In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term "crime" does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition, though statutory definitions have been provided for certain purposes; the most popular view is. One proposed definition is that a crime or offence is an act harmful not only to some individual but to a community, society or the state; such acts are punishable by law. The notion that acts such as murder and theft are to be prohibited exists worldwide. What is a criminal offence is defined by criminal law of each country. While many have a catalogue of crimes called the criminal code, in some common law countries no such comprehensive statute exists; the state has the power to restrict one's liberty for committing a crime. In modern societies, there are procedures to which trials must adhere. If found guilty, an offender may be sentenced to a form of reparation such as a community sentence, or, depending on the nature of their offence, to undergo imprisonment, life imprisonment or, in some jurisdictions, execution.
To be classified as a crime, the "act of doing something criminal" must – with certain exceptions – be accompanied by the "intention to do something criminal". While every crime violates the law, not every violation of the law counts as a crime. Breaches of private law are not automatically punished by the state, but can be enforced through civil procedure; when informal relationships prove insufficient to establish and maintain a desired social order, a government or a state may impose more formalized or stricter systems of social control. With institutional and legal machinery at their disposal, agents of the State can compel populations to conform to codes and can opt to punish or attempt to reform those who do not conform. Authorities employ various mechanisms to regulate certain behaviors in general. Governing or administering agencies may for example codify rules into laws, police citizens and visitors to ensure that they comply with those laws, implement other policies and practices that legislators or administrators have prescribed with the aim of discouraging or preventing crime.
In addition, authorities provide remedies and sanctions, collectively these constitute a criminal justice system. Legal sanctions vary in their severity; some jurisdictions have penal codes written to inflict permanent harsh punishments: legal mutilation, capital punishment or life without parole. A natural person perpetrates a crime, but legal persons may commit crimes. Conversely, at least under U. S. law, nonpersons such as animals cannot commit crimes. The sociologist Richard Quinney has written about the relationship between crime; when Quinney states "crime is a social phenomenon" he envisages both how individuals conceive crime and how populations perceive it, based on societal norms. The word crime is derived from the Latin root cernō, meaning "I decide, I give judgment"; the Latin word crīmen meant "charge" or "cry of distress." The Ancient Greek word krima, from which the Latin cognate derives referred to an intellectual mistake or an offense against the community, rather than a private or moral wrong.
In 13th century English crime meant "sinfulness", according to etymonline.com. It was brought to England as Old French crimne, from Latin crimen. In Latin, crimen could have signified any one of the following: "charge, accusation; the word may derive from the Latin cernere – "to decide, to sift". But Ernest Klein rejects this and suggests *cri-men, which would have meant "cry of distress". Thomas G. Tucker suggests a root in "cry" words and refers to English plaint, so on; the meaning "offense punishable by law" dates from the late 14th century. The Latin word is glossed in Old English by facen "deceit, treachery". Crime wave is first attested in 1893 in American English. Whether a given act or omission constitutes a crime does not depend on the nature of that act or omission, it depends on the nature of the legal consequences. An act or omission is a crime if it is capable of being followed by what are called criminal proceedings. History The following definition of "crime" was provided by the Prevention of Crimes Act 1871, applied for the purposes of section 10 of the Prevention of Crime Act 1908: The expression "crime" means, in England and Ireland, any felony or the offence of uttering false or counterfeit coin, or of possessing counterfeit gold or silver coin, or the offence of obtaining goods or money by false pretences, or the offence of conspiracy to defraud, or any misdemeanour under the fifty-eighth section of the Larceny Act, 1861.
