The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in men's tennis. It is run by the International Tennis Federation and is contested annually between teams from competing countries in a knock-out format, it is described by the organisers as the "World Cup of Tennis", the winners are referred to as the World Champion team. The competition began in 1900 as a challenge between the United States. By 2016, 135 nations entered teams into the competition; the most successful countries over the history of the tournament are the United States and Australia. The present champions are Croatia, who beat France to win their second title in 2018; the women's equivalent of the Davis Cup is the Fed Cup. Australia, the Czech Republic, the United States are the only countries to have held both Davis Cup and Fed Cup titles in the same year; the Hopman Cup, a third competition for mixed teams, carries less prestige, but is a popular curtain raiser to the tennis season. Only the Czechs have won all three competitions in one calendar year, doing so in 2012.
The idea for a tournament pitting the best British and Americans in competition against one another was first conceived by James Dwight, the first president of the U. S. National Lawn Tennis Association when it formed in 1881. Desperate to assess the development of American players against the renowned British champions, he worked tirelessly to engage British officials in a properly sanctioned match, but failed to do so, he tried to entice top international talent to the U. S. and sanctioned semi-official tours of the top American players to Great Britain. Diplomatic relations between Great Britain and the United Stated on the tennis front had strengthened such that, by the mid 1890s, reciprocal tours were staged annually between players of the two nations, an ensuing friendship between American William Larned and Irishman Harold Mahony spurred efforts to formalize an official team competition between the two nations. International competitions had been staged for some time before the first Davis Cup match in 1900.
From 1892, England and Ireland had been competing in an annual national-team-based competition, similar to what would become the standard Davis Cup format, mixing single and doubles matches, in 1895 England played against France in a national team competition. During Larned's tour of the British Isles in 1896, where he competed in several tournaments including the Wimbledon Championships, he was a spectator for the annual England vs. Ireland match, he returned to exclaim that Britain had agreed to send a group of three to the US the following summer, which would represent the first British lawn tennis "team" to compete in the U. S. Coincidentally, some weeks before Larned left for his British tour, the idea for an international competition was discussed between leading figures in American lawn tennis - one of whom was tennis journalist E. P. Fischer - at a tournament in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario. Dwight F. Davis was in attendance at this tournament, was thought to have got wind of the idea as it was discussed in the tournament's popular magazine, Davis's name was mentioned as someone who might'do something for the game … put up some big prize, or cup'.
Larned and Fischer met on several occasions that summer and discussed the idea of an international match to be held in Chicago the following summer, pitting six of the best British players against six of the best Americans, in a mixture of singles and doubles matches. This was discussed in two articles in the Chicago Tribune, but did not come to fruition; the following summer, Great Britain - though not under the official auspices of the Lawn Tennis Association - sent three of its best players to compete in several US tournaments. Their relative poor performances convinced Dwight and other leading officials and figures in American lawn tennis that the time was right for a properly sanctioned international competition; this was to be staged in Newcastle in July 1898, but the event never took place as the Americans could not field a sufficiently strong team. A reciprocal tour to the U. S. in 1899 amounted to just a single British player travelling overseas, as many of the players were involved in overseas armed conflicts.
It was at this juncture, in the summer of 1899, that four members of the Harvard University tennis team - Dwight Davis included - travelled across the States to challenge the best west-coast talent, upon his return, it occurred to Davis that if teams representing regions could arouse such great feelings why wouldn't a tennis event that pitted national teams in competition be just as successful. He approached James Dwight with the idea, tentatively agreed, he ordered an appropriate sterling silver punchbowl trophy from Shreve, Crump & Low, purchasing it from his own funds for about $1,000, they in turn commissioned a classically styled design from William B. Durgin's of Concord, New Hampshire, crafted by the Englishman Rowland Rhodes. Beyond donating a trophy for the competition, Davis's involvement in the incipient development of the tournament that came to bear his name was negligible, yet a persistent myth has emerged that Davis devised both the idea for an international tennis competition and its format of mixing singles and doubles matches.
