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A crista is a fold in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. The name is from the Latin for crest or plume, it gives the inner membrane its characteristic wrinkled shape, providing a large amount of surface area for chemical reactions to occur on; this aids aerobic cellular respiration. Cristae are studded with proteins, including a variety of cytochromes. With the discovery of the dual-membrane nature of mitochondria, the pioneers of mitochondrial ultrastructural research proposed different models for the organization of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Three models proposed were: Baffle model – According to Palade, the mitochondrial inner membrane is convoluted in a baffle-like manner with broad openings towards the intra-cristal space; this model entered most textbooks and was believed for a long time. Septa model – Sjöstrand suggested that sheets of inner membrane are spanned like septa through the matrix, separating it into several distinct compartments. Crista junction model – Daems and Wisse proposed that cristae are connected to the inner boundary membrane via tubular structures characterized by rather small diameters, termed crista junctions.

These structures were rediscovered by EM tomography, leading to the establishment of this widely accepted model. More recent research finds rows of ATP synthase dimers forming at the cristae; these membrane-curving dimers have a bent shape, may be the first step to cristae formation. They are situated at the base of the crista. A mitochondrial contact site cristae organizing system protein complex occupies the crista junction. Proteins like OPA1 are involved in cristae remodeling. Crista are sorted by shapes into lamellar and vesicular cristae, they appear in different cell types. It is debated. NADH is oxidized into NAD+, H+ ions, electrons by an enzyme. FADH2 is oxidized into H+ ions, FAD; as those electrons travel farther through the electron transport chain in the inner membrane, energy is released and used to pump the hydrogen ions from the splitting of NADH and FADH2 into the space between the inner membrane and the outer membrane, creating an electrochemical gradient. This electrochemical gradient creates potential energy across the inner mitochondrial membrane known as the proton-motive force.

As a result, chemiosmosis occurs, the enzyme ATP synthase produces ATP from ADP and a phosphate group. This harnesses the potential energy from the concentration gradient formed by the amount of H+ ions. H+ ions passively pass into the mitochondrial matrix by the ATP synthase, help to re-form H2O; the electron transport chain requires a varying supply of electrons in order to properly function and generate ATP. However, the electrons that have entered the electron transport chain would pile up like cars traveling down a blocked one-way street; those electrons are accepted by oxygen. As a result, they form two molecules of water. By accepting the electrons, oxygen allows the electron transport chain to continue functioning; the chain is organized in the cristae lumen membrane, i.e. the membrane inside the junction. The electrons from each NADH molecule can form a total of 3 ATP's from ADPs and phosphate groups through the electron transport chain, while each FADH2 molecule can produce a total of 2 ATPs.

As a result, 10 NADH molecules, along with 2 FADH2 molecules, can form a total of 34 ATPs during aerobic respiration. This means that combined with the Krebs Cycle and glycolysis, the efficiency for the electron transport chain is about 65%, as compared to only 3.5% efficiency for glycolysis alone. The cristae increase the surface area of the inner membrane on which the above-mentioned reactions may take place; the high surface area allows greater capacity for ATP generation. Mathematical modelling suggested that the optical properties of the cristae in filamentous mitochondria may affect the generation and propagation of light within the tissue

Barbarian Princess (novel)

Barbarian Princess is the second in a historical fiction trilogy about the 1st-century Roman Empire. Set in Roman Britain circa AD 76-79, it follows the adventures of a pair of Roman brothers - one free-born and one slave-born - as they serve in the Roman legions. Correus Appius Julianus is the slave born son of retired Roman general Flavius Appius Julianus, posted as a centurion to the Legio II Augusta in Western Britain under the command of provincial governor Sextus Julius Frontinus; the novel opens with Correus returning from a spying expedition to some of the local British tribes, one of which, the Silures, will provide the main antagonist in the person of their king Bendigeid. Upon returning to his legion, Correus loses his German mistress Freita to the knife of a Briton trying to kill the governor, he is subsequently involved in a battle against the tribe that killed his Freita and must find time to rescue his half-brother Flavius Appius Julianus, his father's heir with whom he has an uneasy and somewhat adversarial relationship, from the Silures' allies.

