B. V. Doshi
Balkrishna Vithaldas Doshi, OAL, is an Indian architect. He is considered to be an important figure of Indian architecture and noted for his contributions to the evolution of architectural discourse in India, he is a pioneer of Brutalist architeture in India. His more noteworthy designs include the Indian Institute of Management Bangalore, Indian Institute of Management Udaipur and the Aranya Low Cost Housing development in Indore, awarded the Aga Khan Award for Architecture. In 2018, he became the first Indian architect to receive the Pritzker Architecture Prize. Doshi was born in India, he studied at the J. J. School of Architecture, Mumbai. After having worked for four years between 1951-54 with Le Corbusier in Paris, Doshi returned to Ahmedabad to supervise Le Corbusier's projects, his studio, Vastu-Shilpa, was established in 1955. Doshi worked with Louis Kahn and Anant Raje, when Kahn designed the campus of the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad. In 1958 he was a fellow at the Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts.
He started the School of Architecture in 1962. Apart from his international fame as an architect, Dr. Doshi is known as an educator and institution builder, he has been the first founder Director of the School of Architecture, first founder Director of the School of Planning, first founder Dean of the Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology, founder member of the Visual Arts Centre and first founder Director of the Kanoria Centre for Arts, Ahmedabad. Dr. Doshi has been instrumental in establishing the nationally and internationally known research institute Vastu-Shilpa Foundation for Studies and Research in Environmental Design; the institute has done pioneering work in low-cost city planning. His work is considered noteworthy for his pioneering work on low-income housing, he is noted for designs which incorporate concepts of sustainability in innovative ways. Doshi is a Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects and has been on the selection committee for the Pritzker Prize, the Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts, the Aga Khan Award for Architecture.
He is a Fellow of the Indian Institute of Architects. As an academician, Dr. Doshi has been visiting the United States and Europe since 1958. In March 2018, Doshi was awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize, the Nobel equivalent for the field, thus becoming the first Indian to receive the honour; the Pritzker jury announced that Doshi "has always created an architecture, serious, never flashy or a follower of trends", noted his "deep sense of responsibility and a desire to contribute to his country and its people through high quality, authentic architecture". In recognition of his distinguished contribution as a professional and as an academician, Dr. Doshi has received several international and national awards and honours. Pritzker Architecture Prize, 2018 Padma Shri, Government of India,1976 Honorary doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania. France's highest honour for arts the'Officer of the Order of Arts and Letters', 2011. 6th Aga Khan Award for Architecture for Aranya Community Housing, 1993-1995.
1969-71 ECIL Township, Hyderabad. 1979-80 Sangath, BV Doshi's office, Ahmedabad 1972 Centre for Environment and Planning Technology, Ahmedabad 1962-74 Indian Institute of Management Bangalore 1989 National Institute of Fashion Technology, Delhi 1990 Amdavad ni Gufa, Ahmedabad Aranya Low Cost Housing, Indore IFFCO township, Kalol Sawai Gandharva, Pune Premabhai Hall, Ahmedabad Tagore Memorial Hall, Ahmedabad Vidyadhar Nagar, Jaipur Udayan the Condoville, Utsav Utsarg 2500 homes, Kolkata Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow Institute of Indology, Ahmedabad In 2008, Hundredhands director Premjit Ramachandran released a documentary interviewing Doshi. He appeared as himself in Mani Ratnam's O Kadhal Kanmani, Shaad Ali's Ok Jaanu, playing himself. Curtis, William J. R. Balikrishna Doshi: An Architecture for India, New York 1988, ISBN 0-8478-0937-4 James Steel, The Complete Architecture of Balikrishna Doshi, Rethinking Modernism for the Developing World and Hudson, London 1998, ISBN 0-500-28082-7 Bruno Melotto ed. Balkrishna Doshi.
Sangath. Indian architecture between tradition and modernity, Maggioli Editore, Santarcangelo di Romagna 2012, ISBN 8838761264 Bruno Melotto ed. Balkrishna Doshi; the Masters in India. Le Corbusier, Louis Kahn and the Indian Context, Maggioli Editore, Santarcangelo di Romagna 2014, ISBN 978-88-387-6295-6 Vastu Shilpa Consultants and Vastu Shilpa Foundation Texts and Projects by B. V. Doshi on Architexturez South Asia
Alexander Tzonis is a Greek born architect and author. He has made contributions to architectural theory and design cognition bringing together scientific and humanistic approaches in a rare synthesis. Since 1975 he has been collaborating in most projects with Liane Lefaivre. In 1985 he founded and directed Design Knowledge Systems, a multidisciplinary research institute for the study of architectural methodology and the development of design thinking tools at TUDelft. Tzonis is known for his work on creative design by analogy, the classical canon, history of the emergence and development of modern architectural thinking, introducing the idea of critical regionalism. Alexander Tzonis was born in Athens, his parents studied in Athens and Vienna. His father, Konstantinos Tzonis, was professor of biology at the University of Thessaloniki and active in politics and in the Greek Resistance, his mother, Chariclea Xanthopoulos, was the first female chemical engineer in Greece. Tzonis studied architecture at the National Technical University of Athens.
