Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to the country of Portugal, in the west of the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. Their language is Portuguese, and their predominant religion is Christianity, Portuguese people were a key factor to the Age of Exploration, discovering several lands unknown to the Europeans in the Americas, Africa and Oceania, helping to pave the way for Globalization. There are around 10 million native Portuguese in Portugal, out of a population of 10.34 million. A small minority of about 15,000 speak the Mirandese language, in the municipalities of Miranda do Douro, all of the speakers are bilingual with Portuguese. An even smaller minority of no more than 2,000 people speak Barranquenho, some people from the former colonies have been migrating to Portugal since the 1900s. More recently, a number of Slavs, especially Ukrainians, Moldovans and Russians. There is a Chinese minority, in addition, there is a small minority Gypsies of about 40,000 people, Muslims about 34,000 people and an even smaller minority of Jews of about 5,000 people.
Between 1886 and 1966, Portugal lost to more than any West European country except Ireland. From the middle of the 19th century to the late 1950s, about 40 million Brazilians have relatively recent Portuguese background, due to massive immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. About 1.2 million Brazilian citizens are native Portuguese, significant verified Portuguese minorities exist in several countries. Portuguese Sephardic Jews are in Israel, the Netherlands, the United States, Venezuela, Brazil, in Brazil many of the colonists were originally Sephardic Jews, converted, were known as New Christians. In the United States, there are Portuguese communities in New Jersey, the New England states, in the Pacific, Hawaii has a sizable Portuguese element that goes back 150 years and New Zealand have Portuguese communities. Canada, particularly Ontario and British Columbia, has developed a significant Portuguese community since 1940, argentina and Uruguay had Portuguese immigration in the early 20th century.
So has Chile where an estimated 50,000 descendants live, an estimated 800,000 Portuguese returned to Portugal as the countrys African possessions gained independence in 1975, after the Carnation Revolution, while others moved to Brazil and South Africa. Vincent and the Grenadines and Tobago, Equatorial Guinea, in 1989 some 4,000,000 Portuguese were living abroad, mainly in France, Brazil, the United Kingdom, South Africa, Canada and the United States. Portuguese constitute 13% of the population of Luxembourg, in areas such as Thetford and the crown dependencies of Jersey and Guernsey, the Portuguese form the largest ethnic minority groups at 30% of the population, 20% and 3% respectively. The British capital London is home to the largest number of Portuguese people in the UK, with the majority being found in the boroughs of Kensington and Chelsea and Westminster. The Portuguese diaspora communities still are very attached to their language, their culture and their national dishes, in colonial times, over 700,000 Portuguese settled in Brazil, and most of them went there during the gold rush of the 18th century
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Lamego is a city and municipality in the Viseu District, in the Norte Region of the Douro in northern Portugal. Located on the shores of the Balsemão River, the municipality has a population of 26,691, legend holds that the first Portuguese Cortes were held in Lamego, in 1143. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Lamego is based in the city center. The toponomic name Lamego was derived from Lamaecus, a name Roman-Hispanic derivative to indicate the possessor of agrarian titles in the 3rd century around the local castle. The area around Lamego was inhabited by Ligures and Turduli, and during the Roman presence it was occupied by Coelerni, due to the placement of the castle, it is likely that a castro originally existed on the site. During the Inquirições of King Afonso there was reference to the Castro de Lameco, destroyed by the Romans, the inhabitants were forced to descend into the valley and cultivate the land, as part of the Roman reorganization of the land. Lamego became Catholic when the Visigothic king Rekared I converted to Catholicism, in 569, during the Council of Lugo, there appeared references to Sardinário the Bishop of Lamego.