And Correus must come to grips with his increasing interest in the governor's hostage - a young British princess named Ygerna, given into his care to Romanize. In the meantime, the tribes of western Britain try to survive the governor's attempt to tie them up into the Roman Empire; the Centurions trilogy was written by Amanda Cockrell writing under the pseudonym Damion Hunter. In her own name, Ms. Cockrell has written a separate non-fiction book called Legions of the Mist about the Legio IX Hispana, stationed in the modern-day city of York during this period and whose actions play a large, albeit off-stage role, in the events covered in Barbarian Princess; the other two books in the series are the eponymous The Centurions which begin the tale of the two brothers and their extended family and The Emperor's Games, the final book in the unfinished series. It is unknown why the series never continued past the third book as it was intended to be a much lengthier tale, though the most probable reasons are a lack of consumer interest or a change of direction from either the publisher or the author

Legionella jordanis

Legionella jordanis is a Gram-negative bacterium from the genus Legionella, isolated from the Jordan River in Bloomington and from the sewage in DeKalb County, Georgia. L. jordanis can cause respiratory tract infections. Legionella jordanis strain BL-540 was first isolated from water samples taken at the Jordan River in Bloomington, Indiana by Cherry et al. in 1978. Another strain characterized as ABB-9 was discovered in 1980 from sewage collected in DeKalb County, Georgia; the specific epithet jordanis was derived from the name of the river in, discovered. The two strains were both Gram-stained, they Sudan black B fat stain for lipids and the Wirtz-Conklin method were used to demonstrate spore formation. Acid-fast staining was used, as well; the cultures were streaked onto trypticase soy agar and charcoal yeast extract agar slants, were left to incubate around 36 °C in candle extinction jars that remove oxygen from the jar by burning a candle with the lid sealed. The cultures failed to grow on the TSA plates, but did show growth on CYE slants which Cherry et al. expected.

They were tested for oxidase and catalase production. The order Legionellales comprises two families and Coxiellaceae; the family Legionellaceae includes Sarcobium. The colonies that appeared around the third day in the CYE slants were grey and raised with a “ground-glass appearance", it was positive for both catalase production. Strains of L. jordanis are thin, motile Gram-negative rods that range in size from 0.3 to 0.9 µm wide by 2 to 20 µm long. In addition, it is not non-spore-forming. After being stained with Sudan B, many of the cells did not have fat deposits. Gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry show that all known species of Legionella contain large amounts of branched-chain fatty acids. DNA, unlabeled from BL-540 was tested against labeled DNAs from the six recognized Legionella species; when reactions were performed at an incubation temperature of 60 °C, relatedness of BL-540 to the other DNAs were between 4 and 20%. When reactions were performed at a higher incubation temperature of 75 °C, the relatedness ranged from 0 to 10%.

The results indicated. The two strains, BL-540 and ABB-9, were identical when DNA relatedness reactions were performed at both 60 and 75 °C. L. jordanis is an opportunistic pathogen. It has been shown to cause lower respiratory tract infections in humans and is responsible for causing a type of pneumonia referred to as Legionnaires' disease. Lung infection with L. jordanis is sometimes misdiagnosed as a Aspergillus mold infection. This mold causes a fatal type of pneumonia which L. jordanis is able to mimic. Using human sera, indirect fluorescent antibody tests indicated that unrecognized human infections with L. jordanis may be occurring. A study of patients from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York, NY revealed a possible risk of nosocomial infections from shower heads found to contain L. jordanis. After this finding, monthly shower head disinfection procedures were instituted, but about 19% of shower heads remained positive for Legionella. Infections of individuals who are not immunocompromised are possible.

Newton, et al. cultured L. jordanis and various other species of Legionella in BCYE or ACES broth. DNA extraction and PCR amplification were done under standard conditions. However, due to low GC-content and the mismatching of base pairs, the temperature used during subtractive hybridization was adjusted to 35 °C. Small amounts of biosynthetic enzymes L-cysteine synthase and acetyltransferase were detected in L. jordanis and L. pneumophila. L. jordanis was found to contain the gene loci sidH, sidE, sidB, sidG which express a Dot/Icm effector protein. This effector protein is essential for L. pneumophila to infiltrate host cells, so it is thought to be used as a virulence factor in L. jordanis, also. Both strains of L. jordanis tested positive for hemolysis. They did not test positive for cytotoxicity. Several species of Legionella “produced different proteolytic cleavage patterns on synthetic peptide substrates.” This suggests some genetic differences exist between the proteases produced by the different species of Legionella, despite them having some similarities.

