Crime in Norway

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Crime in Norway is countered by Norway's law enforcement agencies.

In general, Norway has seen a significant decline in crime the latest years. There was a 4.3 percent decrease from 2015-2016, and a decline of as much as 9.6 percent from 2014. If population growth is factored in, this level of reported offences is by far the lowest in the 24 years of these statistics.[1]

Crime by type[edit]

Murder[edit]

In 2014, Norway had a murder rate of 0.56 per 100,000 population.[2] There were a total of 29 murders in Norway in 2014.[2]

According to a comparison of crime statistics from Norwegian Kripos and Swedish BRÅ done by Norwegian daily newspaper Aftenposten, the murder rate of Norway has since 2002 been roughly half that of neighbour country Sweden.[3]

Domestic violence[edit]

According to Norwegian police statistics, 5,284 cases of domestic violence were reported in 2008. These cases ranged from serious acts of violence such as murder and attempted murder to physical assault.[4] The number of reported cases of domestic violence increased by 500 percent from 2005 to 2011.[5]

Crime by location[edit]

Oslo[edit]

Statistics from the late 2000s indicate that crime in Oslo is rising.[6][7] Some media have reported that there are four times as many thefts and robberies in Oslo as in New York City.[6][7] Since 2012, the German travel guide Dumont now describes the city as being unsafe for female tourists. The guide also named Oslo "The Crime capital of Scandinavia".[8]

According to the Oslo Police, they receive more than 15,000 reports of petty thefts annually. The rate is more than seven times the number per-capita of Berlin. Approximately 0.8% of those cases get solved.[9] In the first 6 months of 2014, the number of petty thefts has declined by approximately 30%.[10]

Oslo has witnessed annual spikes in sexual assault cases in years leading up to 2012.[11] Immigrants from Africa and the Middle East were found by Oslo police to be overrepresented as perpetrators.[12]

Crime dynamics[edit]

A large proportion of the crime that is carried out in Norway is committed by criminals from overseas.[13] 34 percent of the Norwegian prison population are foreigners.[13] In his autobiography Undesirables, British criminal Colin Blaney has claimed that gangs of English thieves target the nation on account of the perception that its prisons are relatively comfortable compared to those of other countries.[14] Studies also indicate that this is one of the reasons that criminals from other parts of the world commit crime in Norway.[13]

Bar chart showing number of perpetrators aged 15 and older per 1000 residents per foreign-born population for the years 2010-2013, according to Statistics Norway. Each country of origin has four bars, with M1 (green) representing the proportion of perpetrators unadjusted for socioeconomic factors, M2 (purple) symbolizing adjustment for age and gender, M3 (yellow) adjustment for residence, and M4 (blue) adjustment for employment. Over-representation is largely dependent on the M2-M4 variables, and drops significantly when they are taken into consideration.[15]

The overall probability that a person living in Norway would be convicted for a felony (Norwegian: forbrytelse) was increased by about 0.5 percentage points for the immigrant compared to non-immigrant populations for felonies committed in the years 2001-2004. The incidence was especially high among immigrants from Kosovo, Morocco, Somalia, Iraq, Iran and Chile, and reached more than 2% in all these groups. In comparison, the incidence in the non-immigrant population was about 0.7%. Incidence was lower than for the non-immigrant population among immigrants from among others, Western European countries, Eastern Europe except Poland, the Balkans and Russia, the Philippines, China and North America. Incidence was also higher for persons with two immigrant parents for all countries of origin, including Nordic and Western European countries. When the data was corrected for the population group's age and gender structure (the most over-represented immigrant groups also have a considerable over-representation of young men), place of residence (rural–central) and employment situation, the over-representation was found to be significantly lower, especially for those groups which had the highest incidence in the uncorrected statistics. For some groups, among them immigrants from Bosnia-Herzegovina, Poland, Russia and the other Eastern European countries, the corrected incidences did not differ significantly from the non-immigrant population.[16]

Total persons sanctioned in Norway by principal type of offence, citizenship and year, 2011-2015 (click image to view).