Research has shown this to be a myth, similar in its exaggeration of a single individual's efforts within a complex long-term development to the myths of William Webb Ellis and Abner Doubleday, who have both been wrongly credited with inventing rugby and baseball, respectively. Davis nevertheles
Tennis Ireland is the governing body for tennis for the island of Ireland, with responsibilities for clubs and competitions. Tennis Ireland is divided into four Branches corresponding to the four provinces of Ireland, with its national headquarters located on the campus of Dublin City University Tennis Ireland was formed in 1908 as the Irish Lawn Tennis Association, a federation of 14 Irish tennis clubs, it became independent of the Lawn Tennis Association following the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922. Davis Cup Fed Cup Lottie Dod - 1887 Blanche Bingley Hillyard - 1888, 1894, 1897 Elizabeth Ryan - 1919-1921, 1923 Jadwiga Jędrzejowska - 1932 Hilde Krahwinkel Sperling - 1934 Helen Wills Moody - 1938 Alice Marble - 1939 Louise Brough - 1946 Maureen Connolly - 1952, 1954 Angela Mortimer - 1953 Ann Haydon Jones - 1961 Billie Jean King - 1963, 1969 Maria Bueno - 1964, 1965 Margaret Court - 1966, 1968, 1971, 1973 Virginia Wade - 1970 Evonne Goolagong Cawley - 1972 Allan Davidson - 1945 Rod Laver - 1962 Greg Rusedski - 1993, 1994, 1996 Claremont Railway Tennis Club Sport in Ireland Irish Open The Shelbourne Irish Open Tennis Ireland Tennis Ireland - Ulster Branch Fed Cup Current Rankings
Sport in Croatia
Sport in Croatia has significant role in Croatian culture, many local sports clubs as well as the Croatian national squads enjoy strong followings in the country. The most enduring sport by far in Croatia is football, is played on amateur and professional levels amongst all age groups across the entire country. Several other major team sports are handball and water polo, with clubs in all parts of Croatia. Ice hockey is another popular team sport, namely in the Croatian interior; the most popular individual sports in Croatia are tennis, alpine skiing, swimming, to some extent table tennis and chess. Various amateur sport games are popular in Croatia, notably picigin. Franjo Bučar is considered to be the father of modern Croatian sport, he founded the Croatian Sports Federation in 1909 within what was the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Bučar introduced a multitude of mainstream sports in Croatia, such as football, alpine skiing, ice skating and ice hockey, as well as gymnastics and fencing; the Franjo Bučar State Award for Sport, the Republic of Croatia's highest award in the development of sport, is named in his honor.
With the exception of the years during the fascist-era Independent State of Croatia, Croatian club and national teams first represented the Republic of Croatia at the start of the 1990s, with the formation of the Croatian national football team and its first match against the United States in 1990. Football is the most popular sport in Croatia, is governed by the Croatian Football Federation; the Prva HNL is the top division of the country's football league system, operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the Druga HNL. GNK Dinamo Zagreb is the country's most successful football club and the 2018 champion, with 19 total championships, followed by Hajduk Split with 6 championships; the rivalry between these two clubs is known as the Eternal Derby in Croatia, with the two clubs combining to win all but one of the 20 championships contested in the league's history. The Prva HNL is ranked 17th league in Europe by UEFA, Dinamo Zagreb is the highest-ranked Croatian club in Europe, occupying the 77th spot.
The Croatian Cup is the main knock-out tournament in Croatian football, has been dominated by Dinamo Zagreb and Hajduk Split. The Croatian Supercup is contested between the champions of the Croatian Cup. No Croatian Club has won the UEFA Champions League, however Hajduk Split, at the time Croatia's premier club, made it to the quarter-finals of the 1994–95 league, losing on aggregate to eventual champion Ajax; the Croatian national football team won a bronze medal in the 1998 FIFA World Cup and a silver medal in the 2018 FIFA World Cup. Davor Šuker won the Golden Boot as the top goal scorer in 1998 and Luka Modrić won the Golden Ball as the best player of the tournament in 2018; the national football team has played in the quarter-finals of the 1996 European Championships and the 2008 European Championships. The team is ranked 4th in the FIFA World Rankings. Today, Croatia's most popular footballers are Luka Modrić, Mario Mandžukić, Ivica Olić, Darijo Srna, Ivan Perišić, Ivan Klasnić, Niko Kranjčar, Ivan Rakitić and Vedran Ćorluka, as well as foreign-born Joe Šimunić, Eduardo da Silva and Sammir.