L. jordanis appears to contain complex chains of lipopolysaccharides. Legionella species use amino acids as both energy sources; the first two isolates of L. jordanis were from the waters of the Jordan River in Indiana. The strain was designated as BL-540; this area of the river was near an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease, caused by L. pneumonphila. Another isolate was found in sewage located in Georgia; this strain was designated as ABB-9. Legionella species are aquatic organisms and inhabit freshwater environments with humans being accidental hosts. Most isolates of Legionella have been from air-conditioning cooling towers and potable-water distribution systems, but they can be found in other thermally polluted water sources such as air conditioners, spa equipment, humidifiers, or showers, they can be collected on the surfaces of lakes and streams. They can grow in temperatures ranging from 5 to 63 °C. Bacterial pneumonia Type strain of Legionella jordanis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase

Back to Bacharach and David

Back To Bacharach and David is an Off-Broadway revue that featured the songs of Burt Bacharach and Hal David in a show created by Steve Gunderson and Kathy Najimy and directed by Najimy, with musical arrangements and orchestrations by Gunderson. The revue comprises the Bacharach/David songs from 1960–1970; the show had a limited run at Steve McGraw's Club in New York City in September 1992 and starred Gunderson, Melinda Gilb, Susan Mosher and Carla Renata Williams. It workshopped with Lillias White; the show ran at "Club 53" in New York City from March 11, 1993 through September 11, 1993, with Gunderson, Gilb and White. The revue was produced by the North Coast Repertory Theatre in San Diego in August 2006 with Gunderson and Gilb in a production directed by original choreographer Javier Velasco, was attended by Burt Bacharach himself, by Hal David, a supporter of the show during its original Off Broadway run; the revue was produced at the Music Box, Los Angeles, April 19, 2009 through May 17, 2009.

Directed by Najimy, the cast featured "American Idol" finalist Diana DeGarmo, "American Idol" contestant Tom Lowe, Tressa Thomas and Susan Mosher. The show was revised and includes two songs not featured, including "What's New Pussycat," for DeGarmo. Another revue featuring the works of Bacharach and David, The Look of Love, was produced on Broadway in 2003. There is no narrative. Songs include "A House is Not A Home", "Alfie," "Always Something There to Remind Me", "Another Night," "Any Old Time of the Day," "Anyone Who Had a Heart," "April Fools," "Are You There With Another Girl," "Close to You," "Do You Know the Way to San Jose," "Don't Make Me Over," "I Just Have to Breathe," "I Say a Little Prayer for You," "I'll Never Fall in Love Again," "Just Don't Know What to Do With Myself," "Knowing When to Leave," "Let Me Be Lonely," "Let Me Go to Him," "The Look of Love," "Message to Michael", "My Little Red Book," "Nikki," "One Less Bell to Answer," "Promises, Promises," "Raindrops Keep Fallin' on My Head," "Reach Out for Me," "This Empty Place," "This Guy's in Love With You," "Trains and Boats and Planes," "24 Hours from Tulsa," "Walk on By," "What the World Needs Now Is Love," "Whoever You Are I Love You," and "You'll Never Get to Heaven."

Stephen Holden in his New York Times review of the 1993 production wrote: "Ms. Najimy has staged many songs as comic tableaux in a frenetic teen-age soap opera. Decked out in such tacky vintage paraphernalia as peace symbols, chain belts and go-go boots, the show's four performers...emote them with the sobby fervency of a high school clique having a collective hormone attack. What lifts "Back to Bacharach and David" above run-of-the-mill 60's nostalgia is the show's nearly perfect balance between tribute and comedy." Listing at

Supattra Pairoj

Supattra Pairoj is a Thai indoor volleyball player. She is a current member of the Thailand women's national volleyball team. Supreme Chonburi 2016–17 Thailand League – "Best Libero" 2017–18 Thailand League – "Best Libero" 2011–12 Thailand League – Runner-up, with Supreme Nakhon Si 2015–16 Thailand League – Runner-up, with Supreme Nakhonsi 2016–17 Thailand League – Champion, with Supreme Chonburi 2017 Thai–Denmark Super League - Champion, with Supreme Chonburi 2017–18 Thailand League – Champion, with Supreme Chonburi 2018 Thai–Denmark Super League – Champion, with Supreme Chonburi 2018–19 Thailand League – Runner-up, with Supreme Chonburi 2019 Thai–Denmark Super League – Champion, with Supreme Chonburi 2017 Asian Club Championship – Champion, with Supreme Chonburi 2018 Asian Club Championship – Champion, with Supreme Chonburi 2019 Asian Club Championship – Runner-up, with Supreme Chonburi FIVB Biography

Ndonga dialect

Ndonga called Oshindonga, is a Bantu language spoken in Namibia and parts of Angola. It is a standardized dialect of the Ovambo language, is mutually intelligible with Kwanyama, the other Ovambo dialect with a standard written form. With 810,000 speakers, the language has the largest number of speakers in Namibia. Martti Rautanen translated the Bible into the Ndonga standard. Oshindonga uses a five-vowel system: Oshindonga contains the following consonant phonemes: Prenasalized sounds are listed below: Oshindonga contains many other consonant compounds, listed below: Fivaz, Derek. A Reference Grammar of Oshindonga. Windhoek: Out of Africa Publishers. Ndonga