In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term "crime" does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition, though statutory definitions have been provided for certain purposes; the most popular view is. One proposed definition is that a crime or offence is an act harmful not only to some individual but to a community, society or the state; such acts are punishable by law. The notion that acts such as murder and theft are to be prohibited exists worldwide. What is a criminal offence is defined by criminal law of each country. While many have a catalogue of crimes called the criminal code, in some common law countries no such comprehensive statute exists; the state has the power to restrict one's liberty for committing a crime. In modern societies, there are procedures to which trials must adhere. If found guilty, an offender may be sentenced to a form of reparation such as a community sentence, or, depending on the nature of their offence, to undergo imprisonment, life imprisonment or, in some jurisdictions, execution.
To be classified as a crime, the "act of doing something criminal" must – with certain exceptions – be accompanied by the "intention to do something criminal". While every crime violates the law, not every violation of the law counts as a crime. Breaches of private law are not automatically punished by the state, but can be enforced through civil procedure; when informal relationships prove insufficient to establish and maintain a desired social order, a government or a state may impose more formalized or stricter systems of social control. With institutional and legal machinery at their disposal, agents of the State can compel populations to conform to codes and can opt to punish or attempt to reform those who do not conform. Authorities employ various mechanisms to regulate certain behaviors in general. Governing or administering agencies may for example codify rules into laws, police citizens and visitors to ensure that they comply with those laws, implement other policies and practices that legislators or administrators have prescribed with the aim of discouraging or preventing crime.
In addition, authorities provide remedies and sanctions, collectively these constitute a criminal justice system. Legal sanctions vary in their severity; some jurisdictions have penal codes written to inflict permanent harsh punishments: legal mutilation, capital punishment or life without parole. A natural person perpetrates a crime, but legal persons may commit crimes. Conversely, at least under U. S. law, nonpersons such as animals cannot commit crimes. The sociologist Richard Quinney has written about the relationship between crime; when Quinney states "crime is a social phenomenon" he envisages both how individuals conceive crime and how populations perceive it, based on societal norms. The word crime is derived from the Latin root cernō, meaning "I decide, I give judgment"; the Latin word crīmen meant "charge" or "cry of distress." The Ancient Greek word krima, from which the Latin cognate derives referred to an intellectual mistake or an offense against the community, rather than a private or moral wrong.
In 13th century English crime meant "sinfulness", according to etymonline.com. It was brought to England as Old French crimne, from Latin crimen. In Latin, crimen could have signified any one of the following: "charge, accusation; the word may derive from the Latin cernere – "to decide, to sift". But Ernest Klein rejects this and suggests *cri-men, which would have meant "cry of distress". Thomas G. Tucker suggests a root in "cry" words and refers to English plaint, so on; the meaning "offense punishable by law" dates from the late 14th century. The Latin word is glossed in Old English by facen "deceit, treachery". Crime wave is first attested in 1893 in American English. Whether a given act or omission constitutes a crime does not depend on the nature of that act or omission, it depends on the nature of the legal consequences. An act or omission is a crime if it is capable of being followed by what are called criminal proceedings. History The following definition of "crime" was provided by the Prevention of Crimes Act 1871, applied for the purposes of section 10 of the Prevention of Crime Act 1908: The expression "crime" means, in England and Ireland, any felony or the offence of uttering false or counterfeit coin, or of possessing counterfeit gold or silver coin, or the offence of obtaining goods or money by false pretences, or the offence of conspiracy to defraud, or any misdemeanour under the fifty-eighth section of the Larceny Act, 1861.
For the purpose of section 243 of the Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1992, a crime means an offence punishable on indictment, or an offence punishable on summary conviction, for the commission of which the offender is liable under the statute making the offence punishable to be imprisoned either or at the discretion of the court as an alternative for some other punishment. A normative definition views crime as deviant behavior that violates prevailing norms – cult
Atlanta metropolitan area
Metro Atlanta, designated by the United States Office of Management and Budget as the Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Roswell, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the most populous metro area in the US state of Georgia and the ninth-largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States. Its economic and demographic center is Atlanta, has an estimated 2017 population of 5,884,736 according to the U. S. Census Bureau; the metro area forms the core of a broader trading area, the Atlanta–Athens-Clarke–Sandy Springs Combined Statistical Area. The Combined Statistical Area spans up to 39 counties in north Georgia and has an estimated 2017 population of 6,555,956. Atlanta is considered a "beta world city." It is the third largest metropolitan region in the Census Bureau's Southeast region behind Greater Washington and Greater Miami. By U. S. Census Bureau standards, the population of the Atlanta region spreads across a metropolitan area of 8,376 square miles – a land area comparable to that of Massachusetts.