During the period of his university studies, he was instructed in mathematics and art meeting with the architect Dimitris Pikionis, by retired from teaching. He worked professionally as a stage designer in the theatre and art director in the cinema.. In 1961 he moved to the United States as a Ford Fellow, where he pursued his studies at Yale University in the Drama School and soon after in the School of Art and Architecture under Paul Rudolph, Shadrach Woods, Robert Venturi, Serge Chermayeff. In 1965, with sponsorship from the Twentieth Century Fund he was appointed fellow at Yale where he carried out pioneering research on Planning and Design Methodology in collaboration with Chermayeff with whom he co-authored The Shape of Community. In 1968 he was invited to teach at the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University by Jerzy Soltan and Josep Lluis Sert appointed assistant professor. There he taught and did advanced research in analytical design methods in association with Walter Isard and Ovadia Salama, receiving outside advice from Anatol Rapaport and Seymour Papert.
In collaboration with Ovadia Salama, introducing the newly developed method ELECTRE he worked out a new method for multi-criteria evaluation of architectural projects. In collaboration with Michael Freeman, Etienne de Cointet, his undergraduate student Robert Berwick, who became professor of computational linguistics at MIT, he developed a method for design discourse analysis applied to the case of 17th and 18th century texts of French architectural theory, a project funded by the French Government carried out at Harvard and in France. While researching scientific problems related to design methodology, reacting to the socio-environmental urban crisis of the 1960s and the inability of mainstream functionalist architecture to cope with it, he wrote Towards a Non-oppressive Environment, a critical book dealing with the historical roots and the underlying conflicts of the crisis; the book was published by I Press soon to be translated in six languages. Following its publication, Tzonis introduced at Harvard the critical-historical study of modern design thinking initiating the teaching of History of Design Methodology, for the first time internationally.
During the 1970s he worked as academic editor, first with Penguin Books initiating the multidisciplinary series Man Made Environment. Because of economic difficulties of the company, in the early 1970s, only three volumes were published, among them a volume on environmental conflict authored by Anatol Rapaport Shadrach Woods on urbanism and K. H. Schaeffer, Elliott Sclar, on transportation and urban growth. After a failed attempt to edit a multi-volume Harvard Encyclopedia of Architecture, with Gavin Borden as publisher, he undertook as general editor the multi-volume Garland Architectural Archives, one of the largest architectural publishing projects. In 1980, Gerald McCue chairman of the Department of Architecture at Harvard, was appointed dean at the Graduate School of Design, a change that put an end to the multi-disciplinary research and analytical methods orientation of the School expanding under the Deanship of Maurice D. Kilbridge, reducing drastically the planning department, several of its members moving to the Kennedy School or left Harvard.
In 1981, Tzonis moved to the Netherlands, appointed professor of design methodology at the Delft University of Technology where, in 1985, he founded and began directing Design Knowledge Systems, a multi-disciplinary research institute on Architectural Cognition. During the 1970s, in response to the rise of the post-modernism that Tzonis believed not only had abandoned the environmental and social goals of the modern movement but lacked depth and authenticity, after spending a year in France, invited by the French Ministry of Culture, working with the young generation of French critics and historians, he became involved with architectural criticism; the result was a long series of publications, most co-authored with his wife Liane Lefaivre, now professor at the Universität für angewandte Kunst, reflecting on the current tendencies of architecture: Populism, Narcissism —both terms introduced in architectural criticism by Tzonis and Lefaivre—and rethinking the Classical Canon, leading to the seminal book Classical Architecture.
These ideas were further elaborated in books for a general audience co-authored with Lefaivre (Architect
Wang Shu is a Chinese architect based in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. He is the dean of the School of Architecture of the China Academy of Art. With his practice partner and wife Lu Wenyu, he founded the firm Amateur Architecture Studio. In 2012, Wang became the first Chinese citizen to win the Pritzker Prize, the world's top prize in architecture; the award was the subject of some controversy since the Pritzker committee did not award Lu Wenyu, his wife and architectural partner, despite their years of collaboration. Wang Shu was born on 4 November 1963 in Ürümqi, the capital of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in China's far west, he began to paint as a child, without any formal training in art. Despite the anti-intellectual fervor of the "cultural revolution", his mother gave him access to the library and he read from "Pushkin to Lu Xun." As a compromise between his passion of art and engineering, his parents' recommendation, Wang chose to study architecture at the Nanjing Institute of Technology in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province and received a bachelor's degree in 1985 and a master's degree in 1988.
