National Archives (Czech Republic)
The National Archives of the Czech Republic depends of the Ministry of the Interior. They have documents dating to the Early Middle Ages, they are located in Prague. National Library of the Czech Republic Prague City Archives List of national archives Official website
National Archives of Sweden
The National Archives of Sweden is the official archive of the Swedish government and is responsible for the management of records from Sweden's public authorities. Although the archives functions as the government archive, it preserves some documents from private individuals and non-public organizations; the mission of the archives is to preserve records for future generations. The National Archives of Sweden is a state administrative authority, organized under the Ministry of Culture; the head of The National Archives, known as the Riksarkivarie in Swedish, works alongside of staff responsible for strategic issues, overall coordination and development. The position is held by Karin Åström Iko; the structure of the organization is divided into five departments: the Regional Department, National Department, Department of Conservation and Digital Infrastructure, Department of Public Information Management, Administrative Department. The Regional Department includes Regional Archives located in seven cities: Gothenburg, Härnösand, Uppsala, Visby, Östersund.
The National Department includes the main branch Marieburg in Stockholm, Arninge located just north of Stockholm, other archives that have been incorporated into the National Archives, including the Military Archives and the Heraldry Board. The National Archives of Sweden is one of the oldest public authorities in Sweden, with roots that can be traced back to the Middle Ages. Beginning under King Gustav Vasa, an archive was created from collected older documents, some documents that were received, documents drawn up in the Royal Office. On October 18, 1618 Axel Oxenstierna, the Lord High Chancellor of the Privy Council, issued a Chancellor's Order to appoint a special secretary, along with two writers, to be responsible for the archive, thus creating the National Archives as an institution. Over time, the archive became less important for the activities of the Chancellor, more valuable for historical researchers. However, it wasn't until 1878 that the National Archives was established as an independent authority.
In 1697 a fire at the Tre Kronor castle in Stockholm destroyed a large portion of the Archives, resulting in a severe loss of items and documents from the Middle Ages. Out of 24,500 books and 1,400 manuscripts, only 6,000 books and 400 manuscripts could be salvaged, respectively. One of Sweden's most famous books, The Silver Bible, or Codex Argenteus, was purportedly thrown out the castle window to save it from the flames; the National Archives was limited to the Royal Office, but over time the National Archives has subsumed responsibility for archives of other central and local authorities. In order to preserve documents from regional and local governments, regional archives were created in seven cities from 1899 to 1935; the Archives of Vadstena was the first regional archive to open in 1899. Regional archives in Lund and Uppsala both opened in 1903, Visby in 1905, Gothenburg in 1911, Östersund in 1928, in Härnösand in 1935; the Regional Archives were merged with the National Archives in 2010 under a joint authority.
The Military Archives were created in 1805. An independent authority, The Military Archives were incorporated into the National Archives in 1995; the archive stores a unique and comprehensive collections of maps, including historical maps of Sweden, hand-written foreign topographical maps, city fortification plans. The National Herald Board was closed in 1953, the state's heraldic operations continued as a department under the National Archives; the department deals with questions about coat of arms design and emblems and continuously produces new heraldic images for newly formed governmental bodies, etc. The head of the National Herald Board held the title of National Herald, but in the new organization the title instead became State Herald. In 2007, the Swedish military altered the image of the heraldic lion depicted on the Nordic Battlegroup's coat of arms, removing the lion's penis to promote a more gender neutral image following protests from female soldiers; the creator of the image at the National Archives, Vladimir A. Sagerlund, made the news in Sweden over his staunch disapproval of the change.
The oldest document in the National Archives is a parchment from a missal, written in England in the late 10th century. The document came to Sweden via the British Christian missionary in Norway. Under King Gustav Vasa in the 16th century, archiving expanded and national registry and chamber books, land records, diplomatic treaties were collected in the National Archives. Scrolls in Cyrillic writing from Novgorod were preserved in memory of the Swedish occupation from 1611 to 1617. There is a wide variety of materials available, including documents from the ministry and central authorities. Documentation of government decisions from the 1840s to 1980s are available to researchers. Around 100,000 maps and drawings of state civilian buildings from 1697 to 1993 are preserved in the archive. Although the primary focus of the National Archives is government records, there are some personal archives, which were in the past obtained via confiscations and seizures, more as donations. Personal collections include feudal archives from the 17th and 18th century, such as the Skokloster collection, Sjöholms and Ericsberg archives, other archives of statesmen and cultural personalities.
