Capital punishment known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is killed by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes or capital offences, they include offences such as murder, mass murder, treason, offenses against the State, such as attempting to overthrow government, drug trafficking, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide, but may include a wide range of offences depending on a country. Etymologically, the term capital in this context alluded to execution by beheading. Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment, 106 countries have abolished it de jure for all crimes, eight have abolished it for ordinary crimes, 28 are abolitionist in practice. Capital punishment is a matter of active controversy in several countries and states, positions can vary within a single political ideology or cultural region.
In the European Union, Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits the use of capital punishment. The Council of Europe, which has 47 member states, has sought to abolish the use of the death penalty by its members through Protocol 13 of the European Convention on Human Rights. However, this only affects those member states which have signed and ratified it, they do not include Armenia and Azerbaijan; the United Nations General Assembly has adopted, in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, non-binding resolutions calling for a global moratorium on executions, with a view to eventual abolition. Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, over 60% of the world's population live in countries where the death penalty is retained, such as China, the United States, Pakistan, Nigeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, among all Islamic countries, as is maintained in Japan, South Korea and Sri Lanka. China is believed to execute more people than all other countries combined.
Execution of criminals and dissidents has been used by nearly all societies since the beginning of civilizations on Earth. Until the nineteenth century, without developed prison systems, there was no workable alternative to insure deterrence and incapacitation of criminals. In pre-modern times the executions themselves involved torture with cruel and painful methods, such as the breaking wheel, sawing, hanging and quartering, brazen bull, burning at the stake, slow slicing, boiling alive, schwedentrunk, blood eagle, scaphism; the use of formal execution extends to the beginning of recorded history. Most historical records and various primitive tribal practices indicate that the death penalty was a part of their justice system. Communal punishment for wrongdoing included compensation by the wrongdoer, corporal punishment, shunning and execution. Compensation and shunning were enough as a form of justice; the response to crimes committed by neighbouring tribes, clans or communities included a formal apology, blood feuds, tribal warfare.
A blood feud or vendetta occurs when arbitration between families or tribes fails or an arbitration system is non-existent. This form of justice was common before the emergence of an arbitration system based on state or organized religion, it may result from land disputes or a code of honour. "Acts of retaliation underscore the ability of the social collective to defend itself and demonstrate to enemies that injury to property, rights, or the person will not go unpunished." However, in practice, it is difficult to distinguish between a war of vendetta and one of conquest. In most countries that practise capital punishment, it is now reserved for murder, war crimes, treason, or as part of military justice. In some countries sexual crimes, such as rape, adultery, incest and bestiality carry the death penalty, as do religious crimes such as Hudud and Qisas crimes, such as apostasy, moharebeh, Fasad, Mofsed-e-filarz and witchcraft. In many countries that use the death penalty, drug trafficking is a capital offence.
In China, human trafficking and serious cases of corruption and financial crimes are punished by the death penalty. In militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offences such as cowardice, desertion and mutiny. Elaborations of tribal arbitration of feuds included peace settlements done in a religious context and compensation system. Compensation was based on the principle of substitution which might include material compensation, exchange of brides or grooms, or payment of the blood debt. Settlement rules could allow for animal blood to replace human blood, or transfers of property or blood money or in some case an offer of a person for execution; the person offered for execution did not have to be an original perpetrator of the crime because the social system was based on tribes and clans, not individuals. Blood feuds could be regulated at meetings, such as the Norsemen things. Systems deriving from blood feuds may survive alongside more advanced legal systems or be given recognition by courts.