In August 2012, Luka Modrić was acquired by Spanish giants and 31-time La Liga champions Real Madrid for a deal totalling over £33 million, he made his debut as a substitute in Real's 2–1 victory over Catalan rivals FC Barcelona. Croatia has been a prolific nation in handball, both in the success of its club handball, as well as with the achievements of the Croatian national squad. At the start of the 2nd half of the 20th century, RK Bjelovar dominated Croatian handball, in the 1970s won five Yugoslavian league championships. In 1972, RK Bjelovar won the EHF Champions League, Europe's greatest handball competition, reached the final the following year. A smaller city, Bjelovar's reign of successes can be likened to that of the storied Vince Lombardi–era Green Bay Packers of the National Football League, as the town of Green Bay, the smallest NFL market in the United States, brought home five league championships in the 1960s. Since Croatian independence, RK Zagreb has been the nation's premier handball club.
It has won every Croatian First Handball League championship, contested, 20 in all. The club has reached the EHF Champions League finals six times, winning consecutively in 1992 and 1993. In 2008 the club acquired Croatian star Ivano Balić, considered the best handballer of all time; the Croatia national handball team is ranked 10th in the world by the International Handball Federation. At the 1996 and 2004 Summer Olympics, Croatia won gold medals in men's handball; the squad won the 2003 World Men's Handball Championship, came in 2nd at the 1995 and 2005 championships, as well as at the 2009 Championship as hosts, losing in the final to France. Croatia came in 3rd at the 1994 European Men's Handball Championship and 2nd at the 2008 and 2010 championships; the Croatian national basketball team won a silver medal at the 1992 Olympic basketball tournament, bronze medal at the 1994 FIBA World Championship and bronze medals at EuroBasket 1993 and EuroBasket 1995. Croatian basketball clubs were Euroleague champions 5 times: KK Split three times and KK Cibona in 1985 and 1986.
Croatian basketball players such as Krešimir Ćosić, Dino Rađa and Toni Kukoč were amongst the first foreign players to succeed in the NBA in the United States. One of the most notable Croatian basketballers was Dražen Petrović, who died in a car accident 1993, he is considered a crucial part of the vanguard to the present-day mass influx of European players into the
Montenegro Tennis Association
The Montenegro Tennis Association is the governing body of tennis in Montenegro. It is based in Podgorica and its current president is Petar Ivanović, it organizes the Montenegrin Davis Cup team and the Montenegrin Fed Cup team. The association was formed on 18 November 1976/1978? in Cetinje. It became a member of the International Tennis Federation on 24 August 2006. Official Website Montenegrin Olympic Committee: Tennis Federation
International Tennis Federation
The International Tennis Federation is the governing body of world tennis, wheelchair tennis, beach tennis. It was founded in 1913 as the International Lawn Tennis Federation by twelve national associations, as of 2016, is affiliated with 211 national tennis associations and six regional associations; the ITF's governance responsibilities include maintaining and enforcing the rules of tennis, regulating international team competitions, promoting the game, preserving the sport's integrity via anti-doping and anti-corruption programs. The ITF partners with the Women's Tennis Association and the Association of Tennis Professionals to govern professional tennis; the ITF organizes the Grand Slam events, annual team competitions for men and mixed teams, as well as tennis and wheelchair tennis events at the Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games on behalf of the International Olympic Committee. The ITF sanctions the Grand Slam tennis tournaments as well as circuits which span age ranges as well as disciplines.