Although Wang lived in Ürümqi and Beijing in his early life, after college he moved to Hangzhou for the city's natural landscapes and ancient tradition of art. He worked for the Zhejiang Academy of Fine Arts and in 1990 completed his first architectural project, a youth centre in the city of Haining near Hangzhou. Wang did not have any commissions between 1990 and 1998. During that time his wife Lu Wenyu supported the family. Instead, he chose to further his studies at the School of Architecture of Tongji University in Shanghai, earning a PhD in 2000. In 1997, Wang and his wife Lu Wenyu an architect, founded the firm Amateur Architecture Studio, they chose the name as a rebuke of the "professional, soulless architecture" practiced in China, which they believe has contributed to the large-scale demolition of many old urban neighborhoods. Wang joined the faculty of the China Academy of Art in 2000 as a professor, became the Head of the Architecture Department in 2003, was named Dean of the School of Architecture in 2007.
In 2000, Wang designed the Library of Wenzheng College at Soochow University, which won the inaugural Architecture Art Award of China in 2004. His Five Scattered Houses in Ningbo won the Holcim Award for Sustainable Construction in the Asia Pacific in 2005. In 2008 his Vertical Courtyard Apartments in Hangzhou was nominated for the International Highrise Award. In 2008 he completed a project he won in 2004 after an international competition; the building's facade is constructed of recycled bricks, its shape - resembling nearby mountains - reflects its natural setting. The museum won the top architecture prize in China. Wang's other major projects include the Ningbo Museum of Art, the Xiangshan campus of the China Academy of Art and the Old Town Conservation of Zhongshan Street, Hangzhou, his architecture has been described as "opening new horizons while at the same time resonates with place and memory", as a rare example of critical regionalism in China. Wang creates modern buildings applying older techniques.
The Ningbo Museum is constructed of bricks salvaged from buildings, demolished to facilitate new developments. Wang is a keen supporter of architectural heritage where globalisation has stripped cities of their special attributes."In an age where the goal is to offer a distinct, individualized style, Shu has shied away from such a prerogative. With his manner of seamlessly meshing the contemporary with the cultural, innovation with tradition, Shu’s work has come to define itself; the work is infused with fresh material juxtapositions and an expressive quality grounded in traditional formal proportions and scale." He requires his freshman architecture students to spend a year working with their hands, learning basic carpentry and bricklaying, Wang requires other teachers in the department learn basic building skills. Because he believes "Only people who understand the nature of materials can make art using the materials." In 2010, Wang and his wife Lu Wenyu together won the German Schelling Architecture Prize, in 2011 he received the Gold Medal from the French Academy of Architecture.
In 2012, Wang won the Pritzker Architecture Prize. In so doing, he became the first Chinese citizen to win this prize, the fourth youngest person to win; the jury, which included Pritzker laureate Zaha Hadid and the US Supreme Court justice Stephen Breyer, highlighted Wang's "unique ability to evoke the past, without making direct references to history" and called his work "timeless rooted in its context and yet universal." The chairman of the Hyatt Foundation said Wang's win represented "a significant step in acknowledging the role that China will play in the development of architectural ideals" going forward. Zhu Tao, a Chinese architectural critic and historian, speculated that the win could signify a turning point in Chinese architectural history saying the prize "sends a message that architecture is a cultural enterprise... that architects are creators of culture."Alejandro Aravena, a member of the Pritzker Prize jury, stated "Wang Shu’s outstanding architecture may be the consequence of being able to combine talent and intelligence.
This combination allows him to produce masterpieces when a monument is needed, but very careful and contained architecture when a monument is not the case. The intensity of his work may be a consequence of his relative youth, but the precision and appropriateness of his operations talk o
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architecture can mean: A general term to describe other physical structures; the art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure. Knowledge of art, science and humanity; the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas known by the original translation – firmness and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty as a matter of proportion, although ornament played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean; the most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, was based on universal, recognisable truths.
The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari: by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects had been translated into Italian, French and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health and pleasure". For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance, his work goes on to state that a building is not a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned".