Because Georgia contains more counties than any other state except Texas, area residents live under a decentralized collection of governments. As of the 2000 census, fewer than one in ten residents of the metropolitan area lived inside Atlanta city limits. A 2006 survey by the Metro Atlanta Chamber of Commerce counted 140 cities and towns in the 28‑county Metropolitan Statistical Area in mid-2005. Nine cities – Johns Creek, Chattahoochee Hills, Peachtree Corners, Tucker and South Fulton – have incorporated since following the lead of Sandy Springs in 2005; the Atlanta metropolitan area was first defined in 1950 as Fulton, DeKalb, Gwinnett and Clayton counties. Walton, Douglas, Forsyth, Cherokee and Butts counties were added after the 1970 census, with Barrow and Coweta counties joining in 1980 and Bartow, Paulding and Spalding counties in 1990. Atlanta's larger combined statistical area adds the Gainesville, Georgia MSA, Athens-Clarke County, Georgia MSA and the LaGrange, Jefferson and Cedartown micropolitan areas, for a total 2012 population of 6,162,195.
The CSA abuts the Macon and Columbus MSAs. The region is one of the metropolises of the Southeastern United States, is part of the emerging megalopolis known as Piedmont Atlantic MegaRegion along the I-85 Corridor; the counties listed below are included in the Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Gainesville CSA. However, most other entities define a much smaller metropolitan area by including only the counties which have the densest suburban development. Fulton, DeKalb, Gwinnett and Clayton were the five original counties when the Atlanta metropolitan area was first defined in 1950, continue to be the core of the metro area; these five counties along with five more are members of the Atlanta Regional Commission, a weak metropolitan government agency, a regional planning agency. The ten ARC counties and five more form part of the Metropolitan North Georgia Water Planning District, created in 2001; the 12 counties listed above with under 75,000 residents are not included in any other metropolitan definition except the OMB/Census Bureau's MSA and CSA.
Hall County forms the Gainesville, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, but with astronomical growth to over 190,000 residents, is now part of the Atlanta CSA. The official tourism website of the State of Georgia features a "Metro Atlanta" tourism region that includes only nine counties: Fulton, DeKalb, Cobb, Coweta, Douglas and Henry. Cumberland Perimeter Center Hartsfield-Jackson areaMore than one half of metro Atlanta's population is in unincorporated areas or areas considered a census-designated-place by the census bureau. Metro Atlanta includes the following incorporated and unincorporated suburbs and surrounding cities, sorted by population as of 2010: Principal city Atlanta pop. 472,522 Places with 75,000 to 99,999 inhabitants. 95,158 Sandy Springs pop. 93,853 Roswell pop. 88,346 Johns Creek pop. 76,728Places with 50,000 to 74,999 inhabitants Alpharetta pop. 57,551 Marietta pop. 56,579 Stonecrest pop. 53,490 Smyrna pop. 51,271Places with 25,000 to 49,999 inhabitants Places with 24,999 or fewer inhabitants The area sprawls across the low foothills of the Appalachian Mountains to the north and the Piedmont to the south.