In addition to these circuits, the ITF maintains rankings for juniors, seniors and beach tennis. Duane Williams, an American who lived in Switzerland, is recognized as the initiator and driving force behind the foundation of the International Tennis Federation, he died in the sinking of the RMS Titanic. Called the International Lawn Tennis Federation it held its inaugural conference at the headquarters of the Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques, in Paris, France on 1 March 1913, attended by 12 national associations. Three other countries had requested to become a member. Voting rights were divided based on the perceived importance of the individual countries with Great Britain's Lawn Tennis Association receiving the maximum six votes; the LTA was given the perpetual right to organize the World Grass Championships which led to a refusal by the United States Lawn Tennis Association to join the ILTF as they were of the opinion that this title should be given to the Davis Cup. France received permission to stage the World Hard Court Championships until 1916 and additionally a World Covered Court Championships was founded.
The USLTA joined in 1923 on the basis of two compromises: the title'World Championships' would be abolished and wording would be'for in the English language'. The World Championships were replaced by a new category of Official Championships for the main tournaments in Australia, Great Britain and the United States. In 1924, the ILTF became the recognised organisation with authority to control lawn tennis throughout the world, with official ILTF Rules of Tennis. In 1939 the ILTF had 59 member nations, its funds were moved to London, England during World War II and from that time onward the ITF has been run from there. It was based at Wimbledon until 1987, it moved again in 1998 to the Bank of England Sports Ground, its current base of operations. In 1977 the word'Lawn' was dropped from the name of the organization, in recognition of the fact that most tennis events were no longer played on grass, its official annual is The ITF Year. This replaced World of Tennis, the ITF official annual from 1981 through 2001.
In addition it publishes. As of 2017, there are 211 national associations affiliated with the ITF, of which 148 are voting members and 63 are associate members; the criteria for allocating votes to each voting member are: performance in ITF team competitions. For example, France garners 12 votes, Canada has 9, Egypt has 5, Pakistan has 3, Botswana has 1 vote. Regional associations were created in July 1975 as six "supra-national associations" with the aim to decrease the gap between the ILTF and the national associations; these evolved into the current regional associations: Asian Tennis Federation – 44 members Central American & Caribbean Tennis Confederation – 33 members Confederation of African Tennis – 52 members Oceania Tennis Federation – 20 members South America Tennis Confederation – 10 members Tennis Europe – 50 members ITF members with no regional affiliation The ITF President and Board of Directors are elected every four years by the national associations. Candidates are nominated by the national associations, may serve up to twelve years.
The ITF is the world governing body for the sport of tennis. Its governance includes the following responsibilities: make and enforce the Rules of Tennis. By its own constitution, the ITF guarantees that the official Rules of Tennis "shall be for in the English language". A committee within the ITF periodically makes rule amendment recommendations to the Board of Directors; the Rules of Tennis encompass the manner of play and scoring, in-game coaching, the technical specifications of equipment and other technology. The Rules cover tennis, wheelchair tennis, beach tennis. Through the Tennis Anti-Doping Program, the ITF implements the World Anti-Doping
Israel Tennis Association
The Israel Tennis Association, founded in 1950, is the national governing body for the sport of tennis in Israel. The ITA governs the arrangements for Israeli tennis leagues and tournaments, Israel's Davis Cup participation, Israeli participation in tennis tournaments abroad, it has a history of stormy relationships with some of Israel's top players and the Israel Tennis Centers. David "Dedi" Harnik was chairman of the ITA from 1980 to 1988. Kollie Friedstein the executive director of the Israel Tennis Centers and one of the founders of Kibbutz Shoval in the Negev, become chairman of the ITA in 1988 for a 2-year period, at which time "a state of turbulence" existed between the ITA and the ITC. Appointed to head both bodies at the same time, Friedstein felt that by 1990 he had succeeded in bringing "industrial peace" between them. In October 1990 Harnik was re-elected chairman of a position that he held for many years. In early 1996, Amos Mansdorf got into a tiff with the ITA when he accused it of mismanagement, suggesting that it was run in "an amateur fashion".