One of the more modern refinements of the blood feud is the duel. In certain parts of the world, n
Seal of South Carolina
The Great Seal of the American State of South Carolina was adopted in 1776. The seal is made up of two elliptical areas, linked by branches of the palmetto tree; the image on the left is dominated by a tall palmetto tree and an oak tree and broken. This scene represents the battle fought on June 28, 1776, between defenders of the unfinished fort on Sullivan's Island, the British Fleet; the standing palmetto represents the victorious defenders, the fallen oak is the British Fleet. Banded together on the palmetto with the motto "Quis separabit?", are 12 spears that represent the first 12 states of the Union. Surrounding the image, at the top, is "South Carolina", below, is "Animis Opibusque Parati"; the other image on the seal depicts the Roman Goddess Spes walking along a shore, littered with weapons. The Goddess, symbolizing Hope, grasps a branch of laurel. Below her image is her name "Spes", Latin for "Hope", over the image is the motto "Dum Spiro Spero", or "While I Breathe I Hope"; the Great Seal of South Carolina was "set" or "affixed" to the Ordinance of Secession of December 20, 1860, at Secession Hall in Charleston shortly after 7:00 p.m. following which convention delegates signed it, including Robert Barnwell Rhett, as some three thousand South Carolinians watched enthusiastically the proclamation of South Carolina as "a separate, independent nationality."
Christopher Werner State of South Carolina Symbols of the state of South Carolina Flag of South Carolina The Great Seal of the State of South Carolina
Atlantic coastal plain
The Atlantic coastal plain is a physiographic region of low relief along the East Coast of the United States. It extends 2,200 miles from the New York Bight southward to a Georgia/Florida section of the Eastern Continental Divide, which demarcates the plain from the ACF River Basin in the Gulf Coastal Plain to the west; the province is bordered on the west by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line and the Piedmont plateau, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Floridian province. The Outer Lands archipelagic region forms the insular northeasternmost extension of the Atlantic coastal plain; the province's average elevation is less than 900 meters above sea level and extends some 50 to 100 kilometers inland from the ocean. The coastal plain is wet, including many rivers and swampland. There are no mountains in this region of North America, it is composed of sedimentary rock and unlithified sediments and is used for agriculture. The area is subdivided into the Embayed and Sea Island physiographic provinces, as well as the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic coastal plains
Hilton Head Island, South Carolina
Hilton Head Island, sometimes referred to as Hilton Head, is a Lowcountry resort town and barrier island in Beaufort County, South Carolina, United States. It is 20 miles northeast of Savannah, 95 miles southwest of Charleston; the island is named after Captain William Hilton, who in 1663 identified a headland near the entrance to Port Royal Sound, which mapmakers named "Hilton's Headland." The island features 12 miles of beachfront on the Atlantic Ocean and is a popular vacation destination. In 2004, an estimated 2.25 million visitors pumped more than $1.5 billion into the local economy. The year-round population was 37,099 at the 2010 census, although during the peak of summer vacation season the population can swell to 150,000. Over the past decade, the island's population growth rate was 32%. Hilton Head Island is a primary city within the Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 207,413 in 2015; the island has a rich history that started with seasonal occupation by Native Americans thousands of years ago, continued with European exploration and the Sea Island Cotton trade.
It became an important base of operations for the Union blockade of the Southern ports during the Civil War. Once the island fell to Union troops, hundreds of ex-slaves flocked to Hilton Head, still home to many of whom are descendants of freed slaves known as the Gullah who have managed to hold on to much of their ethnic and cultural identity; the Town of Hilton Head Island incorporated as a municipality in 1983 and is well known for its eco-friendly development. The town's Natural Resources Division enforces the Land Management Ordinance which minimizes the impact of development and governs the style of buildings and how they are situated amongst existing trees; as a result, Hilton Head Island enjoys an unusual amount of tree cover relative to the amount of development. 70% of the island, including most of the tourist areas, is located inside gated communities. However, the town maintains several public beach access points, including one for the exclusive use of town residents, who have approved several multimillion-dollar land-buying bond referendums to control commercial growth.