The northern and some western suburbs tend to be higher and more hilly than the southern and eastern suburbs. The average elevation is around 1,000 feet; the highest point in the immediate area is Kennesaw Mountain at 1,808 ft, followed by Stone Mountain at 1,686 ft, Sweat Mountain at 1,640 ft, Little Kennesaw Mountain at 1,600 ft. Others include Blackjack Mountain, Lost Mountain, Brushy Mountain, Pine Mountain, Mount Wilkinson. Many of these play prominently in the various battles of the Atlanta Campaign during the American Civil War. If the further-north counties are included, Bear Mountain is highest, followed by Pine Log Mountain, Sawnee Mountain, Hanging Mountain, followed by the others listed above. Stone, Sweat and Sawnee are all home to some of the area's broadcast stations; the area's subsoil is colored rusty by the iron oxide present in it. It becomes muddy and sticky when wet, hard when dry, stains light-colored carpets and c
History of Georgia (U.S. state)
The history of Georgia in the United States of America spans pre-Columbian time to the present-day U. S. state of Georgia. The area was inhabited by Native American tribes for thousands of years. A modest Spanish presence was established in the late 16th century centered on Catholic mission work; the Spanish were gone by the early 18th century, though they remained in nearby Florida, their presence left little impact on what would become Georgia. English settlers arrived in the 1730s, led by James Oglethorpe; the name "Georgia", after George II of Great Britain, dates from the creation of this colony. Slavery was forbidden in the colony, but the ban was overturned in 1749. Slaves numbered 18,000 at the time of the American Revolution; the citizens of Georgia agreed with the other 12 colonies concerning trade rights and issues of taxation. On April 8, 1776, royal officials had been expelled and Georgia's Provincial Congress issued a constitutional document that served as an interim constitution until adoption of the state Constitution of 1777.
The British occupied much of Georgia from 1780 until shortly before the official end of the American Revolution in 1783. The post-revolutionary years were a time of growth after Indian Removal, economic prosperity for planters; the new cotton gin, enabled the cultivation and processing of short-staple cotton in the inland and upcountry. This stimulated the cotton boom in Georgia and much of the Deep South, promoting a cotton-based economy dependent on slave labor. Most of the whites, owned no slaves and tended their own small farms. Full suffrage for white men led to a competitive political system. On January 19, 1861, Georgia seceded from the Union and on February 8 joined other Southern states to form the Confederate States of America. Georgia contributed nearly one hundred thousand soldiers to the war effort; the first major battle in the state was the Battle of Chickamauga, a Confederate victory, the last major Confederate victory in the west. In 1864, William Tecumseh Sherman's armies invaded Georgia as part of the Atlanta Campaign.
The burning of Atlanta was followed by Sherman's March to the Sea, which devastated a wide swath from Atlanta to Savannah in late 1864. These events became iconic images in the state's memory and dealt a devastating economic blow to the entire Confederacy. After the war, Georgians endured a period of economic hardship. Reconstruction was a period of military occupation and biracial Radical Republican rule that established public education and welfare institutions, instituted economic initiatives. Reconstruction ended in 1875 with the return of white Democratic rule. Black citizens lost most of their political power and became second class citizens in the Jim Crow era from the 1880s to 1964; the state was rural with an economy still based on cotton. Residents of the state suffered in the Great Depression of the 1930s; the many training munitions plants in World War II stimulated the economy. During the broad-based activism of the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s, Georgia was the base for African-American leader Martin Luther King Jr..
After 1950 the economy grew, with cotton becoming far less important. Atlanta became a major regional city and transportation hub, expanding into neighboring communities by the fast-growing suburbs. Georgia was part of the Solid South until 1964. Democratic candidates continued to receive majority-white support in state and local elections until the 1990s, when the realignment of whites shifted to Republicans. Since 2000 the white majority has supported the Republican Party, which dominates politics in the 21st century. Before European contact, Native American cultures are divided into four lengthy archaeological time periods: Paleo, Archaic and Mississippian. Human occupation of Georgia dates back at least 13,250 years, coincides with one of the most dramatic periods of climate change in recent earth history, toward the end of the Ice Age, in the Late Pleistocene epoch. Sea levels were more than 200 feet lower than present levels, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico shorelines were 100 or more miles seaward of their present locations.