In 2005, during at the peak of a disagreement between the Israeli Davis Cup players and the ITA, Eyal Ran was made Israeli Davis Cup captain. Ran settled the crisis; the ITA announced the return of professional tennis to Israel in 2006. The event was to be the first world-class pro tennis in Israel since the Ramat Gan Men's Tennis Tournament was cancelled several years prior, but the ITA cancelled the tournament in August 2006, citing the precarious security situation in the region. The ITA said the decision to cancel the event was taken after Sony Ericsson WTA Tour CEO Larry Scott wrote to them informing them that under the circumstances, the event could not be held; the 2007 tournament remained on the calendar. For the 2008 Davis Cup match in Israel against Peru, NIS 600,000 revenue from the match made it a record season for the ITA, earned a total of NIS 10.5 million, 75% more than in 2006. The jump in income was due to the success of the women's and men's teams, who were both promoted to the 16-team world group and enabled the ITA to recruit sponsors and increase its royalties from the International Tennis Federation.
The bulk of the revenue from the Peru matches came from ticket sales. The ITA sold all the tickets in a single deal to ticket agency "Leaan" for NIS 350,000. At the same time, the Israeli newspaper Haaretz was bringing the ITA and the Israeli Tennis Center to task for squabbling with each other to the detriment of the development of Israeli tennis. In 2008 Israel's top singles player, Dudi Sela, was angry at the Israeli Olympic Committee and the ITA which decided not to send him to the Olympics in Beijing. "It maddens me that I am not taking part in the Olympics," Sela said. "Everyone ranked in the top 100 will be there except for me. In the past some players ranked in the bottom 100 have taken gold medals, but for Israel being ranked in the top 100 is not enough. Not since the days of former Israeli tennis player Amos Mansdorf has Israel been in the top tier of the Davis Cup, I carried us there. After such an achievement they still don't appreciate me enough to send me to the Olympics; this has sapped my motivation to play in the next Davis Cup."
He continued, "No one gets. Who am I playing tennis for in the Davis Cup? For myself?"The ITA sided with Sela, but was overruled by the Olympic Committee of Israel. The decision to leave Sela out enraged the ITA, which appealed to no avail; the director of Israel's Elite Sport Department, Gilad Lustig, had no regrets of the OCI's decision, put the blame in part on the ITA. "We set the criteria after a long process and all the different associations, including the ITA, gave their approval," he maintained. The Jerusalem Post reported in 2008, "While the facilities at Israel's tennis centers are more than adequate, most people involved in tennis here still agree on the reason for the lack of prospects. Both Okun and Sela blamed the lack of quality ranking tournaments in Israel.... The Israeli Tennis Association does not put enough money into running tournaments at home to give Israelis the chance to play and win ranking points.... But unless the ITA rethinks its strategy, Sela and Pe'er could be the last in the current generation of Israeli tennis stars and Israel will once again sink into the lower ranks of tennis also-rans."The Israeli newspaper Haaretz concurred, called for a large tennis tournament and a lower-level competition to be hosted by Israel.
Janine Strauss, CEO of the ITC shared that view: "Anyone who understands anything about tennis knows that training is not enough – tournaments are essential."Berger Over the protests of all four of their own players, who preferred to play outdoors in the heat on the hard court of Canada Stadium in Ramat Hashoaron which they were accustomed to, the ITA moved the tie against Russia in 2009 to the larger indoor Nokia Stadium. But the ITA was sensitive to the fact that the indoor arena has a capacity of 11,000 – more than double that of the Canada Stadium. ITA CEO Moshe Haviv denied that his prime consideration was the extra money such a move would bring in, said the larger stadium would give more Israelis the chance to see the national team play, allow them to watch the sport in more comfortable conditions; the Israel Tennis Center turning to the Tel Aviv District Court in an effort to prevent t
Croatia the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy, its capital, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102.
In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and the creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year; the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration. The sovereign state of Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a high standard of living.
It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world; the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-; the word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait-, the native name of Arachosia. The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe; the oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ. The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852; the original is lost, just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm; the inscription is not believed to be dated but is to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country; the largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, Vučedol cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the Celtic La Tène culture. Much the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, Korčula, Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305. During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475.
The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast and mountains; the city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum. The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain an