La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles
La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles, is a historic Roman Catholic church in El Pueblo de los Ángeles Historical Monument in northern downtown Los Angeles, United States. The church was founded by the Spanish in the early 19th century when modern-day California was under Spanish rule and known as Alta California in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles was founded on August 18, 1814, by Franciscan Fray Luis Gil y Taboada, he placed the cornerstone for the new church in the adobe ruins of the original "sub-station mission" here, the Nuestra Señora Reina de los Ángeles Asistencia, thirty years after it was established to serve the settlement founding Los Angeles Pobladores. The completed new structure was dedicated on December 8, 1822. A replacement chapel, named La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles – for Mary, mother of Jesus or "The Church of Our Lady of the Angels" – was rebuilt using materials of the original church in 1861.
The title Reina, meaning "Queen," was added to the name. For years, the little chapel, which collected the nicknames "La Placita" and "Plaza Church," served as the sole Roman Catholic church in Los Angeles; the facility has operated under the auspices of the Claretian Missionary Fathers since 1908. The building was designated as one of the first three Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in 1962, it has been designated as a California Historical Landmark. The church is a part of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles and serves as a neighborhood parish church, as well as a important cultural landmark. Since the 1960s it has been retrofitted against earthquakes, something the original friars knew nothing about, like many other old California missions. Masses are said in Spanish as well as English for the large Hispanic community in Los Angeles. Los Angeles Plaza Historic District Olvera Street List of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments in Downtown Los Angeles History of Los Angeles, California USNS Mission Los Angeles — a Mission Buenaventura class fleet oiler built during World War II.
Sanctuary movement Porziuncola Miller and Harry Knill. California Missions: The Earliest Series of Views Made in 1856. Bellerophon Books, Santa Barbara, CA. ISBN 0-88388-119-5. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Ruscin, Terry. Mission Memoirs. Sunbelt Publications, San Diego, CA. ISBN 0-932653-30-8. "Directory for Missions and other Hispanic Sites". California Mission Studies Association. Archived from the original on 2007-04-02. Retrieved 2007-05-30. Nuestra Señora Reina de Los Angeles — photo gallery Sanctuary Movement — history of New Sanctuary Movement — webpage El Pueblo de Los Angeles Historical Monument — City of Los Angeles
Orange County, California
Orange County is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,010,232, making it the third-most populous county in California, the sixth-most populous in the United States, more populous than 21 U. S. states. Its county seat is Santa Ana, it is the second most densely populated county behind San Francisco County. The county's four largest cities by population, Santa Ana and Huntington Beach, each have a population exceeding 200,000. Several of Orange County's cities are on the Pacific Ocean western coast, including Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, Laguna Beach, Dana Point, San Clemente. Orange County is included in Metropolitan Statistical Area. Thirty-four incorporated towns and cities are in the county. Anaheim was the first city, incorporated in 1870 when the region was still part of neighboring Los Angeles County. Whereas most population centers in the United States tend to be identified by a major city with a large downtown central business district, Orange County has no single major downtown / CBD or dominant urban center.
Santa Ana, Costa Mesa, Irvine all have smaller high-rise CBDs, other, older cities like Anaheim, Huntington Beach, Orange have traditional American downtowns without high-rises. The county's northern and central portions are urbanized and dense, despite the prevalence of the single-family home as a dominant land use, its southern portion is more suburban, with limited urbanization. There are several "edge city"-style developments, such as Irvine Business Center, Newport Center, South Coast Metro. Orange County is part of the "Tech Coast"; the county is a tourist center, with attractions like Disneyland, Knott's Berry Farm, several popular beaches along its more than 40 miles of coastline. Throughout the 20th century and up until 2016, it was known for its political conservatism and for being a bastion for the Republican Party, with a 2005 academic study listing three Orange County cities as among America's 25 most conservative. However, the county's changing demographics have resulted in a shift in political alignments.
In 2016, Hillary Clinton became the first Democrat since 1936 to carry Orange County in a presidential election and in the 2018 midterm elections the Democratic Party gained control of every Congressional seat in the county. Members of the Tongva, Juaneño, Luiseño Native American groups long inhabited the area. After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolà, a Spanish expedition led by Junipero Serra named the area Valle de Santa Ana. On November 1, 1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano became the area's first permanent European settlement. Among those who came with Portolá were José Manuel Nieto and José Antonio Yorba. Both these men were given land grants—Rancho Los Nietos and Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, respectively; the Nieto heirs were granted land in 1834. The Nieto ranches were known as Rancho Los Alamitos, Rancho Las Bolsas, Rancho Los Coyotes. Yorba heirs Bernardo Yorba and Teodosio Yorba were granted Rancho Cañón de Santa Ana and Rancho Lomas de Santiago, respectively. Other ranchos in Orange County were granted by the Mexican government during the Mexican period in Alta California.