A 2003 research project undertaken by University of Georgia researchers Ervan G, Sherri L. Littman, Megan Mitchell, looked at and reported on fossils and artifacts associated with Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary, located more than 19 miles beyond today's shoreline, 60 to 70 feet below the Atlantic Ocean; as as 8,000 years ago, Gray's Reef was dry ground, attached to the mainland. The researchers uncovered artifacts from a period of occupation by Clovis culture and Paleoindian hunters dating back more than 10,000 years; the South Appalachian Mississippian culture, the last of many mound building Native American cultures, lasted from 800 to 1500 AD. This culture developed urban societies distinguished by their construction of truncated earthworks pyramids, or platform mounds; the largest sites surviving in present-day Georgia are Kolomoki in Early County, Etowah in Bartow County, Nacoochee Mound in White County, Ocmulgee National Monument in Macon. At the time of European colonization of the Americas, the historic Iroquoian-speaking Cherokee and Muskogean-speaking Yamasee & Hitchi
Elections in Georgia (U.S. state)
Elections in Georgia are held to fill various state and federal seats. Georgia regular elections are held every year; the positions being decided each year varies. Special elections are held to fill vacated offices. Georgia is one of seven states that require a run-off election if no candidate receives a majority of the vote in a primary election. Uniquely, Georgia requires a run-off election if no candidates wins a majority of the vote in a general election. Following the end of martial law and readmission to the Union during Reconstruction, Georgia was overwhelmingly dominated by the Democratic Party for a hundred years as did many other states of the Confederacy. White voters perceived the Republican Party as the party of the North standing for Yankee values, growing industrialisation, an excessively powerful and interfering federal government all arrayed against their localized agricultural society; the abolition of slavery by amendment to the U. S. Constitution and the legacy of an economy damaged by war and social upheaval led many to bitterly oppose a wide variety of national policies.
Elections to the U. S. Congress during this period saw exclusively Democratic senators and either or almost-totally Democratic House rule. From 1872 to 2002, Georgia voters elected Democrats as governor and Democratic majorities to the state legislature. Like many other Southern states, the Democratic-controlled legislature established run-off elections for primaries in which no candidate receives more than 50% of the vote. Elections at all levels of government in the U. S. state of Georgia was dominated by conservative white Democrats in the period between Reconstruction and the end of the New Deal Coalition. For decades, Republicans were a tiny minority associated with Union military victory at the end of the Civil War. Indeed, for several years, the Republicans did not field a candidate for governor or any other statewide elected office. Beginning in the 1950s, the credible enforcement of new laws inspired by the Civil Rights Movement began to erode the preponderance of Democrats in elective office in Georgia.
The repeal of Jim Crow laws allowed disenfranchised African Americans to vote in elections and be active in politics. As many of these people joined with some white Democrats to work for more immediate liberal and pluralistic policies, a growing number of conservative white Democrats who supported either gradual change or none at all either began splitting their tickets at the national level or switching outright to the GOP; the strong showing in Georgia by Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower in the 1956 presidential race proved to be a turning point. Georgia would remain competitive at the national level for most of the rest of the 20th century; the Republican Party appeared positioned to gain more ground in the coming years. The Democratic Party did not carry the state from the 1960 election until Jimmy Carter ran for the White House 16 years later. Beginning with Barry Goldwater's presidential bid in 1964, the Republican Party began making inroads in Georgia; the state swung over to support Goldwater—the first time it had gone Republican in a presidential election in American history.
In time, the Republican Party of Georgia would field competitive candidates and win races for seats in the U. S. Senate and U. S. House of Representatives. Republicans began making gains at the state level in the Atlanta suburbs. However, conservative Democrats continued to hold most offices at the local level well into the 1990s. In presidential races, Georgia has given its electoral college votes to the Republican candidate all but four times since 1964: in 1968, segregationist George Wallace won a plurality of Georgia's votes on the American Independent Party ticket. Republican George W. Bush won Georgia by double digits in 2000 and 2004, with 54.67% and 57.97% of the vote, making him the only Republican presidential candidate to carry Georgia twice. In 2008, John McCain won the state by a narrower margin of only 5 points, winning 52% to Democrat Barack Obama's 47%. In 2012, Mitt Romney won the state with 53% to Obama's 45%. In 2016, Donald Trump won the state with 51% to Hillary Clinton's 46%.
By 2007, conservative Republicans had become the dominant force in state elections, with Republicans holding the offices of governor and lieutenant governor and significant majorities in both houses of the state General Assembly. As in many states, Democratic strongholds in Georgia include minority-dominated areas. Democrats fare well in cities such as Atlanta and Columbus, which have large minority populations, as well as Athens, home of the University of Georgia; the Republican Party dominates state elections through its hold on rural south Georgia, with a notable exception in the southwestern part of the state. Former Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Newt Gingrich, co-author of the Contract with America and architect of the 1994 "Republican Revolution," represented a district in Cobb County, a conservative suburban Atlanta county; the current Governor of Georgia is Brian Kemp, elected as a Republican in 2018. The Lieutenant Governor is Geoff Duncan. Other elected state executive officials include Secretary of State Brad Raffensperger, Attorney Gen
Transportation in Georgia (U.S. state)
The transportation system of Georgia is a cooperation of complex systems of infrastructure comprising over 1,200 miles of interstates and more than 120 airports and airbases serving a regional population of 59,425 people. MARTA is composed of both heavy rail rapid transit and a bus transit system that operates within the boundaries of Clayton, DeKalb, Fulton counties. In addition to Atlanta itself, the transit agency serves the following incorporated places within these core counties: Alpharetta, Avondale Estates, Clarkston, College Park, Doraville, East Point, Forest Park, Jonesboro, Lovejoy, Palmetto, Pine Hill, Roswell, Sandy Springs, Stone Mountain, Union City. Outside of the immediate service area, MARTA operates one bus route to Cobb County's Cumberland Boulevard Transfer Center. In 2015, MARTA resumed bus service to Clayton County after a referendum in which the county agreed to a 1% sales tax increase to fund MARTA's return to most of the county, without public transit service since the closure of C-TRAN in 2010.
Introducing some form of high-capacity transit service into Clayton County is being studied by MARTA. Amtrak maintains two rail lines through Georgia, Alabama to Greenville South Carolina traveling through Atlanta and Toccoa, another line traveling from Charleston, South Carolina to Jacksonville, traveling through the two cities of Savannah and Jesup. Major freight railroads in Georgia include Norfolk Southern Railway. Passenger service in Georgia is available on two Amtrak routes: the Crescent, which travels from New York to Washington, D. C. through North Georgia and Atlanta to New Orleans and the other, Silver Meteor / Silver Star, travels from New York to the Georgia coast and from there to Florida. The River Street Streetcar is a heritage streetcar line in Savannah, it began regular operation on February 11, 2009, shuttles between seven stops along River Street, next to the Savannah River. The BeltLine is a former railway corridor around the core of Atlanta, under development in stages as a multi-use trail.
Using existing rail track easements, it aims to improve not only transportation, but to add green space and promote redevelopment. There are part of the corridor. Georgia lacks a united bus system and is instead, served by various separate systems that serve various areas of the state; the state of Georgia has 1,244 miles of Interstate Highways within its borders. Georgia's major Interstate Highways are Interstate 16, I-20, I-75, I-85, I-95. Other important interstate highways are I-24 and I-59. I-285 is Atlanta, Georgia's perimeter route and I-575 connects counties in North Georgia to I-75; the Georgia Department of Transportation maintains only 16% of the roads in the state. The other 84 % are the responsibility of the cities. All of Georgia's Interstate highways are as follows: I-16 I-516 I-20 I-520 I-24 I-59 I-75 I-175 I-475 I-575 I-675 I-85 I-185 I-285 I-985 I-95 The state of Georgia has an extensive system of U. S. Highways. All of Georgia's U. S. Highways are as follows: US 1 US 301 US 11 US 411 US 17 US 19 US 319 US 23 US 123 US 25 US 27 US 29 US 129 US 41 US 341 US 441 US 76 US 78 US 278 US 378 US 80 US 280 US 82 US 84 US 221 The state of Georgia has an extensive system of state routes.