During the reign of Sisebuto, the Visigothic monarch coined currency from Lamego, indicating the importance of the region to commerce, just outside the city center is the tiny 7th century São Pedro de Balsemão Chapel, a Visigothic chapel believed to be the oldest in Portugal. As a consequence the bishopric was moved after these events, in 1128, the nascent national Egas Moniz, had his tenancy in Lamego while his residence was in Britiande, as master of the Riba–Douro, between Paiva and Távora. The most significant moment in the history was in 1139. The 12th-century castle preserves a fine keep and a very old, King Sancho I issued a charter of independence in 1191, as the local community grew around two poles, the ecclesiastical parishes of Sé and Castelo. In 1290, King Denis provided a charter to the city, attracting merchants from Castile. It was one of the routes on the Saint James Way pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela. Manuel I of Portugal issued a foral in 1514, in the 17th and 18th century, the solares were slowly constructed in Lamego, resulting from the wine commerce down the Douro.
In 1835, Lamego was the capital of the district, but lost this title to Viseu, in 1919, in an attempt to restore the monarchy, Lamego became the capital of the district for 24 days. During the second half of the 19th century, during the presidency of the Viscount of Guedes Teixeira, Lamego begins a process of modernization with the construction of new avenues. After the establishment of the First Republic, during the presidency of Alfredo de Sousa, Lamego has a large shopping centre, with approximately 30 main shops, three malls of medium-size and several small traditional shops. Industrial activities are concentrated in the zone in the parish of Várzea de Abrunhais. Lamego textiles are promoted but tend to be small-scale production runs, the tourist sector is primarily associated with the monuments and religious buildings, and has been a growing part of the local economy
National Museum of Ancient Art
The Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga is an art museum in Lisbon, Portugal. The museum is known as MNAA and as the Museu das Janelas Verdes for its location in the Rua das Janelas Verdes. It occupies the Palácio de Alvor-Pombal, a palace of the Count of Alvor. The Museum has its roots in the 1833 abolition of religious orders and confiscation of the monasteries in Portugal, which brought a trove of religious art and ornaments into the public sphere. At the instigation of the liberal politician Passos Manuel, the Academia de Bellas Artes was founded in 1836, an Academia panel selected some 540 paintings for the Galeria. Predictably, most of these were religious-oriented pieces of Portuguese origin, in the chaos and aftermath of the Portuguese Liberal Wars, some of the private art collections of ruined noble families were expropriated or found their way on to the market. Of particular significance was the collection of the disgraced former queen, the late Carlota Joaquina. Nonetheless, the facilities remained inadequate - it was terribly humid, cramped, in 1875, a commission headed by Sousa Holstein recommended the founding of a larger and more permanent museum away from the Academias Chiado building.
In 1881, the Academias educational division was split off and turned into the Escola Real de Belas-Artes, sold to the neighboring Carmelite convent of Santo Alberto, the palace returned to private hands following the 1833 dissolution. Guedes intended to use it as a space for an international exhibition on Iberian ornamental art organized by the South Kensington Museum in London. Following the republican 1910 revolution, the arrangement was overhauled and the museums management stopped depending on the Academia Real, the latter collections cut-off date was roughly 1850, everything prior to that assigned to Arte Antiga. Figueiredo was the first to study and identify the authorship and significance of Saint Vincent Panels, the St. Vincent panels were installed in the museum by 1916 and remain perhaps its best known piece. In 1940, the MNAA expanded its installations by acquiring the old convent of Santo Alberto. The chapel of the convent, an example of 18th Portuguese Baroque art. The English translation of the name of the museum is misleading in that the collection includes no museologically ancient works of art, but rather holdings that are simply old or antique.
