The kuna is the currency of Croatia, in use since 1994. It is subdivided into 100 lipa; the kuna is issued by the Croatian National Bank and the coins are minted by the Croatian Monetary Institute. The plural form of the kuna in Croatian is kune; the word "kuna" means "marten" in Croatian, referring to the historical use of marten pelts as units of value in medieval trading. The word lipa means "linden tree", a species, traditionally planted around marketplaces in Croatia and others lands under Habsburg Monarchy during the early modern period. During Roman times, in the provinces of upper and lower Pannonia, taxes were collected in the highly valued marten skins. Hence the Croatian word marturina, which derived from the Medieval Latin word for "marten" martus, which came from Proto-Germanic *marþuz through Old Dutch and Old French; the kuna was a currency unit in several Slavic states, most notably Kievan Rus and its successors until the early 15th century. It was equal to 1⁄25 gryvna of silver.
The plural form of kuna in the Croatian language is "kune". It has no relation to the various Slavic currencies named "koruna" which means "crown". In the Middle Ages, many foreign monies were used in Croatia, but since at least 1018 a local currency was in use. Between 1260 and 1380, Croatian Viceroys issued. However, the diminishing autonomy of Croatia within the Croatian-Hungarian Kingdom led to the gradual disappearance of that currency in the 14th century; the idea of a kuna currency reappeared in 1939 when Banovina of Croatia, an autonomous province established within Kingdom of Yugoslavia, planned to issue its own money, along with the Yugoslav dinar. In 1941, when the Ustaše regime formed the Independent State of Croatia, they introduced the Independent State of Croatia kuna; this currency remained in circulation until 1945, when it – along with competing issues by the communist Partisans – disappeared with the establishment of FPR Yugoslavia and was replaced by the Yugoslav dinar. The modern kuna was introduced on May 30, 1994, starting a period of transition from the Croatian dinar, introduced in 1991, which ended on December 31, 1994.
One kuna was equivalent to 1000 dinars at a fixed exchange rate. The kuna was pegged to the German mark from the start. With the replacement of the mark by the euro, the kuna's peg switched to the euro; the choice of the name kuna was controversial because the same currency name had been used by the Independent State of Croatia kuna, but this was dismissed as a red herring, since the same name was in use during the Banovina of Croatia and by the ZAVNOH. An alternative proposal for the name of the new currency was kruna, divided into 100 banica, but this was deemed too similar to the Austro-Hungarian krone and found inappropriate for the country, a republic though the Czech Republic and, until 2008, Slovakia have used currencies called "crown"; the self-proclaimed Serbian entity Republic of Serbian Krajina did not use the kuna or the Croatian dinar. Instead, they issued their own Krajina dinar until the region was reintegrated into Croatia in 1995. A long-time policy of the Croatian National Bank has been to keep the fluctuations of the kuna's exchange rate against the euro within a stable range.
Since the introduction of the euro in 1999, the exchange rate between the two currencies fluctuated to a substantial degree, remaining at a near constant 7.4:1 rate. Croatia joined the European Union on 1 July 2013 and it obliged to join the European Monetary System once the conditions for transition are met; the kuna is expected to be replaced by the euro though the initial time estimate of standard four years after joining the European Union proved too short. In 1994, coins were introduced in 1, 2, 5 and 25 kuna; the coins are issued in two versions: one with the name of the plant or animal in Croatian, the other with the name in Latin. Overall more coins have been minted with Croatian names than with names in Latin. Due to their low value, 1 and 2 lipa coins are used. Since 2009, these coins are no longer minted, but the Croatian National Bank has stated that it had no plans for withdrawing them, the 1 and 2 lipa coins are still minted as non-circulating; these images are to scale at 2.5 pixels per millimetre.
For table standards, see the coin specification table. Commemorative coins of the Croatian kuna have been issued since 1994; the notes were designed by Miroslav Šutej and Vilko Žiljak, all feature prominent Croatians on front and architectural motifs on back. The geometric figures at lower left on front are intaglio printed for recognition by the blind people. To the right of the coat of arms on front is a microprinted version of the Croatian national anthem, Lijepa naša domovino; the overall design is reminiscent of Deutsche Mark banknotes of the fourth series. The first series of notes was dated 31 October 1993; the 5, 10 and 20 kuna notes from this series were withdrawn on 1 April 2007, the 50, 100 and 200 kuna notes were withdrawn on 1 January 2010, but remain exchangeable at the HNB in Zagreb. New series of notes with similar designs but improved security features were released in 2001, 2004, 2012 and 2014; these images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
The Rose Center Theater is a performing arts theater within the Westminster Rose Center located in Westminster, California. It is part of the larger Rose Center complex that includes multiple ballrooms and banquet facilities, it is the home of the Vietnamese American Philharmonic Orchestra, TNT Productions, the Westminster Chorale. It has served as the host to many touring Broadway productions, dance companies, opera troupes, was the temporary home of the Academy for the Performing Arts during the renovations of Huntington Beach High School. Groundbreaking for the center occurred in April, 2001 with the official grand opening on July 21, 2006. Named'Westminster Community Cultural Center' on all city filed paperwork prior and during construction; the Rose Center Theater is operated by The Rose Center Foundation, a non-profit community volunteer group organized in 1999. Technical services for theatrical productions and banquet events is provided by The Backstage Supply Co. with offices on-site.