The Sidney Lanier Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge that spans the Brunswick River in Brunswick, carrying four lanes of US 17/SR 25. The current bridge was built as a replacement to the original lift bridge, twice struck by ships, it is the longest-spanning bridge in Georgia and is 480 feet tall. It is the 76th-largest cable-stayed bridge in the world, it was named for poet Sidney Lanier. Each year, there is the "Bridge Run" sponsored by Southeast Georgia Health System when the south side of the bridge is closed to traffic and people register to run the bridge; the Chetoogeta Mountain Tunnel refers to two different railroad tunnels traveling through Chetoogeta Mountain in the northwestern part of the state. The first tunnel was completed on May 7, 1850, as part of the construction of the Western and Atlantic Railroad, the first state road in Georgia, it is 1,447 feet in length. It was renovated in 1998-2000 and is now open to the public as a owned historic site; the second tunnel is 1,557 feet long.
It is still under lease from the Georgia Department of Transportation. It, like the entire A subdivision, is a major route between Atlanta and Chattanooga; the nearby town of Tunnel Hill, Georgia was founded and named for the first tunnel, was the supply base for its construction materials and worker housing. Georgia has a system of State Bicycle Routes; the city of Atlanta limits the number of CPNCs to 1,600 and is the maximum number of licensed taxis allowed within the city. Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, the world's busiest airport as measured by passenger traffic and by aircraft traffic, offers air service to over 150 U. S. destinations and more than 80 international destinations in 52 countries, with over 2,700 arrivals and departures daily. Delta Air Lines and AirTra
The Wiregrass Region—or Wiregrass Country—is an area of the Southern United States encompassing parts of southern Georgia, southeastern Alabama, the Florida Panhandle. The region is named for the native Aristida stricta known as wiregrass due to its texture; the region stretches from just below Macon and follows the Fall Line west to Montgomery, Alabama. From there it turns south and runs to Washington County, Florida in the northern panhandle. From there it runs east making its southern boundary along Interstate 10 to Lake City, Florida. From there it turns north following the Suwannee River back into Georgia and along the western fringes of the Okefenokee Swamp. From here it runs due north back to Macon. Interstate 75, Interstate 10, U. S. Route 231, U. S. Route 331, portions of Interstate 65 traverse parts of the Wiregrass; the portion of U. S. Route 84 through Georgia is known as the Wiregrass Georgia Parkway. Major cities in the region include: The region includes Fort Rucker, a U. S. Army post located in Dale County, Alabama.
The post is the primary flight training base for Army Aviation and is home to the United States Army Aviation Center of Excellence and the United States Army Aviation Museum, as well as Moody Air Force Base located in Lowndes and Lanier County, Georgia. Moody AFB is the home of the 23d Wing; the wing executes worldwide close air support, force protection, combat search and rescue operations in support of humanitarian interests, United States national security and the global war on terrorism. There are two major waterways in the region, they bisect the Wiregrass, dividing it into three portions; the Chattahoochee River and the Flint River join to form the Apalachicola River, which flows south from Bainbridge and Lake Seminole to the Gulf of Mexico at Apalachicola, Florida. Other waterways include Little Choctawhatchee River, Choctawhatchee River, Choctawhatchee Bay; the Wiregrass Region suffers from high humidity in the summer and enjoys mild winters. Snowfall occurs in this region in cold years.
The area is prone to hurricanes and tropical storms. Most notably, Hurricane Michael which devastated the area during October 2018; the Wiregrass Region received over 6 inches or 0.15 metres of snow on February 12, 2010. The region had not seen this depth of snowfall since the 1990s; the first winter storm warning in many years was issued in the Florida. Harper's Magazine published a poem by Charles Ghigna in September 1974 describing the Wiregrass Region. Review of A Wiregrass Witness WiregrassLive.com - Citizen-driven news and messages Wiregrass Weather
Geography of Georgia (U.S. state)
The geography of Georgia describes a state in the Southeastern United States in North America. The Golden Isles of Georgia lie off the coast of the state; the main geographical features include mountains such as the Ridge-and-valley Appalachians in the northwest, the Blue Ridge Mountains in the northeast, the Piedmont plateau in the central portion of the state and Coastal Plain in the south. The highest area in Georgia is Brasstown Bald, 1,458 m above sea level, while the lowest is at sea level, at the Atlantic Ocean. Georgia is located at 33° N 83.5° W. The state has a total area of 154,077 km2 and the geographic center is located in Twiggs County. Georgia is a humid subtropical climate with hot and humid summers, except at the highest elevations. Georgia's subtropical climate depends on latitude and how close an area is to the Atlantic Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico; the state's weather is moderate, but Georgia has occasional extreme weather. The highest temperature recorded is 112 °F and the lowest is -17 °F.