For the purpose of section 243 of the Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1992, a crime means an offence punishable on indictment, or an offence punishable on summary conviction, for the commission of which the offender is liable under the statute making the offence punishable to be imprisoned either or at the discretion of the court as an alternative for some other punishment. A normative definition views crime as deviant behavior that violates prevailing norms – cult
St. Francois Mountains
The St. Francois Mountains in southeast Missouri are a mountain range of Precambrian igneous mountains rising over the Ozark Plateau; this range is one of the oldest exposures of igneous rock in North America. The name of the range is spelled out as Saint Francois Mountains in official GNIS sources, but it is sometimes misspelled in use as St. Francis Mountains to match the anglicized pronunciation of both the range and St. Francois County; the name of the range derives from the St. Francis River, which originates in the St. Francois Mountains; the origin of the river's name, spelled "Francois" in the French manner, is unclear. The area, as part of the Louisiana district of New France, is near some of the earliest French settlements in Missouri, where many French place names survive; some sources conjecture that the name honors St. Francis of Assisi, the patron saint of the Franciscan order, but none of the region's early explorers were Franciscans. Others propose that Jacques Marquette, a French Jesuit, named the river when he explored its mouth in present-day Arkansas in 1673.
Before his voyage down the Mississippi River, Marquette had spent some time at the mission of St. Francois Xavier, named for the Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier; the spelling of the river's name shifted from "Francois" to "Francis" in the early 20th century. The St. Francois Mountains were formed by intrusive activity 1.485 billion years ago. By comparison, the Appalachians started forming about 460 million years ago, the Rockies a mere 140 million years ago; when the Appalachians started forming, the St. Francois range was twice as old as the Appalachians are today; the intrusive rocks of the area are composed of three types: subvolcanic massifs, ring intrusions and central plutons. The subvolcanic intrusives are similar in geochemistry to the associated rhyolite volcanics, which they intrude, they are granite with granophyric quartz, perthitic potassium feldspar and magnetite. They are intrusive into the rhyolites with development of fine grained granophyre at the contact. At depth they exhibit a coarse-grained rapakivi texture.
The subvolcanic granites are the most widespread igneous rocks and were thought to have been covered with extensive volcanics that have been removed by erosion. The ring intrusives are high silica bodies which were intruded along ring faults associated with caldera collapse. Rock types include trachyandesite, trachyte and amphibole - biotite granite, they are porphyritic. The central plutons are evolved two mica granites. Distinctive accessory minerals include: fluorite, apatite, allanite and cassiterite, they are enriched in tin, beryllium, barium, niobium, uranium and fluorine and are referred to as "tin granites'. Their circular to oval shape in plan view is consistent with emplacement within resurgent calderas; the exposed igneous rocks of the St. Francois are surrounded at depth by the younger distributed igneous Spavinaw terrane; the Spavinaw rocks are intersected in drill core across southern Missouri, southern Illinois, northern Arkansas, southern Kansas and northeastern Oklahoma. The Spavinaw rocks occur in outcrop only near Oklahoma.
The rhyolites and ash flow tuffs of the Spavinaw are identical to the volcanics of the St. Francois mountains; the Saint Francois Mountains were formed by igneous activity, whereas most of the surrounding Ozarks are developed on Paleozoic sedimentary rocks as a dissected plateau. The localized vertical relief was caused by erosion following uplift during the Pennsylvanian and Permian periods produced by the Ouachita orogeny to the south. Elevations and strata dips in the Ozark structural dome radiate downward and outward away from the Saint Francois mountains; these ancient mountains may be the only area in the Midwestern United States never to have been submerged, existing as an island archipelago in the Paleozoic seas. Fossilized coral, the remains of ancient reefs, can be found among the rocks around the flanks of the mountains; these ancient reef complexes formed the localizing structures for the mineralizing fluids that resulted in the rich ore deposits of the area. The igneous rocks of the Saint Francois Mts. are interpreted to be a series of caldera complexes, similar in scale to the Yellowstone Caldera complex.