A severe drought in the 1860s devastated the prevailing industry, cattle ranching, much land came into the possession of Richard O'Neill, Sr. James Irvine and other land barons. In 1887, silver was discovered in the Santa Ana Mountains, attracting settlers via the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific Railroads. After several failed attempts in previous sessions, the California legislature passed a bill authorizing the portion of Los Angeles County south of Coyote Creek to hold a referendum on whether to remain part of Los Angeles County or to secede and form a new county to be named “Orange” as directed by the legislature; such referendum required a 2/3 vote for secession to take place, subsequently on June 4th, 1889, the residents south of Coyote Creek voted 2,509 to 500 in favor of secession. After such referendum, Los Angeles County filed three lawsuits in the courts to stall and stop the secession from occurring, but such attempts were futile. On July 17, 1889, a second referendum was held south of the Coyote Creek to determine if the county seat of the to-be county to be in either Anaheim or Santa Ana, along with an election for every county officer.
In the end, Santa Ana defeated Anaheim in such referendum and elected right leaning officers, with some, including one of the primary lobbyists for the creation of the county, Henry W. Head, elected to the Board of Supervisors while being a member of the Ku Klux Klan, with Head’s son, Horace Head, elected as District Attorney of the soon to be county, known to, as stated by the OC Weekly, threaten “...any Mexicans who walked in front of their homes with shotguns when not burning crosses on front lawns,” along with Horace Head supporting and defending his fathers affiliation with the Ku Klux Klan. With the referendum taken place, the County of Orange was incorporated on August 1st, 1889, as prescribed by state law. Since the date of the incorporation of the county, the only geographical changes to have occurred which affected Orange County was when the County and Los Angeles County agreed to trade land around Coyote Creek to adjust the border of the two counties to conform with city blocks.
The county is said to have been named for the
Mission San Gabriel Arcángel
Mission San Gabriel Arcángel is a functioning Roman Catholic mission and a historic landmark in San Gabriel, California. The settlement was founded by Spaniards of the Franciscan order on "The Feast of the Birth of Mary," September 8, 1771, as the fourth of what would become 21 Spanish missions in California. San Gabriel Arcángel, named after the Archangel Gabriel and referred to as the "Godmother of the Pueblo of Los Angeles", was designed by Antonio Cruzado, who hailed from Córdoba, Spain. Cruzado gave the building its strong Moorish architectural influence; the capped buttresses and the tall, narrow windows are unique among the missions of the California chain. Mission San Gabriel was founded on September 8, 1771, by Fray Angel Francisco de Sonera and Fray Pedro Benito Cambon; the planned site for the Mission was along the banks of the Río de Los Temblores. The priests chose an alternate site on a fertile plain located directly alongside the Rio Hondo in the Whittier Narrows; the site of the Misión Vieja is located near the intersection of San Gabriel Boulevard and Lincoln Avenue.
In 1776, a flash flood destroyed much of the crops and ruined the Mission complex, subsequently relocated five miles closer to the mountains in present-day San Gabriel. The Mission is the base. On December 9, 1812, a series of massive earthquakes shook Southern California; the 1812 Wrightwood earthquake caused the three-bell campanario, located adjacent to the chapel's east façade, to collapse. A larger, six-bell structure was subsequently constructed at the far end of the Capilla. While no pictorial record exists to document what the original structure looked like, architectural historian Rexford Newcomb deduced the design and published a depiction in his 1916 work The Franciscan Mission Architecture of Alta California. Legend has it that the founding expedition was confronted by a large group of native Tongva peoples whose intention was to drive the strangers away. One of the priests laid a painting of "Our Lady of Sorrows" on the ground for all to see, whereupon the natives, designated by the settlers as the Gabrieliños made peace with the missionaries, because they were so moved by the painting's beauty.