The collection includes painting, metalwork, furniture, the collections, especially those for the 15th and 16th centuries, are particularly important regarding the history of Portuguese painting and metalwork. Perhaps the most famous work in the museum is the Saint Vincent Panels, the six large panels show people from all levels of late medieval Portuguese society venerating Saint Vincent, in one of the first collective portraits in European art. There are sixty portraits on the panels, Portuguese metalwork is another highlight of the museum
Garcia Fernandes was a Portuguese Renaissance painter. Like many of painters of the time, Garcia Fernandes was a pupil in the Lisbon workshop of Jorge Afonso, in the 1530s he worked in Coimbra for the monasteries of Santa Clara-a-Velha and of Santa Cruz. In 1533 and 1534, together with Cristóvão de Figueiredo and Gregório Lopes, later, he painted panels for the transept of the Church of St Francis in Évora. Fernandes even painted altarpieces commissioned for the cathedral of Old Goa, in Portuguese India, Garcia Fernandes married in 1518 and had at least nine children. His paintings can be seen in churches and monasteries around Portugal, as well as in the National Museum of Ancient Art
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Monastery of Santa Cruz (Coimbra)
The Santa Cruz Monastery, best known as Igreja de Santa Cruz, is a National Monument in Coimbra, Portugal. Because the first two kings of Portugal are buried in the church it was granted the status of National Pantheon, founded in 1131 outside the protecting walls of Coimbra, the Santa Cruz Monastery was the most important monastic house during the early days of the Portuguese monarchy. St. Theotonius founded this community of Canons Regular of the Holy Cross of Coimbra, the monastery and church were erected between 1132 and 1223. Its school, with its vast library, was respected in medieval times and was a meeting point for the intellectual. Its scriptorium was used for the consolidation of power by King Afonso Henriques. Nothing remains of the early Romanesque monastery and it is known that it had only one nave and a high tower in the façade, as typical of the Augustinian-Romanesque constructions, but none of those elements subsisted. In the first half of the 16th century, the Monastery was completely renovated by King Manuels order, the architect Diogo de Boitaca was responsible for the layout of the Manueline church and the chapter house with its basket-handled and ribbed ceilings.
Marco Pires gave continuity to the work, with the completion of the church, the Capela de São Miguel, the sacristy dates back to the 17th century and keeps some notable 16th-century canvases. Saint Anthony of Lisbon was a member of the community of canons regular and it was in this capacity that he welcomed the remains of the Franciscan protomartyrs, whose remains were being transported back to Assisi, after their deaths in Morocco. This led to his decision to leave the security and ease of the life of a canon for that of the newly founded Franciscans
The Renaissance was a period in European history, from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history. It started as a movement in Italy in the Late Medieval period and spread to the rest of Europe. This new thinking became manifest in art, politics, Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the 15th century. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, the Renaissance began in Florence, in the 14th century. Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Milan, the word Renaissance, literally meaning Rebirth in French, first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word occurs in Jules Michelets 1855 work, Histoire de France, the word Renaissance has been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century.
The Renaissance was a movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism, however, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion that was reflected in many other areas of cultural life. In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were back from Byzantium to Western Europe. Political philosophers, most famously Niccolò Machiavelli, sought to describe life as it really was. Others see more competition between artists and polymaths such as Brunelleschi, Ghiberti and Masaccio for artistic commissions as sparking the creativity of the Renaissance. Yet it remains much debated why the Renaissance began in Italy, several theories have been put forward to explain its origins. During the Renaissance and art went hand in hand, Artists depended entirely on patrons while the patrons needed money to foster artistic talent. Wealth was brought to Italy in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries by expanding trade into Asia, silver mining in Tyrol increased the flow of money.