However, it is debated whether the igneous activity was related to a hotspot, like Yellowstone, or whether it was related to an ancient subduction zone. The St. Francois Mountains are the center of the Lead Belt, a mining region yielding lead, baryte, silver, manganese and nickel ores. Historic Mine La Motte near Fredericktown was the site of lead mining activity by the French as early as 1720; the area today accounts for over 90% of primary lead production in the United States. Granite has been commercially quarried since 1869 in the vicinity of Elephant Rocks State Park, a tor with huge weathered granite boulders; the red architectural granite quarried in the area has been used in buildings in St. Louis and other areas in the country, it is marketed as Missouri Red monument stone. Hughes Mountain contains a good example of columnar jointing in igneous rhyolite, the same process that formed Devils Tower in Wyoming and the Giant's Causeway in Ireland; the columnar jointing in this area is called the Devil's Honeycomb.
Mountains in this range include. The elevations range from 500 to 1,772 feet (152 to 540 met
The Osage Plains are a physiographic section of the larger Central Lowland province, which in turn is part of the larger Interior Plains physiographic division. The area is sometimes called North Central Plains, or Rolling Plains; the Osage Plains, covering west-central Missouri, the southeastern third of Kansas, most of central Oklahoma, extending into north-central Texas, is the southernmost of three tallgrass prairie physiographic areas. It grades into savanna and woodland to the east and south, into shorter, mixed-grass prairie to the west; the Osage Plains consist of three subregions. The Osage Plains proper occupy the northeast segment. Although demarcated from the Ozark uplift, the plains are nonetheless a transitional area across which the boundary between prairie and woodland has shifted over time. In the central portion of the physiographic area lies the second subregion, the Flint Hills called "the Osage" in Oklahoma; this large remnant core of native tallgrass prairie is a rocky rolling terrain that runs from north to south across Kansas and extends into Oklahoma.
To the west and south of these hills are the Blackland Prairies and Cross Timbers. This vegetatively complex region of intermixed prairie and scrubby juniper-mesquite woodland extends into north-central Texas. Bluestem prairies and oak-dominated savannas and woodlands characterize the natural vegetation in the Cross Timbers. Much of the area has been converted to agriculture, although expanses of oak forest and woodland are still scattered throughout the eastern portion of the subregion. Birds in the Osage Plains include the threatened greater prairie-chicken, Henslow's sparrow, loggerhead shrike, field sparrow, scissor-tailed flycatcher, Bell's vireo, painted bunting, Harris's sparrow. Wildfire suppression and the spread of exotic plants are the factors most negatively affecting priority bird habitat; the area now is managed exclusively for beef production with annual burns and intensive grazing practices that provide little of the habitat structure required to support many priority bird species.
Fire and plains bison were dominant ecological forces and had great influences on the vegetation from local to landscape scales. The Osage Plains and Flint Hills were dominated by tallgrass prairie with scattered groves of blackjack oak in the uplands and along drainages. A variety of wetland types, including wet prairie and northern floodplain forests occurred along larger rivers. Today, much of the land in the Osage Plains is planted to corn and soybeans, or has been converted to non-native grasses for pasture and hay. Large expanses of tallgrass prairie remain in the Flint Hills, where relief is greater than in the Osage Plains subregion and the land less suitable for cropping; the Osage Plains are underlain by soft shales with interbedded sandstones and limestones of late Mississippian to Pennsylvanian ages. Some of the rocks prevalent in the Osage Plains are Mississippian limestone, limestone shale, Ordovician dolomite, coal. Clay and shale are within the Pennsylvanian bedrock; the area contained two major mining areas.