Today the 300-year-old work hangs in front of and to the left of the old high altar and reredos in the Mission's sanctuary. A large stone cross stands in the center of the Campo Santo, first consecrated in 1778 and again on January 29, 1939, by the Los Angeles Archbishop John Cantwell, it serves as the final resting place for some 6,000 "neophytes. Interred at the Mission are the bodies of numerous Franciscan priests who died during their time of service, as well as the remains of Reverend Raymond Catalan, C. M. F. who undertook the restoration of the Mission's gardens. Entombed at the foot of the altar are the remains of eight Franciscan priests: Miguel Sánchez, Antonio Cruzado, Francisco Dumetz, Roman Ulibarri, Joaquin P. Nunez, Gerónimo Boscana, José Bernardo Sánchez, Blas Ordaz. Buried among the priests is centenarian Eulalia Perez de Guillén Mariné, the "keeper of the keys" under Spanish rule. Well over 25,000 baptisms were conducted at San Gabriel between 1771 and 1834, making it the most prolific in the mission chain.
In its heyday, it furnished food and supplies to settlements and other missions throughout California. A majority of the Mission structures fell into ruins after it was secularized in November 1834; the once-extensive vineyards were falling to decay, with fences broken down and animals roaming through it. The Mission's chapel functioned as a parish church for the City of San Gabriel from 1862 until 1908, when the Claretian Missionaries came to San Gabriel and began the job of rebuilding and restoring the Mission. In 1874, tracks were laid for Southern Pacific Railroad near the mission. In 2012, artifacts from the mission era were found when the tracks were lowered into a trench known as the Alameda Corridor-East. On October 1, 1987 the Whittier Narrows earthquake damaged the property. A significant portion of the original complex has since been restored; the goal of the missions was to become self-sufficient in short order. Farming was the most important industry of any mission. Prior to the missions, the native-Americans had developed a self-sufficient culture.
The missionaries believed the native Tongva people were inferior and in need of conversion to Christianity. The mission priests established what they thought of as a manual training school: to teach the Indians their style of agriculture, the mechanical arts, the raising and care of livestock; the missions, utilizing the labor of the neophytes, produced everything they consumed. After 1811, the mission Indians could be said to sustain the entire military and civil government of California."The names of the rancherias associated with San Gabriel Mission were: Acuragna, Awigna, Cahuenga, Chowigna, Hahaulogna, Houtgna, Isanthcogna, Nacaugna, Pasinogna, Pubugna, Sisitcanogna, Suangna, Toviscanga, Yangna."To efficiently manage its extensive lands, Mission San Gabriel established several outlying sub-missions, known as asistencias. Several of these became or were
Los Angeles Herald-Express
The Los Angeles Herald-Express was one of Los Angeles' oldest newspapers, formed after a combination of the Los Angeles Herald and the Los Angeles Express. After a 1962 combination with Hearst Corporation's Los Angeles Examiner, the paper became the Los Angeles Herald-Examiner; the Los Angeles Express was Los Angeles's oldest newspaper published under its original name until it combined with the Herald. It was established on March 27, 1871, by five printers, Jesse Yarnell, George Yarnell, George A. Tiffany, J. W. Payton, Miguel Veredo. A stock company was organized in March 1875, with J. J. Ayers and Joseph Lynch as directors and proprietors. In 1876 William Halley was the publisher. In 1873 the editor was James J. Ayers, who resigned in October to run for Los Angeles justice of the peace, stating that it would be incompatible to do both jobs at the same time. In 1879 Ayers was editor. In 1882, Ayers was appointed state printer, he was back as "proprietor" shortly before. The "name and business" of the Los Angeles Evening Express was sold in 1884 by Ayers and Lynch to H.
Z. Osborne and E. R. Cleveland, owners of the evening Republican. "The consideration is understood to be $7,500." The resulting newspaper was the Evening Express and Republican, published daily except Sunday, with the subscription rate of 15 cents a week. H. Z. Osborne came to Los Angeles from Bodie, Mono County, in May 1884 and bought the Republican, an evening newspaper, started by the Herald. In August he bought the Express and combined the two into one paper, running it along with E. R. Cleveland. In 1886 a stock company was formed, led by Osborne, as editor and John M. Davies. C. C. Allen purchased an interest. In 1889, Osborne was identified as "chief owner" of the Express. A company headed by C. D. Willard, secretary of the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, took over the ownership in March 1897, Willard became editor. Fred L. Alles was named business manager. Established in 1873, the Los Angeles Herald represented the Democratic views of the city and focused on issues local to Los Angeles and Southern California.