Luxuries from the Eastern world, brought home during the Crusades, increased the prosperity of Genoa, unlike with Latin texts, which had been preserved and studied in Western Europe since late antiquity, the study of ancient Greek texts was very limited in medieval Western Europe. One of the greatest achievements of Renaissance scholars was to bring this entire class of Greek cultural works back into Western Europe for the first time since late antiquity, Arab logicians had inherited Greek ideas after they had invaded and conquered Egypt and the Levant. Their translations and commentaries on these ideas worked their way through the Arab West into Spain and Sicily and this work of translation from Islamic culture, though largely unplanned and disorganized, constituted one of the greatest transmissions of ideas in history
Francisco Henriques was a Flemish Renaissance painter active in Portugal in the early 16th century. Around the year 1500 Francisco Henriques came to Portugal from Bruges and it is thought that his first work in Portugal was the main altarpiece of Viseu Cathedral, leading a workshop that included Portuguese painter Vasco Fernandes, in the beginning of his career. Among his influences was the early Dutch engraver Master I. A. M. of Zwolle and his next important work was a large polyptych for the main chapel of the Church of St Francis in Évora, as well as altarpieces for the side chapels of this same church. These panels are now distributed in several museums, together with Cristóvão de Figueiredo, Francisco Henriques continued to work in Lisbon until 1518, when he fell victim to a plague epidemic
Machado de Castro National Museum
The National Museum Machado de Castro is an art museum in Coimbra, named after the renowned Portuguese sculptor Joaquim Machado de Castro. It first opened in 1913 and its latest renovation, which included the addition of a new building, was awarded the Piranesi/Prix de Rome Prize 2014, the Machado de Castro Museum is one of the most important art museums in Portugal. It is housed in the former Bishops Palace and this palace was built from the Middle Ages onwards roughly on the site where the Roman forum of Aeminium once stood. The remains of this distant past, the Cryptoporticus, can be visited on the floors of the museum. The bulk of the collection is made up of items from churches. The collections of sculpture, precious metals, media related to Museu Nacional de Machado de Castro at Wikimedia Commons Planetware information
Coimbra is a city and a municipality in Portugal. The population at the 2011 census was 143,397, in an area of 319.40 square kilometres, the fourth-largest urban centre in Portugal, it is the largest city of the district of Coimbra, the Centro region and the Baixo Mondego subregion. About 460,000 people live in the Região de Coimbra, comprising 19 municipalities, among the many archaeological structures dating back to the Roman era, when Coimbra was the settlement of Aeminium, are its well-preserved aqueduct and cryptoporticus. Similarly, buildings from the period when Coimbra was the capital of Portugal still remain, during the Late Middle Ages, with its decline as the political centre of the Kingdom of Portugal, Coimbra began to evolve into a major cultural centre. This was in part helped by the establishment the University of Coimbra in 1290. Apart from attracting many European and international students, the university is visited by tourists for its monuments. The city, located on a hill by the Mondego River, was called Aeminium in Roman times and it fell under the influence, administratively, of the larger Roman villa of Conímbriga, until the latter was sacked by the Sueves and Visigoths between 569 and 589 and abandoned.
It became the seat of a diocesis, replacing Conímbriga, the limestone table on which the settlement grew has a dominant position overlooking the Mondego, circled by fertile lands irrigated by its waters. Vestiges of this history include the cryptoporticus of the former Roman forum. The move of the settlement and bishopric of Conimbriga to Aeminium resulted in the change to Conimbriga. The first Muslim campaigns that occupied the Iberian peninsula occurred between 711 and 715, with Coimbra capitulating to Musa bin Nusair in 714, remnants of this period include the beginnings of the Almedina and the fortified palace used by the citys governor. The Christian Reconquista forced Muslim forces to abandon the region temporarily, successively the Moors retook the castle in 987–1064 and again in 1116, capturing two castles constructed to protect the territory, in Miranda da Beira and in Santa Eulália. Henry expanded the frontiers of the County, confronting the Moorish forces, in order to confirm and reinforce the power of the concelho he conceded a formal foral in 1179.
The city was encircled by a wall, of which some remnants are still visible like the Almedina Gate. Meanwhile, on the periphery, the municipality began to grow in various agglomerations, notably around the monasteries and convents that developed in Celas, Santa Clara, Santo António dos Olivais. It stood too close to the river, and frequent floods forced the nuns to abandon it in the 17th century, the Queens magnificent Gothic tomb was transferred to the new convent. The ruins of the old convent were excavated in the 2000s, in the 15th and 16th centuries, during the Age of Discovery, Coimbra was again one of the main artistic centres of Portugal thanks to both local and royal patronage. The University of Coimbra, was founded as a Studium Generale in Lisbon in 1290 by King Dinis I, the University was relocated to Coimbra in 1308, but in 1338 the King D. Afonso IV make the University return to Lisbon