Hilton Head Island offers an unusual number of cultural opportunities for a community its size, including plays at the Arts Center of Coastal Carolina, the 120-member full chorus of the Hilton Head Choral Society, the Hilton Head Symphony Orchestra, an annual outdoor, tented wine tasting event on the east coast, several other annual community festivals. It hosts the Heritage Golf Classic, a PGA Tour tournament played on the Harbour Town Golf Links in Sea Pines Resort; the Sea Pines shell ring can be seen near the east entrance to the Sea Pines Forest Preserve. The ring, one of at least 50 known to exist, is 150 feet in diameter and is believed to be over 4,000 years old. Archeologists believe that the ring was a refuse heap, created by Indians who lived in the interior of the ring, kept clear and used as a common area. Two other shell rings on Hilton Head were destroyed when the shells were removed and used to make tabby for roads and buildings; the Green's Shell Enclosure, Sea Pines, Skull Creek shell rings are listed in the National Register of Historic Places and are protected by law.
Since the beginning of recorded history in the New World, the waters around Hilton Head Island have been known and fought for in turn by the English, Spanish and Scots. A Spanish expedition led by Francisco Cordillo explored the area in 1521, initiating European contact with local tribes. In 1663, Captain William Hilton sailed on the Adventure from Barbados to explore lands granted by King Charles II of England to the eight Lords Proprietor. In his travels, he identified a headland near the entrance to Port Royal Sound, he named it "Hilton's Head" after himself. He stayed for several days, making note of the trees, crops, "sweet water", "clear sweet air". In 1698, Hilton Head Island was granted as part of a barony to John Bayley of Ballingclough, County of Tipperary, Kingdom of Ireland. Another John Bayley, son of the first, appointed Alexander Trench as the island's first retail agent. For a time, Hilton Head was known as Trench's Island. In 1729, Trench sold some land to John Gascoine; the land came to be known as Jenkin's Island after another owner.
In the mid-1740s, the South Carolina provincial half-galley Beaufort was stationed in a cove at the southern tip of Hilton Head to guard against intrusions by the Spanish of St. Augustine; the point and cove are named after commander of the Beaufort. Captain Braddock was a privateer of note in Colonial times. Earlier, he had been placed in command of the Georgia schooner Norfolk by James Oglethorpe, founder of Georgia, helped chase the Spanish back to St. Augustine after their failed 1742 invasion of St. Simons Island. After relocating to Savannah in 1746, he served two terms in the Georgia Commons House of Assembly while earning a living as a active privateer, he drew a well-known chart of the Florida Keys while on a privateering venture in 1756. The chart is in the Library of Congress. In 1788, a small Episcopal church called the Zion Chapel of Ease was constructed for plantation owners; the chapel's old cemetery, located near the corner of William Hilton Parkway and Mathews Drive, is all that remains.
Charles Davant, a prominent island planter during the Revolutionary War, is memorialized there. Davant was shot by Captain Martinangel of Daufuskie Island in 1781; this location is home to the oldest intact structure on Hilton Head Island, the Baynard Mausoleum, built in 1846. William
Charlotte metropolitan area
The Charlotte metropolitan area known as Metrolina, is a metropolitan area/region of North and South Carolina within and surrounding the city of Charlotte. Located in the Piedmont, it is the largest in the Carolinas, the fourth largest metropolitan area in the Southeastern region of the United States behind Miami and Tampa; the Charlotte metropolitan area is well known for its auto racing history. The region is headquarters to 8 Fortune 500 and 7 Fortune 1000 companies including Bank of America, Duke Energy, Sealed Air Corporation, Nucor Steel, Lowe's Home Improvement Stores. Additional headquarters include Harris Teeter, Food Lion and Sundrop, it is home to one of the world's busiest airports, Charlotte Douglas International Airport, is the Carolinas' largest manufacturing region. The Charlotte–Concord–Gastonia Metropolitan Statistical Area is defined as seven counties in North Carolina and three counties in South Carolina; the population of the MSA was 2,525,305 according to 2017 Census estimates.
