned to publicly reveal Disney World on November 15, 1965, but in light of the Sentinel story, Disney asked