There are some archives of non-governmental associations and businesses, as well as news archives. In 2015 the archival holdings amounted to 750 kilometers o
Torre do Tombo National Archive
The National Archive of Torre do Tombo is the Portuguese national archive located in the civil parish of Alvalade, in the municipality of central-northern Lisbon. Established in 1378, it was renamed the Instituto dos Arquivos Nacionais in 2009; the archive is one of the oldest institutions in Portugal, since its installation in one of the towers of the castle in Lisbon, occurring during the reign of Ferdinand I, in 1378. The archive served as the King's and nobilities' reference, with documents supporting the administration of the kingdom and overseas territories, documenting the relationships between the State and foreign kingdoms. Following the events of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the High-Guardian of the archives, Manuel da Maia, was responsible for saving the contents of the Torre do Tombo. At 75 years old, Maia led the safe-guarding team to São Jorge Castle, where the archives were located, saved nearly 90,000 pieces, accumulated between 1161 and 1696, he ordered the construction of provisional barracks to store the contents of the archives and made a request to Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, King Joseph I’s prime-minister, for a new permanent home for the archives, which would be granted to him in the form of the Convent of São Bento.
In 1982, a public tender was issued for the construction of the new Torre do Tombo archive building, was won by the Ateliers Associados, represented by Arsénio Raposo Cordeiro, with M. Sheppard Cruz and A. N. de Almeida. The cornerstone was laid in an official ceremony; the sculptor José Aurélio was invited to sculpt the gargoyles in 1987, which completed between 1988-1990 (in conjunction with mason José Rodrigues and builder Júlio Mesão. The actual building was projected by architect Arsénio Cordeiro, in collaboration with architect António Barreiros Ferreira, it was inaugurated in 1990, purposely built to receive the National Archive, whose vast collection had been archived since 1757 in the Monastery of São Bento da Saúde (today the Palace de São Bento. The new archive inherited the name of the former Moorish tower of the Castle of São Jorge where documents from the kingdom were warehoused since 1378. Before its inauguration on 21 December 1990, the archive that remained at the former-monastery was transferred to the new building.
On 22 December 2010, the DRCLVTejo proposed classifying the building as a municipal property of interest, supported by the director of the IGESPAR. On 17 May 2011, an announcement was published regarding the process to classify the building, by August, a formal request to make the building a municipal property of interest was formalized by DRCLVTejo; the National Council for Culture decided on 10 October 2011, that a classification was warranted, provided their support. On 30 November 2011, a decision on the classification of this building was approved, a Special Protection Zone was established; the imposing structure consists of two large units unified by a central body, forming an immense "H" plan. The two wings is supported by large bases that create a fortress-like structure, evocative of the large historic monuments that were constructed to last for an eternity, to act as a symbols of preservation and guardianship of a collective memory; the building occupies an area of 11,265 square metres distributed over seven floors, with three floors used by technical rooms, reading rooms, an auditorium and exposition halls.
The upper floors are used to shelter the 140 kilometres shelves for documents, with austere cement walls, with small, square fenestrations, that characterizes a safe-box. Erected in the centre of each facade is a vertical body that acts as buttress, in the form of a "T" that reproduces the archives initials for "Torre do Tombo"; the principal and rear facades are surmounted by eight gargoyles, sculpted by José Aurélio, representing fundamentals elements from human history or important in the particular mission of the national archive. These include gargoyles that figure as the Guarda do Abecedário, the Guarda das Ondas Hertzianas, O Velho and o Novo, the a Morte and O Bem and O Mal; the Torre do Tombo safeguards two centuries of historical Portuguese guards, including documents that pre-date the Kingdom of Portugal, others like the bull Manifestis Probatum, considered an important of UNESCO World Heritage. In addition, records include 36,000 documents recovered during the era of the Inquisition, many documents inscribed by the Nationlist police force ( and the accord admitted Portugal into the European Economic Community.