For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the least. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction, the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone and concrete, with these materials you build houses and palaces:, construction. Ingenuity is at work, but you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful; that is Architecture". Le Corbusier's contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "Architecture starts when you put two bricks together. There it begins." The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, structuralism, poststructuralism, phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner, environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling and waste management and lighting
William S.W. Lim
William S. W. Lim, born in Hong Kong in 1932, is a Singaporean architect, he graduated from the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London and continued his graduate studies at Harvard University. Lim was a Fulbright Fellow in Regional Planning at Harvard University. Since 1957, he has worked in Malaysia in several businesses as a partner, his work began from the design of modernist structures for residential and commercial interests, progressed on to large-scale shopping centres in Singapore and Kuala Lumpur. His designs include the People's Park Complex in Singapore, which went on to become the model for commercial development in the city. In 1981, he started his own business, he was a founding member of the Singapore Heritage Society. Lim is a co-founder and Chairman of Asian Urban Lab and President of the Architectural Association of Asia, he was conferred a Doctor of Architecture Honoris Causa by the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University, Australia, in 2002 and appointed Honorary Professor of LaSalle-SIA College of the Arts in 2005.
Lim writes and lectures on a wide range of subjects relating to architecture and culture in Asia as well as on current issues relating to the postmodern and social justice. He is author of Asian Alterity: With Special Reference to Architecture and Urbanism through The Lens of Cultural Studies, as well as editor of Asian Design Culture and co-editor of Non West Modernist Past. 1973 People's Park Complex,Singapore 1974 Golden Mile Complex, Singapore 1980 Tanglin Shopping Centre, Singapore 1987 Church of Our Saviour, Singapore 1999 Marine Parade Community Building, Singapore 2000 Gallery Hotel, Singapore 1990 Cities for People: Reflections of a Southeast Asian Architect, Select Books 1998 with Tan Hock Beng: Contemporary Vernacular: Evoking Traditions In Asian Architecture, Select Books 1998 Asian new urbanism and other papers, Select Books 2005 Asian Ethical Urbanism: A Radical Postmodern Perspective, World Scientific Publishing 2008 Asian Alterity: With Special Reference to Architecture and Urbanism Through the Lens of Cultural Studies, World Scientific Publishing 2012 Incomplete Urbanism: A Critical Urban Strategy for Emerging Economies, World Scientific Publishing
Mario Botta is a Swiss architect. Botta designed his first buildings at a two-family house at Morbio Superiore in Ticino. While the arrangements of spaces in this structure is inconsistent, its relationship to its site, separation of living from service spaces, deep window recesses echo of what would become his stark, towering style, his designs tend to include a strong sense of geometry being based on simple shapes, yet creating unique volumes of space. His buildings are made of brick, yet his use of material is wide and unique, his trademark style can be seen in Switzerland the Ticino region and in the Mediatheque in Villeurbanne, a cathedral in Évry, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art or SFMOMA. He designed the Europa-Park Dome, which houses many major events at the Europa-Park theme park resort in Germany. Religious works by Botta, including the Cymbalista Synagogue and Jewish Heritage Center were shown in London at the Royal Institute of British Architects in an exhibition entitled, Architetture del Sacro: Prayers in Stone.
“A church is the place, par excellence, of architecture,” he said in an interview with architectural historian Judith Dupré. “When you enter a church, you are part of what has transpired and will transpire there. The church is a house that puts a believer in a dimension where she is the protagonist; the sacred directly lives in the collective. Man becomes a participant in a church if he never says anything.”In 1998, he designed the new bus station for Vimercate, a red brick building linked to many facilities, underlining the city's recent development. He worked at La Scala's theatre renovation, which proved controversial as preservationists feared that historic details would be lost. In 2004, he designed Museum One of the Leeum, Samsung Museum of Art in South Korea. On January 1, 2006 he received the Grand Officer award from President of the Italian Republic Carlo Azeglio Ciampi. In 2006 he designed his first spa, the Bergoase Spa in Arosa, Switzerland; the spa cost an estimated CHF 35 million.
Mario Botta participated in the Stock Exchange of Visions project in 2007. He was a member of the Jury of the Global Holcim Awards in 2012. In 2014 he was awarded with the Prize Javier Carvajal by the Universidad de Navarra. Markus Breitschmid and the Ambient – Mario Botta. Architectura et Ars Series, Volume 2, Virginia Tech Architecture Publications, 2013. ISBN 978-0-9893936-5-2 Publications by and about Mario Botta in the catalogue Helveticat of the Swiss National Library Official website Mario Botta at archINFORM Helena Bernal. "Mario Botta". In Andreas Kotte. Theaterlexikon der Schweiz / Dictionnaire du théâtre en Suisse / Dizionario Teatrale Svizzero / Lexicon da teater svizzer. 1. Zürich: Chronos. Pp. 251/252. ISBN 978-3-0340-0715-3. LCCN 2007423414. OCLC 62309181. 2007 Interview with Mario Botta in The Leaf Review Stock Exchange Of Visions: Visions of Mario Botta STORIES OF HOUSES: A Family House at Riva San Vitale, by Mario Botta Santa Maria degli Angeli Monte Tamaro Mario Botta Architecture on Google maps Mario Botta.