The biggest was the Tri-State zinc region, consisting of nearly 2,000 sq mi. This was the largest concentration of zinc deposits anywhere in the world. Most mining sites have closed due to health and other environmental issues. More than $1 billion worth of lead and zinc were extracted from the area during the active mining days; the other major mining was for bituminous coal. Due to air quality standards, this region's coal is in low demand due to its high sulfur content; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document "Osage Plains, Bureau of Land Management"
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry and housing. A metro area comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, boroughs, towns, suburbs, districts and nations like the eurodistricts; as social and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include one or more urban areas, as well as satellite cities and intervening rural areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban core measured by commuting patterns. In the United States, the concept of the metropolitan statistical area has gained prominence. Metropolitan areas may themselves be part of larger megalopolises. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In the United States, the term micropolitan statistical area is used. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones not urban in character, but bound to the center by employment or other commerce; these outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, New York on Long Island is considered part of the New York metropolitan area. In practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Sometimes they are little different from an urban area, in other cases they cover broad regions that have little relation to a single urban settlement. Population figures given for one metro area can vary by millions. There has been no significant change in the basic concept of metropolitan areas since its adoption in 1950, although significant changes in geographic distributions have occurred since and more are expected; because of the fluidity of the term "metropolitan statistical area," the term used colloquially is more "metro service area," "metro area," or "MSA" taken to include not only a city, but surrounding suburban and sometimes rural areas, all which it is presumed to influence.
A polycentric metropolitan area contains multiple urban agglomerations not connected by continuous development. In defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus with which other areas have a high degree of integration. See the many lists of metropolitan areas itemized at § Lists of metropolitan areas; the Australian Bureau of Statistics defines Greater Capital City Statistical Areas as the areas of functional extent of the seven state capitals and the Australian Capital Territory. GCCSAs replaced "Statistical Divisions" used until 2011. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called "metropolitan regions"; each State defines its own legislation for the creation and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a metropolitan region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics uses them in its reports, their main purpose is to allow for a better management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved.
They don't have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so citizens living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the metropolitan area must have a population of at least 100,000, at least half within the urban core. To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuter flows derived from census data. In Chinese, there used to be no clear distinction between "megalopolis" and "metropolitan area" until National Development and Reform Commission issued Guidelines on the Cultivation and Development of Modern Metropolitan Areas on Feb 19, 2019, in which a metropolitan area was defined as "an urbanized spatial form in a megalopolis dominated by supercity or megacity, or a large metropolis playing a leading part, within the basic range of 1-hour commute area."
The European Union's statistical agency, has created a concept named Larger Urban Zone. The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the metropolitan area, the goal was to have an area from a significant share of the resident commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region". France's national statistics institute, the INSEE, names an urban core and its surrounding area of commuter influence an aire urbaine; this statistical method applies to agglomerations of all sizes, but the INSEE sometimes uses the term aire métropolitaine to refer to France's largest aires urbaines. In German definition, metropolian areas are eleven most densely populated areas in the Federal Republic of Germany, they comprise the major German cities and their surrounding catchment areas and form the political and cultural centres of the country. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the Regiopolis and regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.
In India, a metropolitan city is defin
Lee's Summit, Missouri
Lee's Summit is a city located within the counties of Jackson and Cass in the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census its population was about 91,364, making it the sixth-largest city in both the state and in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area. Founded as the "Town of Strother", by William B. Howard for his wife, Maria D. Strother. Howard came to Jackson County in 1842 from Kentucky, married Maria in 1844, by 1850 he and Maria had 833 acres and a homestead five miles north of town. There was another town called Strother, he was arrested for being a Confederate in October 1862, near the beginning of the Civil War, after being paroled he took his family back to Kentucky for the duration of the war. After the war ended he returned and, knowing that the Missouri Pacific Railroad was surveying a route in the area, platted the town with 70 acres in the fall of 1865 as the town of Strother. In 1865 the town of Strother changed its name for early settler Dr. Pleasant John Graves Lea, who moved to Jackson County in 1849, from Bradley County, Tennessee.