Appealing to a working-class audience during its 116 years of publication, the Herald evolved from a primary focus on agriculture to reporting extensively on Hollywood gossip and local scandal, reflecting the transformation of Los Angeles itself during the twentieth century. The Los Angeles Daily Herald was first published on October 1873, by Charles A. Storke, it was the first newspaper in Southern California to use the innovative steam press. Storke lost the paper to creditors, who together formed the Los Angeles City and County Publishing Company in 1874; the Herald continued to focus on local news, including agriculture and culture. Under the leadership of Robert M. Widney, the paper increased its circulation. Widney interviewed local farmers and business owners for his reports; the Los Angeles Weekly Herald, making use of this material, sold more than a thousand copies a week. Beginning in 1913 and guided by Hearst-trained editors Edwin R. Collins and John B. T. Campbell, the local coverage for which the Herald was known began to emphasize scandal and the emerging motion-picture industry.
By the 1920s, editors Wes Barr and James H. Richardson were so well known for their investigative reporting that they became the prototypes for the morally ambiguous, chain-smoking reporters who figured in so many film noir movies of the 1930s. In 1922, the Herald joined the Hearst News empire, although several sources suggest that Hearst had secretly purchased the paper in 1911, when Collins and Campbell took the helm. In 1931, Hearst merged the Los Angeles Daily Herald with the Los Angeles Evening Express to form the Los Angeles Evening Herald and Express, the largest circulating evening newspaper west of the Mississippi. John Tracy Gaffey, first editor of the Los Angeles Herald C. H. Garrigues, writer Grace Kingsley, feature writer Dave Stannard, Los Angeles City Council member, 1942–43 William Ivan "Ike" St. Johns and Adela Rogers St. Johns, a popular husband-and-wife reporting team, were among the notable Herald staff in the early years. John Kenneth Turner, muckraker Media related to Los Angeles Herald at Wikimedia Commons
Pershing Square (Los Angeles)
Pershing Square is a small public park in Downtown Los Angeles, one square block in size, bounded by 5th Street to the north, 6th Street to the south, Hill Street to the east, Olive Street to the west. It lies atop a large underground parking garage. In the 1850s, the location was used as a camp by settlers from outside the Pueblo de Los Angeles, which lay to the northeast around the Our Lady Queen of the Angels' church, the Los Angeles Plaza, present-day Olvera Street. Surveyors drew the site as 10 individual plots of land, but in practicality it was a single 5-acre parcel. Canals distributing water from the Zanja Madre were adjacent. In 1866 the site was dedicated as a public square by Mayor Cristobal Aguilar. At some point the owner of a nearby beergarden, German immigrant George "Roundhouse" Lehman, planted small native Monterey cypress trees, fruit trees, flowering shrubs in the park and maintained them until his death in 1882. In 1867, St. Vincent's College, present-day Loyola Marymount University, was situated across the street, so the park informally became known as St. Vincent's Park.
In 1870, it was named Los Angeles Park. In 1886 it was renamed 6th Street Park, it redesigned with an "official park plan" by Frederick Eaton. In the early 1890s it was renamed Central Park. During this period a bandstand pavilion was added for orators; the plantings became sub-tropically lush, the park became a shady oasis and an outdoor destination. In 1894 the park was used as the staging area for the annual crowning of the queen of'La Fiesta de Los Angeles. A monument to California's twenty Spanish–American War dead was erected in 1900; the Los Angeles City Council declared it a historic-cultural monument in 1990. In 1910 the park was renovated under a design by John Parkinson, who designed Los Angeles City Hall and Union Station. Parkinson's design featured a three-tier fountain sculpted by Johan Caspar Lachne Gruenfeld, braced by four life-size concrete cherubs supporting a vase of cascading water. In November 1918, a week after Armistice Day ended World War I, the park was renamed Pershing Square, in honor of Gen. John J. Pershing.
A plaque was added in his honor some four decades later. In the 1920s and 1930s tropical plants were added to the park. In 1924, a life-size bronze of a World War I doughboy, sculpted by Humberton Pedretti, was unveiled, flanked by old cannons. In 1935, a bronze cannon from the USS Constitution was added. In 1932, a statue of Ludwig van Beethoven was added to honor William Andrews Clark, Jr. founder of the Los Angeles Philharmonic. The park was in heavy use during World War II for rallies and recruitment. After the war, the park began to decline as commercial decentralization and suburbanization took hold in Greater Los Angeles Area, Downtown lost importance and intensity of use. Many of the palm trees that were excavated in the 1950s were sent to be used in the Disneyland ride The Jungle Cruise; the entire park was demolished and excavated in 1952 to build a three-level underground parking garage. Atop the garage, concrete was covered by a thin layer of soil with a broad expanse of lawn. Entry and exit ramps cut the square off from the sidewalks around it.