Among the other significant collections at the archive are items relating to the Portuguese explorations and discoveries in Africa and Latin America. The Corpo Cronológico, a collection of manuscripts on the Portuguese discoveries, was inscribed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Register in 2007 in recognition of its historical value "for acquiring knowledge of the political, military and religious history of numerous countries at the time of the Portuguese Discoveries." Another item relating to the Portuguese discoveries, the Carta de Pêro Vaz de Caminha, was inscribed on the Memory of the World Register in 2005. This let
Bjelovar is a city in central Croatia. It is the administrative centre of Bjelovar-Bilogora County. At the 2011 census, there were 40,276 inhabitants. Bjelovar was first mentioned in 1413 and only gained importance when a new fort was built there in 1756, at the command of the Habsburg Empress Maria Theresa; the initial role of the city was to defend central Croatia against the Ottoman invasions. The town had to wait until the end of these wars to be pronounced a free royal town by ban Ivan Mažuranić in 1874; the oldest Neolithic location in this area is in Ždralovi, a suburb of Bjelovar, while building a basement for the house of Josip Horvatić, a dugout was found and identified as belonging to the Starčevo culture. Finds from Ždralovi belong to a regional subtype of a late variant of the Neolithic culture, it is designated the final-stage Starčevo. There are relics of the Korenovo culture, Sopot culture, Lasinja culture, the Vučedol culture. After the drop of the Ottoman Empire domination, Bjelovar was part of the Austrian monarchy, in the Croatian Military Frontier, Warasdin-Kreutzer Regiment N°V until 1881.
In the late 19th and early 20th century, Bjelovar was the seat of the Bjelovar-Križevci County of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. From 1929 to 1939, Bjelovar was part of the Sava Banovina and from 1939 to 1941 of the Banovina of Croatia within the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Population by settlement: The city of Bjelovar stands on a plateau in the southern part of Bilogora, 135 metres above sea level, it is the capital of the Bjelovar-Bilogora county, the natural and political centre of the area. Bjelovar is at an intersection of roads in this area: the D28 intersects with the D43, it lies on the road between Zagreb and west Slavonia and Osijek. Bjelovar is being connected by dual carriageway with Zagreb; the city of Bjelovar has an area of 191.9 km2, administratively it includes 31 other areas. North-east of Bjelovar there is a long, low elevation called Bilogora, with an average height of 150–200 m; the geology of the area consists of Pliocene sandy marl and sandstones with lesser layers of lignite.
Older rocks do not appear on the surface in this area. In deep boreholes there are crystalline rocks. Bjelovar has a temperate continental climate. Winters are moderately cold and summers are warm. Precipitation of about 900 mm per year is normal; the prevailing wind during winter is northerly, with easterlies becoming stronger in spring, when it may be quite cold blowing for a several days consecutively. In summer the wind is southerly; the mean yearly temperature in Bjelovar is about 12 °C. Bjelovar contains three war memorials; the Barutana memorial area is dedicated to those who died defending the city on September 29, 1991, during the Croatian War of Independence. The Lug memorial area is dedicated to Ustashi soldiers killed by Partisans in 1945, the Borik memorial area is dedicated to Partisans killed during the Second World War. Bjelovar hosts the yearly "BOK" theatre festival, it was founded and is run by Bjelovar actor Goran Navojec, it hosts a selection of the best plays performed in Croatia during previous year.
In the 1970s, Bjelovar was known as the handball capital of Europe, when its local squad RK Bjelovar dominated Croatian and European handball. The team came from Bjelovar and its environs. Bjelovar is twinned with: Imotski, Croatia Novalja, Croatia Pakrac, Croatia Rubiera, Italy Visoko and Herzegovina Đurđa Adlešič, Croatian politician Momčilo Bajagić, Serbian rock musician Bogdan Diklić, Serbian actor Petar Gorša, Croatian sports shooter Gordan Jandroković, Croatian politician Sonja Kovač, Croatian actress and singer Zdravko Mamić, Croatian sportsman of Bosnian origin Zoran Mamić, Croatian football manager Bojan Navojec, Croatian actor Goran Navojec, Croatian actor Mario Petreković, Croatian comedian and actor Lavoslav Singer, Croatian industrialist Hrvoje Tkalčić, geophysicist Ognjen Vukojević, Croatian footballer Dragutin Wolf, Croatian industrialist Vojin Bakić, Croatian sculptor of Serbian origin Roman Catholic Diocese of Bjelovar-Križevci NK Bjelovar RK Bjelovar Bjelovar official site Virtual tour around Bjelovar
National Archives of Andorra
The National Archives of Andorra was established in 1975. The archives were created by all of the government bodies responsible for the custody of official documents; the Department of Archives and Records Management
National Archives of Georgia
The National Archives of Georgia is the legal entity of public law under the Ministry of Justice of the nation of Georgia. The National Archives holds written documents, film documents and audio records, totaling more than five million exhibits; the exhibits preserved at the depositories of the archives are dated back to the 9th through 21st century. They include: historical, contemporary history, audio-visual archives and local archives from every region; the documents in the Archives are official, their preservation has been established by law. Some of the preserved documents include texts from the First Republic, scientific archives, the parish books that hold information about the christening and the death of citizens, the gospel of the 9th century, Anchi gospel, Kings' deeds, private letters, other legal monuments, photos from the 19th century, first film documents, the documents of different state or private structures; the National Archives serve the political, economical and cultural interests of the country and as an ancestors’ documentary heritage is the essential trapping of the authority.