Charlotte is the 17th largest city and 22nd largest metro area in the United States. Charlotte is the 2nd largest city in the Southeast; the Charlotte–Concord Combined Statistical Area is a regional population area including parts of North Carolina and South Carolina with a population of 2,632,249 according to the 2016 Census estimates. The aforementioned MSA is the only metropolitan area included in the CSA, but there are two included micropolitan areas: Albemarle and Shelby; the regional area around the city was at one time called Metrolina, a portmanteau of Metropolis and Carolina. The term has fallen out of widespread general use, though it still maintains a presence and is used by the North Carolina Department of Transportation; the term does retain a marketing value, is thus used by many businesses in the area. Metrolina refers to the region that includes the cities of Charlotte, Concord and Rock Hill; the name Metrolina came into fashion when North Carolina's other two large metropolitan areas took on nicknames—the Triangle for Raleigh/Durham/Cary/Chapel Hill and the Triad for Greensboro/Winston-Salem/High Point.
Charlotte is sometimes referred to as the Queen City, or the Q. C; the term "Charlotte USA" refers to the 16-county region, which includes 12 counties in North Carolina and 4 counties in South Carolina. The term is championed by the Charlotte Regional Partnership, a non-profit organization made up of both private- and public-sector members from throughout the Charlotte region; this organization represents one of seven designated economic development regions in North Carolina. Region J of the North Carolina Councils of Government, of which a majority of the Charlotte area municipalities and counties belong, uses the term Centralina in its body's name, Centralina Council of Governments; this term, however, is used only sparingly among locals. The official Charlotte metropolitan area includes the Charlotte–Concord–Gastonia MSA; the Charlotte CSA includes all the MSA counties along with the following micropolitan areas in North Carolina: Albemarle and Shelby. The Charlotte Regional Partnership identifies four additional counties to the what they refer to as the'Charlotte Region'-Alexander and Catawba counties in North Carolina, Chesterfield County, South Carolina.
Catawba and Alexander counties are part of the Hickory–Lenoir–Morganton Metropolitan Statistical Area or'The Unifour', Anson County was once part of the MSA and CSA, until it was removed in 2011. Changes in house prices for the area are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index. S. residential real estate market. The Charlotte Area Transit System is the local public transit agency that operates bus service that serves Charlotte and its immediate suburban communities in both North and South Carolina. CATS operates a light rail line and is building a commuter rail network as a supplement to its established bus transit throughout the region. Plans are for it to stretch to Mooresville, Matthews, the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Charlotte-Douglas International Airport will be connected to the system by streetcar; the Charlotte region is served by 2 major interstate highways, their 2 spurs. I-40 passes through the center of Iredell County, the northern region of the Charlotte metro.
Other major freeways include Independence Boulevard, a portion of US 321 between Hickory and Gastonia, the proposed Monroe Connector / Bypass, each projected to cost over $1 billion per project. Other important US highways in the region include: US 74, US 52, US 321, US 601 and US 70. Primary state routes include NC/SC 49, NC 16, NC 73, NC 150, NC 18, NC 24, NC 27, SC 9 and SC 5. Charlotte Douglas International Airport is the main airport in the Charlotte area and the 6th busiest in the country. In April 2007, Charlotte was the fastest growing airport in the US; the airport went on to surpass its sister US Airways hub i
Myrtle Beach, South Carolina
Myrtle Beach is a coastal city on the East Coast of the United States in Horry County, South Carolina. It is in the center of a large and continuous 60-mile stretch of beach known as "The Grand Strand" in northeastern South Carolina. Ranked as the second fastest-growing metropolitan area in the country, Myrtle Beach is one of the major centers of tourism in South Carolina and the United States because of the city's warm subtropical climate and extensive beaches, attracting an estimated 14 million visitors each year; as of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 27,109, in 2016 the estimated population was 32,240. The Myrtle Beach metropolitan area had an estimated population in 2016 of 449,495. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Long Bay area was inhabited by the native Waccamaw tribe; the Waccamaw fished along the shore around Little River. Waties Island, the primary barrier island along Long Bay, has evidence of burial and shell mounds, remains of the visiting Waccamaw; the first European settlers along Long Bay arrived in the late 18th century, attempting to extend the plantation system outward towards the ocean.