Georgia is vulnerable to hurricanes, though the coast experiences a direct hurricane strike. Georgia has 500 cities in 159 counties with 13 congressional districts. 149 of the 159 in the state are governed by a committee of around three to eleven commissioners while the other 10 are overseen by a single commissioner. Most of the 536 cities are governed by a mayor-council system. Georgia has eight million acres of prime farmland while over 60% of the land is made up of pine forests. Georgia has 70,150 miles of streams and rivers, 425,000 acres of lakes, 4,500,000 acres of freshwater wetlands. Manganese, copper and other minerals make up the natural resources of the state; the oldest known rock found in Georgia comes from the Precambrian Proterozoic Era and is about 1 to 1.34 billion years old. It is found in the Piedmont Blue Ridge mountain regions. 1 billion years ago a metamorphic change occurred during an event called the Grenville Orogeny and caused the rocks, which were sediment, to compress into a form of rock called gneiss due to heat and pressure.
Around 630 million years ago the Grenville mountains began to erode carrying sediments from streams to the sea. The gneiss formed from these sediments created the marble, phyllite, quartzite and slate found in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont areas. Three separate orogeny events impacted the eastern portion of North America during the Paleozoic. From these orogeny came folding and igneous intrusions in the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge, the Valley and Ridge and the Appalachian Plateau. Georgia's Ridge and Valley lies in the northwestern portion of the state; the area was formed due to extreme faulting events. This folding and faulting created a series of ridges and valleys that vary in "height and geological materials", it consists of limestone, chert and shale as well as many other types of rocks. Much of the land in the area is forested as forests cover half of the region; the Blue Ridge region of Georgia is situated in the northeast of the state just north of the Piedmont. The mountain peaks in the Blue Ridge, which are among the highest in the state, average between two thousand and five thousand feet.
It includes igneous and sedimentary geology. The soils of the Broad Basin are loamy or clayey Ultiso; the rocks of the Piedmont are made up of Precambrian and Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks and the soils are of a finer texture than those found on the coastal plain. Some specific types of rock in the Piedmont are schist and phyllite among others. Georgia's coastal plain is made up of sedimentary rock dating from the Late Cretaceous to Holocene periods; the primary natural mineral resource in the area is kaolin. The Georgia Mountains Region are part of the Blue Ridge Mountains and begin in the northeast corner of Georgia. Brasstown Bald, the highest mountain in Georgia at 4,784 feet above mean sea level, is part of the chain and sits in an area known as Wolfpen Ridge. Other mountains in Georgia include Rabun Bald, Arabia Mountain, Big Bald Mountain, Black Mountain, Blood Mountain. Stone Mountain, located in Stone Mountain, Georgia is a well-known mountain that has an elevation of 1,683 feet amsl from its summit and 825 feet above the surrounding plateau.
The mountain is known for its geology and for its enormous bas-relief depicting three Confederate leaders: Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. The bas-relief is the largest in the world. Several major rivers run through the state of Georgia; some of them are the Altamaha River, the Savannah River, the Suwannee River. The Chattahoochee River is Georgia's longest, at 436 miles; the river begins in the Blue Ridge Mountains just below Brasstown Bald and ends in Georgia where it creates a boundary between Alabama and Florida. Lake Lanier is the largest lake in Georgia followed by Lake Oconee as the second largest. Lake Lanier is 26 miles long and covers 47 miles of riverbed Lake Oconee is 20 miles long and about a mile wide. Other lakes in the state include Lake Acworth, Lake Allatoona, Lake Blackshear, Walter F. George Lake. Georgia has thirteen barrier islands off of its coast. Four of these islands are known as The Golden Isles; the largest of these islands is Cumberland Island in Camden County.
The island is only accessible by boat. Some of the next largest islands are St. Simon's Island in Glynn County as the second largest.