In ancient Georgia, as well as in other countries, manuscripts were kept and preserved by their authors and ecclesiastic jutoddictions – court and religious centers. Every jurisdiction would penerally need juridical standards and the documents depicting them, legislative acts, income: expense books, deeds, diplomatic letters in internal and foreign relatives. According to the indirect notifications it is confirmed that there was a royal archive in the 6th century, not only the treasury but the depository for documents. Church and private archives existed; the modern archives in Georgia were established on April 23, 1920, according to the law about the establishment of Republic's Central Scientific Archive, issued by the Democratic Republic of Georgia. On July 1, 1921 the revolutionary committee of Georgia issued a decree “About the reorganization of the Archival Affair”. From 2004 the archival institution was under the Ministry of Justice of Georgia as the State department of Archives of Georgia.
In accordance with the law # 71 from March 12, 2007, issued by the Minister of Justice of Georgia, the legal entity the National Archives of Georgia was formed. At present, the state control of archival and clerical work fields, the development of the national archival fund, is in its authority; the National Archives of Georgia under the state control independently ensures the ruling of archival affairs in Georgia, the improvement of clerical work and the development of the national archival fund. The goals of the National Archives of Georgia are: a) the supplement of the national archival fund. On the base of the law of Georgia "About the National Archival Fund and the National Archives", the National Archive realizes the registration and the preservation of the documents of the national archival fund without the distinction of their place of preservation the state control and the supervision of the rules of the clerical work; the National Archives of Georgia receives the documents of the national archival fund in time and regularized.
Realizes to display the documents representing the history of Georgia preserved in foreign Archives, prepares the sentences to acquire these documents or their copies. Provides the protection of the archival documents preserved in the National Archives, the monitoring and the optimization arrangements of the conditions of their preservation. Provides the free acknowledgment of the interested persons on the documents of the national archival fund according to the stated legislation. Publishes the documents of the national archival fund according to the stated rules the informational literature about the composition and the content of the documents preserved in the National Archives of Georgia, it realizes the methodical leadership and control of the activities of the central archives and the local archives - the territorial organs of the National archives of Georgia. It controls and guides the work of the archives of different institutions the preparation of their documentation to pass to the National Archives of Georgia.
Conducts the scientific research works in the field of archives, documents and adjacent historical disciplines. The origin of the Central Historical Archive of Georgia is connected with the activities of the so-called military historical department at the staff of Caucasus army in 1878 and Caucasus military archive, established in 1908. After the declaration of the independence of Georgia, on 26 May 1918, the archival materials, scattered through the country, were gathered in one archival institution. In 1920 it was called the Central Scientific Archive and the State Historical Archive of Georgia in 1939; the Central Historical Archive is one of the most important scientific institutions of our country. The precious documents, hold in this archive, represents the rich materials for the studies of not only Georgian but Cauca
The Nationaal Archief is the national archive of the Netherlands, located in The Hague. It houses collections for the central government, the province of Zuid-Holland, the former County of Holland. There is material from private institutions and individuals with an association to the Dutch government or the political or social history of the Netherlands; the Nationaal Archief holds the Archives of the Dutch East India Company from 1602–1811, which were, along with related records held by South Africa, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, inscribed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme Register in 2003 in recognition of their historical value. The photographic archives of Spaarnestad Photo were included in the Nationaal Archief, it has been announced that Wikipedia will get user rights over a large number of photos from these archives. The Netherlands Antilles had a separate Nationaal Archief, dissolved when the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles took place; the entrance links to a walkway leading to the sister organizations housed in the same building.
The large complex comprises a large apparatus to keep documents stored in optimum conditions, which the NA maintains for its sister organizations. The list of organizations housed in the complex adjoining The Hague Central Station are: Spaarnestad Photo archive Biografisch Portaal The Koninklijke Bibliotheek The Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie The Digital Library for Dutch Literature Data Archiving and Networked Services The International Institute of Social History The Onderzoekscentrum voor Geschiedenis en Cultuur, The Parlementair Documentatie Centrum The Netherlands Institute for Art History The Netherlands Music Institute The Huygens Institute for the History of the Netherlands Letterkundig Museum List of national archives National Digital Archives of the Netherlands National Archives of the Netherlands