Lea was listed as the postmaster of Big Cedar in the 1855 United States Official Postal Guide. Dr. Lea was killed in August 1862 by Kansas Jayhawkers; when the surveyors for the Missouri Pacific Railroad came through, the local people and the railroad wanted to name the town in Dr. Lea's honor, he had a farm on the highest point and near the path of the tracks, his murder had taken place near the site of the proposed depot. So they chose the name of "Lea's Summit", the "summit" portion to reflect its highest elevation on the Missouri Pacific Railroad between St. Louis and Kansas City, but they misspelled the name "Lees Summit" on a boxcar, serving as a station and donated by the Missouri Pacific a sign next to the tracks, in the printed time schedule for the railroad. Legend states that the name was spelled wrong on the side of the Missouri Pacific depot and has remained Lee's Summit since. Others, claim that the town was named after famed Civil War General Robert E. Lee after Southerners began moving north into Missouri after the war due to the timing of General Lee's death compared to Dr. Lea's death.
Attributed to a quote in the Louisville Journal, January 3, 1866. Since the name was being circulated and published with two "e's", the town petitioned the state legislature and incorporated its name in 1868 as: "Town of Lee's Summit"; the growth of the town can be studied through historic Sanborn Maps, which document building types and uses in the city during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In 1912, R. A. Long, the owner of a lumber company, began building his estate, named Longview Farm, on the western edge of the city and into part of Kansas City; when complete, it had five barns and 42 buildings in the 1,700 acres. The farm had a church, Longview Chapel Christian Church, completed in 1915, it soon became internationally known as a showplace farm. Today, one of the horse barns is home to Longview Farm Elementary, the site of Longview Community College; the church and mansion are on the National Register of Historic Places. Other parts of the farm have been turned into Longview Lake, Longview Community College, a development called New Longview.
Lee's Summit is home to Missouri Town 1855 and Lee's Summit Historical Cemetery. In 2006, CNN/Money and Money magazine ranked Lee's Summit 44th on its list of the "100 Best Cities to Live in the United States." That ranking improved to 27th on the 2010 list. Lee's Summit is located at 38°55′21″N 94°22′27″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 65.39 square miles, of which 63.35 square miles is land and 2.04 square miles is water. According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $71,821, the median income for a family was $82,737; as of the census of 2010, there were 91,364 people, 34,429 households, 25,126 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,442.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 36,679 housing units at an average density of 579.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.1% White, 8.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.1% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.9% of the population. There were 34,429 households of which 39.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.3% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 27.0% were non-families. 22.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.11. The median age in the city was 37.2 years. 28% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.9% male and 52.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 70,700 people, 26,417 households, 19,495 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,188.0 people per square mile. There were 27,311 housing units at an average density of 458.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.17% White, 3.47% African American, 0.36% Native America
The Missouri Rhineland is a geographical area of Missouri that extends from west of St. Louis to east of Jefferson City, located in the Missouri River Valley on both sides of the river. White settlements date to 1801. Dutzow, the first permanent German settlement in Missouri, was founded in 1832 by Baron von Bock; the area is named after the Rhineland region in central Europe, a wine-growing area around the Rhine river, by German-Americans who noticed similarities in the two regions' soil and topography. The soils of the Missouri River Valley and surrounding areas are rocky residual soils left after the carbonate bedrock weathered away to impurities of clayey soil and chert fragments. Farther to the north, glacial deposits and wind-deposited loess, a silty soil associated with the glaciers, are intermingled with the residual soils. While the soil could support other crops, the steep slopes of these areas were better used for viticulture. German settlers established the first wineries in the mid-19th century.
Italian immigrants established their own vineyards near Rolla in Phelps County. By 1920, Missouri was the second-largest wine-producing state in the nation. Came Prohibition, which ruined the industry. In the 1960s, local winemakers began to rebuild, part of a movement in states across the country. In 1980, An area around Augusta, was designated by the federal government as the first American Viticultural Area, one around Hermann, was designated an AVA in 1983. Much of the region of the Missouri Rhineland from Augusta to Jefferson City along the Missouri River is part of the larger Ozark Mountain AVA. Winning national tasting awards, the state's wine industry contributes to both the agricultural and tourist economies. A German attorney and author named Gottfried Duden purchased land on the north side of the Missouri River along Lake Creek that he first visited in 1824, he was investigating the possibilities of settlement in the area by his countrymen. In 1827 he returned to Germany. There in 1829 he published Bericht über eine Reise nach den westlichen Staaten Nordamerikas, extolling the attractions of Missouri.