In 2017, a Statistics Norway report on crime in Norway was ordered by the immigration minister Sylvi Listhaug.[17] According to Statistics Norway, since there is a generally low proportion of crime across all resident populations, it limited the scope of the paper to figures for individual nations from which at least 4,000 immigrants lived in Norway as of January 1, 2010.[18] In the 2010-2013 period, the proportion of foreign-born perpetrators of criminal offences aged 15 and older per 1000 residents in Norway was found to be highest among immigrants from South and Central America (164.0), Africa (153.8), and Asia including Turkey (117.4), and lowest among immigrants from Eastern Europe (98.4), other Nordic countries (69.1), and Western Europe outside the Nordic region (50.7). This was compared to averages of 44.9 among native Norwegians and 112.9 among Norway-born residents with parents of foreign origin.[19] Among individual countries of origin for which figures were provided, the estimated proportion of foreign-born perpetrators was highest among immigrants from Kosovo (131.48), Afghanistan (127.62), Iraq (125.29), Somalia (123.81), and Iran (108.60). Over-representation largely depended on variables such as gender and age structure (M2) and employment (M4), with residence (M3) having a negligible effect on the total. When adjusted for these variables, the unadjusted proportion (M1) of the foreign-born perpetrators of criminal offences during the same period dropped significantly in the adjusted estimates: Kosovo (113 M2; 106 M4), Afghanistan (93 M2; 85 M4), Iraq (102 M2; 92 M4), Somalia (102 M2; 89 M4), and Iran (98 M2; 91 M4). Immigrants from Poland were the only over-represented population for which all three adjustable variables, including residence, could explain their over-representation.[15]