Records are sparse from this period, with most of the recorded history pieced together from old land grant documents. These settlers were met with mixed results, producing unremarkable quantities of indigo and tobacco, as the coast's soil was sandy and most of the crop yields were of an inferior quality. Prior to the American Revolution, the area along the future Grand Strand was uninhabited. Several families received land grants along the coast, including the Witherses: John, Richard and Mary; this family received an area around present-day Wither's Swash known as Myrtle Swash or the Eight-Mile Swash. A separate grant was granted to James Minor, including a barrier island named Minor Island, now Waties Island, off the coast near Little River. Mary Withers' gravestone at Prince George Winyah Episcopal Church speaks to the remoteness of the former Strand: "She gave up the pleasures of Society and retired to Long Bay, where she resided a great part of her life devoted to the welfare of her children."As the American colonies gained independence, the area remained unchanged, the coast remained barren.
George Washington scouted out the Southern states during his term, traveling down the King's Highway. He was led across Wither's Swash to Georgetown by Jeremiah Vereen; the Withers family remained one of the few settlers around Myrtle Beach for the next half-century. In 1822, a strong hurricane swept the house of R. F. Withers into the ocean, drowning 18 people inside; the tragedy made. Left unattended, the area began to return to forest; the Burroughs and Collins Company of Conway, predecessor of modern-day Burroughs & Chapin, purchased much of the Withers family's land in 1881, the growing community was called "New Town" around the start of the 20th century. A post office named "Withers" was established to serve the site of the old Swash in 1888. On February 28, 1899, Burroughs and Collins received a charter to build the Conway & Seashore Railroad to transport timber from the coast to inland customers; the railroad began daily service on May 1900, with two wood-burning locomotives. One of the engines was dubbed The Black Maria and came second-hand from a North Carolina logging operation.
After the railroad was finished, employees of the lumber and railroad company would take train flatcars down to the beach area on their free weekends, becoming the first Grand Strand tourists. The railroad terminus was nicknamed contrasting it with the "Old Town", or Conway. Around the start of the 20th century, Franklin Burroughs envisioned turning New Town into a tourist destination rivaling the Florida and northeastern beaches. Burroughs died in 1897, but his sons completed the railroad's expansion to the beach and opened the Seaside Inn in 1901. Around 1900, a contest was held to name the area, Burroughs' wife suggested honoring the locally abundant shrub, the southern wax myrtle; the Withers post office changed its name to "Myrtle Beach" soon afterward. It incorporated as a town in 1938 and as a city in 1957. In 1937, Myrtle Beach Municipal Airport was built, it was converted into a military base. Commercial flights began in 1976 and shared the runway for over 15 years until the air base closed in 1993.
Since the airport has been named Myrtle Beach International Airport. In 2010 plans to build a new terminal were approved. In 1940, Kings Highway was paved, giving Myrtle Beach its first primary highway; the Myrtle Heights-Oak Park Historic District, Myrtle Beach Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Station, Ocean Forest Country Club, Pleasant Inn, Rainbow Court are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Listed were the Chesterfield Inn and the Myrtle Beach Pavilion, both now demolished; the Gay Dolphin Gift Cove on the Boardwalk was built in 1946, sells seashells and Myrtle Beach souvenirs. It claims to be the "nation's largest gift shop". Myrtle Beach has been separated from the continental United States since 1936 by the Intracoastal Waterway, forcing the city and area in general to develop within a small distance from the coast. In part due to this separation, the area directly northwest of Myrtle Beach, across the waterway, remained rural for a while, whereas its northeastern and southwestern ends were bordered by other developed tourist towns, North Myrtle Beach and Surfside Beach.