In 1832, members of the small so-called Berlin Society communally purchased land that became the village of Dutzow, founded by Baron von Bock of Mecklenberg, Germany in March 1834. Led by Friedrich Muench and Paul Follenius of the Giessen Emigration Society, German immigrants arrived in the area in 1834. Resident Friedrich Muench became known for his expertise in the cultivation of grapes and wine making. Muench wrote a number of books, he wrote under the name of "Far West". His book American Grape Culture was published in 1859. In 1859, Friedrich Muench's brother George founded Mount Pleasant Winery based upon the principles and advice of expert viticulturist, Friedrich Muench. In 1836 the German Settlement Society began to look for a place to build a German community insulated from the increasing diversity of nationalities found in many American settlements, they chose to settle in Hermann and the first settlers arrived in 1837. An early leader of the settlers was George Bayer, who arrived in early 1838.
The soil on the hillsides surrounding the settlement was not appropriate for many forms of agriculture, but was ideal for grapes. Hermann's trustees decided to sell tracts of land with the agreement that they be planted as vineyards; the area along Route 94 between Defiance and Marthasville has so many wineries that the highway has been nicknamed the Missouri Weinstrasse. It runs parallel to much of the Katy Trail, built in former railway right-of-way; this area has the highest concentration of wineries in the state. Many of these sit high up on south-facing bluffs above the river. For a short while during the American Civil War, Missouri ranked as the number one producer of wine in the nation. Prior to Prohibition, Missouri was the United States' second largest producer of wine. In 1920, Missouri had more than 100 wineries; because of Prohibition all wineries were shut down, with one exception: Saint Stanislaus Seminary in Florissant was allowed to continue making sacramental wine. Prohibition ended the Missouri wine industry.
Vineyards were either used for other purposes or left untended. Winery facilities were left to decay; some wineries began producing again after Prohibition ended, but significant production did not begin until the 1960s and 1970s. This was. In 1965 Stone Hill Winery in Hermann, south of the Missouri River, was the first in the state to be re-established; the Augusta AVA in Augusta was designated the first American Viticultural Area in the United States in 1980 and Hermann AVA in Hermann was designated an AVA three years later. As of 2009, 88 wineries were operating in Missouri. Missouri wine Stone Hill Winery Les Bourgeois Winery Mount Pleasant Winery Giessen Emigration Society Alcohol laws of Missouri List of wineries in Missouri Isidor Bush "Historic Hermann, MO, Heart of Missouri Wine Country", Missouri Website "History of Washington", Washington Historical Society German American History Sources, Northwest Missouri State University Library
The Honey War was a bloodless territorial dispute in 1839 between Iowa Iowa Territory, Missouri over their border. The dispute over a 9.5-mile wide strip running the entire length of the border, caused by unclear wording in the Missouri Constitution on boundaries, misunderstandings over the survey of the Louisiana Purchase, a misreading of Native American treaties, was decided by the United States Supreme Court in Iowa's favor. The decision was to affirm a nearly 30-mile jog in the nearly straight line border between extreme southeast Iowa and northeast Missouri at Keokuk, Iowa, now Iowa's southernmost point. Before the issue was settled, militias from both sides faced each other at the border, a Missouri sheriff collecting taxes in Iowa was incarcerated, three trees containing beehives were cut down. 1803: Louisiana Purchase 1804: Treaty of St. Louis – Sac and Fox tribes cede Missouri from the mouth of the Gasconade River through Illinois and Wisconsin 1808: Treaty of Fort Clark – Osage Nation cedes Missouri and Arkansas east of Fort Osage 1812–1815: War of 1812 – Tribes protesting the treaties side with the British in Missouri and Mississippi Valley skirmishes 1814: Treaty of Ghent ends the war and requires tribes to be treated as before the war 1815: Treaties of Portage des Sioux includes wording that the Osage and Fox agree to their earlier treaties 1816: John C. Sullivan surveys the Indian Boundary Line from the mouth of the Kansas River in modern-day Kansas City, Missouri to Sheridan and east to the Des Moines River near Farmington, Iowa 1818: Missouri considers various boundary options for statehood.