To be an architect, free online course on FutureLearn.com
Judith Pamela Butler is an American philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy and the fields of third-wave feminist and literary theory. Since 1993, she has taught at the University of California, where she is now Maxine Elliot Professor in the Department of Comparative Literature and the Program of Critical Theory, she is the Hannah Arendt Chair at the European Graduate School. Butler is best known for her books Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity and Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex, in which she challenges conventional notions of gender and develops her theory of gender performativity; this theory has had a major influence on queer scholarship. Her works are studied in film studies courses emphasizing gender studies and performativity in discourse. Butler has supported lesbian and gay rights movements and has spoken out on many contemporary political issues. In particular, she is a vocal critic of Zionism, Israeli politics, its effect on the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, emphasizing that Israel does not and should not be taken to represent all Jews or Jewish opinion.
Judith Butler was born on February 24, 1956, in Cleveland, Ohio, to a family of Hungarian-Jewish and Russian-Jewish descent. Most of her maternal grandmother's family perished in the Holocaust; as a child and teenager, she attended both Hebrew school and special classes on Jewish ethics, where she received her "first training in philosophy". Butler stated in a 2010 interview with Haaretz that she began the ethics classes at the age of 14 and that they were created as a form of punishment by her Hebrew school's Rabbi because she was "too talkative in class". Butler stated that she was "thrilled" by the idea of these tutorials, when asked what she wanted to study in these special sessions, she responded with three questions preoccupying her at the time: "Why was Spinoza excommunicated from the synagogue? Could German Idealism be held accountable for Nazism? And how was one to understand existential theology, including the work of Martin Buber?"Butler attended Bennington College before transferring to Yale University, where she studied philosophy, receiving her Bachelor of Arts degree in 1978 and her Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1984.
She spent one academic year at Heidelberg University as a Fulbright Scholar. She taught at Wesleyan University, George Washington University, Johns Hopkins University before joining University of California, Berkeley, in 1993. In 2002 she held the Spinoza Chair of Philosophy at the University of Amsterdam. In addition, she joined the department of English and Comparative Literature at Columbia University as Wun Tsun Tam Mellon Visiting Professor of the Humanities in the spring semesters of 2012, 2013 and 2014 with the option of remaining as full-time faculty. Butler serves on the editorial board or advisory board of several academic journals, including JAC: A Journal of Rhetoric and Politics and Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. In the essay "Performative Acts and Gender Constitution", Judith Butler proposes that gender is a performance, she draws on the phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and the feminism of Simone de Beauvoir, noting that both thinkers ground their theories in "lived experience" and view the sexual body as a historical idea or situation.
Butler distinguishes "between sex, as biological facticity, gender, as the cultural interpretation or signification of that facticity."Butler argues that gender is best perceived as a performance, which suggests that it has a social audience. For Butler, the "script" of gender performance is effortlessly transmitted generation to generation in the form of established "meanings": She states, "gender is not a radical choice... imposed or inscribed upon the individual". Given the social nature of human beings, most actions are witnessed and internalized and thus take on a performative or theatric quality. According to Butler's theory, gender is a performative repetition of acts associated with the male or female; the actions appropriate for men and women have been transmitted to produce a social atmosphere that both maintains and legitimizes a natural gender binary. With her acceptance of the body as a historical idea, she suggests that our concept of gender is seen as natural or innate because the body "becomes its gender through a series of acts which are renewed and consolidated through time".
Butler argues. Additionally, she compares the performativity of gender to the performance of the theater, she brings many similarities, including the idea of each individual functioning as an actor of their gender. However, she brings to light a critical difference between gender performance in reality and theater performances, she explains how the theater is much less threatening and does not produce the same fear that gender performances encounter because of the fact that there is a clear distinction from reality within the theater. Butler uses Sigmund Freud's notion of, she revises Freud's notion of this concept's applicability to lesbianism, where Freud says that lesbians are modeling their behavior on men, the perceived normal or ideal. She instead says that all gender works in this way of performativity and a representing of an internalized notion of gender norms. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity was first published in 1990, selling over 100,000 copies internationally, in multiple languages.
The book's title alludes to the 1974 John Waters film Female Trouble, which stars the drag queen Divine. Gender Trouble discusses