In 1954, Kelly Roth, a Hungarian immigrant who had owned a cigar store across from the square, donated $30,000 for twin reflecting pool water features in honor of his late wife and to thank Los Angeles for the opportunities that the city provided him. The Roth fountains were designed by architect Stiles O. Clements; the park continued to be neglected for safe uses. Its problems were noted during the 1960 Democratic National Convention, with nominee and future president John F. Kennedy headquartered at the Biltmore Hotel facing the park. By the 1984 Summer Olympics the park had become a serious eyesore, leading the city to spend $1 million for a temporary renovation. In 1992, the park was closed for a major $14.5-million redesign and renovation by Mexican architect and landscape architect Ricardo Legorreta and U. S. landscape architect Laurie Olin. The redesigned park opened in 1994 with a 10-story purple bell tower, a walkway representing an earthquake fault line, concert stage, perimeter seating.
Pavement covered the entire block, with copses of trees placed in raised planters. In 2000, a monument was installed to honor local veteran Eugene A. Obregon. Pershing Square hosts seasonal events such as a temporary Ice rink in the winter and live concert performances in the summer. Permanent and temporary public art has been placed in Pershing Square since 1900, beginning with Los Angeles' oldest public art sculpture, the Spanish American War Memorial. Spanish American War Memorial - 7th Regiment Monument The Doughboy Beethoven Neons for Pershing Square Heyday Eugene A. Obregon Liquid Shard The area is served by the Pershing Square station of the Metro Red and Purple lines. List of parks in Los Angeles Liquid Shard, a 2016 art installation placed in Pershing Square Chester Himes. "Lunching at the Ritzmore", The Collected Stories of Chester Himes, Da Capo Press. "Pershing Square search results". Los Angeles Public Library. Wallach, Ruth. "Historic Pershing Square, Los Angeles". University of Southern California Libraries, Public Art in Los Angeles.
Holland, Gale. "Pershing Square vision? Not so good". Los Angeles Times
Manuel Requena was president of the Los Angeles Common Council in the early 1850s. He served the city in both the American periods. Requena was born in 1802 in Campieto, where he grew up and went on to become a successful merchant. In 1834 he moved to Los Angeles, where he became an important business and political figure for the Mexican government. At one point, accorded the honorific Don, was appointed an election judge, but he declined, citing ill health; the ayuntamiento was about to accept it when some one reported that Don Manuel was engaged in pruning his vineyard, whereupon a committee of investigation was appointed, with Juan Temple, merchant, as medical expert. The committee and the improvised doctor examined Don Manuel, reported that his indisposition did not prevent him from pruning, but would incapacitate him from serving as a judge of the election. Requena was first alcalde, equivalent to the position of mayor, during the last years of Los Angeles under Mexican rule. In April 1836 a force of vigilantes demanded that he cooperate with them in turning over the key to a house where fugitive Maria del Rosario Villa, accused of murdering her husband, was staying.
He replied, in Spanish, Maria del Rosario Villa is incarcerated at a private dwelling, whose owner has the key, with instructions not to deliver the same to any one. The prisoner is left there at the disposition of the law only. God and liberty; the vigilantes, who had executed Rosario Villa's paramour, seized her and shot her. That was, wrote historian J. M. Guinn, " the only instance in the seventy-five years of Spanish and Mexican rule in California, of the people, by popular tribunal, taking the administration of justice out of the hands of the constituted authorities; when the Los Angeles Common Council was formed in 1850 after Los Angeles was incorporated as an American town, Requena became one of its charter members. He served during the periods of 1850—1854, 1856, 1864—1868. Requena was elected to the first Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors in 1852. In 1854 he became a trustee in the city's first board of education
John G. Nichols
John G. Nichols was a businessman and politician. John Greg Nichols was born on December 1812 in Canandaigua, New York, his father, William Nicholas, was a Scottish immigrant. He served as the Sheriff of Iowa for two terms in the 1840s, he made the trip to California in 1849, arriving in San Bernardino on December 31, 1849. He served as the third Mayor of Los Angeles from 1852 to 1853 and again from 1856 to 1859, he married Florida Cox. They lived in the first brick house to be built in California, their son was the first American to be born in the city, he was the first mayor to expand the city. He died on January 1898 in Los Angeles, he was buried at the Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery in California. Nichols Canyon was named in his honor