1820: Missouri enters the Union with its western boundary being the Indian Boundary Line and its northern boundary being the Sullivan Line. Wording in the Constitution refers to the rapids on the river Des Moines which some perceive as ambiguous since the Des Moines has no rapids but the Mississippi nearby has rapids called the Des Moines Rapids. 1824: Sac and Fox cede all remaining land in Missouri and ceded the land south of the Sullivan Line between the Des Moines and Mississippi as Half Breed Tract. Missouri makes no effort to extend its claim to Half Breed Tract. 1830: Indian Removal Act – Efforts begin to remove all tribes to west of the Indian Boundary Line 1832: Black Hawk War as tribes resist the removal order 1834: Congress opens up Half Breed Tract to settlement but Missouri again makes no claim on the territory. 1836: Iowa is removed from Michigan Territory to Wisconsin Territory 1836: The federal government in the Platte Purchase buys the land west of the Indian Boundary line and it is annexed to Missouri with its northern border being the Sullivan Line.
1838: Iowa Territory is organized 1839: According to legend a Missouri tax collector in Iowa cuts down three hollow trees containing honey bee hives to collect the honey in lieu of taxes. 1839: Clark County, Missouri sheriff Uriah S. Gregory is arrested by Van Buren County, Iowa sheriff while attempting to collect Missouri taxes in the disputed territory. 1839: Militias from both sides assemble at the border 1839: Matter is referred to the U. S. Supreme Court 1846: Iowa enters the Union 1849: Supreme Court issues an opinion that since Missouri never challenged its straight-line border ending at the Des Moines River for more than 10 years, the border was valid; the court further upholds the Sullivan Line as the correct border but orders it resurveyed to correct quirks in Sullivan's Line which had jogs. 2005: Following various disputes, the State of Missouri contracts to have the border resurveyed, which finds many of the markers from the Supreme Court survey of 1850. The first major Native American treaties following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 were the Treaty of St. Louis in 1804 in which the Sac and Fox ceded much of northeast Missouri as well as southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois and the Treaty of Fort Clark in 1808 in which the Osage Nation ceded most of Missouri and Arkansas.
The United States made no formal efforts to survey the land. During the War of 1812 Native Americans sided with the British; when the war turned out to be a stalemate, the Treaty of Ghent in 1815 required that the tribes be returned to the same status they had before the war. Various tribes met with United States representatives at Portage Des Sioux, Missouri, in 1815 to formally end the war. While most of the Treaties of Portage des Sioux were innocuous treaties with wording about lasting friendship, the treaties with the Sac and Osage included a paragraph indicating agreement to abide by the earlier treaties. With that in place, the United States began plans to survey its territory. In the Treaty of Fort Clark, the Osage had ceded all land east of Fort Clark near Missouri; the treaty permitted the United States to survey the new land and they were to "adjust" the boundaries for a starting point 23 miles west to the mouth of the Kansas River with the Missouri River in Kansas City, Missouri on the far bank opposite Kaw Point.
In 1816 United States surveyor John C. Sullivan was instructed to survey a line north from the mouth for 100 miles and proceed east to the Des Moines River. In addition to being a round number, the 100-mile line Indian Boundary Line lined up in the east with the 2.4 feet deep Des Moines Rapids on the Mississippi River just south of Fort Madison, the northern end of navigation on the Mississippi and it lined up with the westward adjusted boundary from the mouth of the Gasconade River the Sac had ceded in 1808. The land on the east side of the Des Moines River was the site of a Sac village which had not been ceded. Sullivan erected survey markers along the line; the northwest corner of Missouri was established in a ma