According to Statistics Norway, as of 2015, a total of 260,868 persons residing in Norway incurred sanctions. Of these, most were citizens of countries in Europe (240,497 individuals), followed by Asia (2,899 individuals), Africa (2,469 individuals), the Americas (909 individuals), and Oceania (92 individuals). There were also 13,853 persons sanctioned who had unknown citizenship, and 149 persons sanctioned without citizenship. The five most common countries of origin of foreign citizens in Norway who incurred sanctions were Poland (7,952 individuals), Lithuania (4,227 individuals), Sweden (3,490 individuals), Romania (1,953 individuals) and Denmark (1,728 individuals).[20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Offences reported to the police, 2015-2016SSB, 2017.
  2. ^ a b Global Study on Homicide. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2014.
  3. ^ "Svensk politi skulle ta tilbake kontrollen over lovløse områder. To år senere er situasjonen blitt enda verre". Aftenposten. Retrieved 2017-08-12. 
  4. ^ "Statistikk" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Police Service. Retrieved 5 December 2011. 
  5. ^ Melgård, Marie (30 November 2011). "500 prosent flere anmeldelser av vold i nære relasjoner". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). Retrieved 5 December 2011. 
  6. ^ a b Redaksjon (2008-03-07). "Fire ganger mer krim i Oslo enn i New York". Osloby.no (in Norwegian). Retrieved 28 August 2012. 
  7. ^ a b Oslo, Politidistrikt. "Kriminaliteten i Oslo". Politi.no (in Norwegian). Retrieved 25 August 2012. 
  8. ^ Finstad, Vemund (16 July 2012). "Reiseguide advarer mot høy kriminalitet i Oslo". Abcnyheter.no (in Norwegian). Retrieved 25 August 2012. 
  9. ^ Norsk Telegrambyrå (9 October 2012). "Oslo har like mange lommetyverier som Berlin". Vg.no (in Norwegian). Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  10. ^ Norsk Telegrambyrå (4 July 2014). "2.000 færre lommetyverier i Oslo hittil i år". Osloby.no (in Norwegian). Retrieved 17 July 2014. 
  11. ^ Enerstvedt, Vidar (2011-11-14). "Voldtektsnorge utenfor hovedstaden: 63 anmeldte overfallsvoldtekter - to tatt". Vg.no (in Norwegian). Retrieved 25 August 2012. 
  12. ^ "Oslo politidistrikt - Voldtekt i den globale byen (2010) pages 52-54"
  13. ^ a b c "Prisons in Norway Do not Scare Foreign Criminals". The Nordic Page. Project Syndicate. 2 June 2014. 
  14. ^ Blaney, Colin (2014). Undesirables. John Blake. p. xxi. ISBN 978-1782198970. 
  15. ^ a b Synøve N. Andersen, Bjart Holtsmark & Sigmund B. Mohn (2017). Kriminalitet blant innvandrere og norskfødte med innvandrerforeldre En analyse av registerdata for perioden 1992-2015. Statistics Norway. pp. 29, 30 (Figur 3.2), 66 (Tabell B1). ISBN 978-82-537-9643-7. Figur 3.2 viser den ujusterte (M1) og de justerte (M2-M4) andelene gjernings-personer blant øvrig befolkning og blant innvandrere fra ulike land og verdens-regioner. De grønne og lilla søylene (M1 og M2) tilsvarer tallene i Tabell 3.3. Vedå kontrollere for alder og kjønn (M2) skjer det vesentlige endringer i andelgjerningspersoner, og da særlig for de landgruppene med høyest andel gjernings-personer. For eksempel synker andelen gjerningspersoner fra Afghanistan fra 127,6til 93,2 per 1000 (en reduksjon på 27 prosent), og for Irak synker andelen fra 125,3til 102,1 per 1000 (en reduksjon på 21 prosent). Dette betyr at for disse landenehenger overrepresentasjonen i vesentlig grad sammen med kjønns- og alders-strukturen. Korreksjon for alder og kjønn gir også en vesentlig reduksjon i andelengjerningspersoner blant innvandrere fra Litauen, Somalia og Irak, og en vissreduksjon ses også for alle andre grupper med unntak for innvandrere fra Danmark, Finland, Filipinene, Thailand og Nord-Amerika.[...] Å justere for bosted (M3) gir ingen eller liten endring for samtlige landgrupper.[...] Å kontrollere for sysselsetting (M4) reduserer imidlertid andelengjerningspersoner ytterligere for de landgruppene som fremdeles har relativt høyandel gjerningspersoner – herunder Somalia og øvrige Afrika, Irak og Iran.[...] Samlet sett er derfor rimelig åsi at sysselsetting forklarer noe av overrepresentasjonen for enkelte land ogregioner, selv om forskjellene jevnt over ikke er veldig store. Dette er i tråd medtidligere studier som finner at kjønn og alder er de viktigste sosiodemografiskeforklaringsfaktorene når man ønsker å forklare hvorfor innvandrere er over-representert i kriminalstatistikken. Det er også viktig å påpeke at kjønn, alder, bosted og sysselsetting kan forklare hele overrepresentasjonen kun blantinnvandrere fra Polen. For de andre landene som var overrepresentert i utgangspunktet består overrepresentasjonen også etter at disse faktorene er tatt hensyn til 
  16. ^ Skarðhamar, Torbjørn; Thorsen, Lotte R.; Henriksen, Kristin (2011-09-12). Kriminalitet og straff blant innvandrere og øvrig befolkning [Crime and punishment among immigrants and non-immigrants] (pdf) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistics Norway. ISBN 978-82-537-8124-2. 
  17. ^ "Etterlyste mer info om innvandrere og kriminalitet – svaret overrasker ikke SSB-forskerne". Aftenposten (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 2017-12-23. 
  18. ^ Synøve N. Andersen, Bjart Holtsmark & Sigmund B. Mohn. Kriminalitet blant innvandrere og norskfødte med innvandrerforeldre En analyse av registerdata for perioden 1992-2015. p. 24. For å begrense rapportens omfang, og fordi det i alle befolkningsgrupper er en relativt lav andel som begår kriminalitet, og analyser av relativt små befolkningsgrupper derfor er lite hensiktsmessig, rapporterer vi tall for enkeltland dersom antall innvandrere fra landet var minst 4000 personer per 1.1.2010, jfr. Skarðhamar et al. (2011). 
  19. ^ Synøve N. Andersen, Bjart Holtsmark & Sigmund B. Mohn. Kriminalitet blant innvandrere og norskfødte med innvandrerforeldre En analyse av registerdata for perioden 1992-2015. p. 38 (Tabell 3.6). Tabell 3.6 viser oss det totale antallet gjerningspersoner blant norskfødte med innvandrerforeldre, brutt ned etter foreldrenes landbakgrunn og innvandringsgrunn. Tallet i den øverste raden i tabellen kjenner vi igjen fra tidligere; det er 44,9 gjerningspersoner per 1000 bosatt i den øvrige befolkningen. Blant norskfødte med innvandrerforeldre er tallet 112,9. 
  20. ^ "Persons sanctioned, by group of principal offence and citizenship (and category of principal offence -2014). Absolute figures". Statistics Norway. Retrieved 25 December 2017.