Since the inland portion of the Myrtle Beach area has developed dramatically. Myrtle Beach is 67 miles (108 k
Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U. S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area. The city lies just south of the geographical midpoint of South Carolina's coastline and is located on Charleston Harbor, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean formed by the confluence of the Ashley and Wando rivers. Charleston had an estimated population of 134,875 in 2017; the estimated population of the Charleston metropolitan area, comprising Berkeley and Dorchester counties, was 761,155 residents in 2016, the third-largest in the state and the 78th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States. Charleston was founded in 1670 as Charles Town, its initial location at Albemarle Point on the west bank of the Ashley River was abandoned in 1680 for its present site, which became the fifth-largest city in North America within ten years. Despite its size, it remained unincorporated throughout the colonial period.
Election districts were organized according to Anglican parishes, some social services were managed by Anglican wardens and vestries. Charleston adopted its present spelling with its incorporation as a city in 1783 at the close of the Revolutionary War. Population growth in the interior of South Carolina influenced the removal of the state government to Columbia in 1788, but the port city remained among the ten largest cities in the United States through the 1840 census. Historians estimate that "nearly half of all Africans brought to America arrived in Charleston", most at Gadsden's Wharf; the only major antebellum American city to have a majority-enslaved population, Charleston was controlled by an oligarchy of white planters and merchants who forced the federal government to revise its 1828 and 1832 tariffs during the Nullification Crisis and launched the Civil War in 1861 by seizing the Arsenal, Castle Pinckney, Fort Sumter from their federal garrisons. Known for its rich history, well-preserved architecture, distinguished restaurants, hospitable people, Charleston is a popular tourist destination.
It has received numerous accolades, including "America's Most Friendly " by Travel + Leisure in 2011 and in 2013 and 2014 by Condé Nast Traveler, "the most polite and hospitable city in America" by Southern Living magazine. In 2016, Charleston was ranked the "World's Best City" by Travel + Leisure; the city proper consists of six distinct districts. Downtown, or sometimes referred to as The Peninsula, is Charleston's center city separated by the Ashley River to the west and the Cooper River to the east. West Ashley, residential area to the west of Downtown bordered by the Ashley River to the east and the Stono River to the west. Johns Island, far western limits of Charleston home to the Angel Oak, bordered by the Stono River to the east, Kiawah River to the south and Wadmalaw Island to the west. James Island, popular residential area between Downtown and the town of Folly Beach where the McLeod Plantation is located. Cainhoy Peninsula, far eastern limits of Charleston bordered by the Wando River to the west and Nowell Creek to the east.
Daniel Island, fast-growing residential area to the north of downtown, east of the Cooper River and west of the Wando River. The incorporated city fit into 4–5 square miles as late as the First World War, but has since expanded, crossing the Ashley River and encompassing James Island and some of Johns Island; the city limits have expanded across the Cooper River, encompassing Daniel Island and the Cainhoy area. The present city has a total area of 127.5 square miles, of which 109.0 square miles is land and 18.5 square miles is covered by water. North Charleston blocks any expansion up the peninsula, Mount Pleasant occupies the land directly east of the Cooper River. Charleston Harbor runs about 7 miles southeast to the Atlantic with an average width of about 2 miles, surrounded on all sides except its entrance. Sullivan's Island lies to the north of Morris Island to the south; the entrance itself is about 1 mile wide. The tidal rivers are evidence of drowned coastline. There is a submerged river delta off the mouth of the harbor and the Cooper River is deep.
Charleston has a humid subtropical climate, with mild winters, hot humid summers, significant rainfall all year long. Summer is the wettest season. Fall remains warm through the middle of November. Winter is short and mild, is characterized by occasional rain. Measurable snow only occurs several times per decade at the most however freezing rain is more common. However, 6.0 in fell at the airport on December 23, 1989, the largest single-day fall on record, contributing to a single-storm and seasonal record of 8.0 in snowfall. The highest temperature recorded within city limits was 104 °F on June 2, 1985, June 24, 1944, the lowest was 7 °F on February 14, 1899. At the airport, where official records are kept, the historical range is 105 °F on August 1, 1999, down to 6 °F on January 21, 1985. Hurricanes are a major threat to the area during the summer and early fall, with several severe hurrican