The state of the art theater seats 419 plus disabled seating and provides a universal venue for every type of entertainment. By use of the curtains, the stage can be altered for solo performances, town hall meetings, large scale musical comedy productions, orchestra, ballet and on stage weddings; the versatile design features excellent acoustics and sight lines. Boxes on both sides of the stage on both upper and lower levels are utilized for musicians or for VIP seating; the backstage areas are equipped with lockers, showers and dressing areas. Theatrical entertainment equipment includes modern lighting and video systems; the theater is a Proscenium style stage with no vertical fly system. Over stage and above audience lighting and rigging positions are accessed through a stretch wire grid system; the lighting system encompasses 192 dimming circuits, networked wired and wireless DMX512-A data connections, ETC and Altman lighting instruments, Strand dimming and control systems. The audio system includes JBL and EAW speakers arranged in a left-right-center orientation and Heath mixing console, Shure wireless microphones, a Peavey Media Matrix DSP.
Video systems consist of LCD projection screen located upstage of the main curtain with VHS, DVD, VGA, Betacam SP, High-8, Mini-DV and universal BNC inputs. Two box office windows with electronic ticketing system allow guests to pick up or pay for tickets in person or over the phone. Backstage areas include first-floor box office, office manager, technical office and maintenance areas and women's dressing rooms, makeup room, green room, actors' entrance, loading area capable of unloading any sized cargo truck or flatbed. Second-floor areas include auxiliary cast member rooms, dimming room, teledata room, audio control booth, lighting control booth, a stage manager booth. Third floor known as the'grid level,' areas include large sets storage and costume storage, lighting storage, lighting position access, curtain maintenance areas, follow spot booth. $19 million construction cost 3.8-acre land parcel 16,000 gross square feet 419-seat theater 8 disabled seats 42-foot-wide proscenium 35-foot-deep stage 22-foot-tall grid Current members of the Theater staff include: Theater Manager, Tim Nelson Box Office Manager, Ryan Salazar Technical Director, Chris Caputo Graphic Designer, Dana'D' Pull Head Lighting Designer, Max Weisenberger Head Sound Engineer, Matthew White Technical Director, Cameron Rawls 2008-2011 Technical Director, David Kile 2006-2008 Senior Technician, David May 2006-2008 Senior Stage Manager, Katharine Kimura 2006-2008 List of concert halls Westminster Rose Center Rose Center Theater The Backstage Supply Co
"Me So Horny" is a song by the rap group 2 Live Crew on their album As Nasty As They Wanna Be. It reached number 1 on the U. S. Billboard Hot Rap Tracks chart and number 26 on the U. S. Billboard Hot 100 in 1989, staying on the Hot 100 for thirty weeks, despite lack of airplay due to the controversial nature of the lyrics; the explicit nature of the lyrics of this song and the album led to the successful prosecution of the group on obscenity charges and the album being banned from sale in Florida. This ban was overturned on appeal; the song samples music from the 1979 hit song "Firecracker" by Mass Production and dialogue from the Richard Pryor film Which Way Is Up? and the Stanley Kubrick film Full Metal Jacket. Lines from two different films are used in the song. Which Way Is Up? – The "Gonna do that thing. What we gonna do? Oh sock it to me. " sample heard at the beginning of the song is from the scene in which Leroy listens in on his father Rufus having sex in another room. Full Metal Jacket – The lines listed below were sampled from the scene in which Private Joker and Private Rafterman are approached by a Da Nang prostitute.
The exchange between Joker and the prostitute is used at the beginning. Me love you long time. Me sucky sucky" sample is used throughout the song. Nancy Sinatra's "These Boots Are Made for Walkin'" can be heard underneath the samples at the beginning and end. Da Nang prostitute: Well, baby, me so horny. Me so horny. Me love you long time. Me sucky sucky. Private Joker: What'll we get for ten dollars? Da Nang prostitute: Every t'ing you want. Private Joker: Everything? Da Nang prostitute: Every t'ing; the "Me So Horny" sample was featured three years when Sir Mix-a-Lot included the sample in "Baby Got Back". The song samples the 1979 funk hit single "Firecracker" by Mass Production; the song became a major hit for 2 Live Crew, topping the rap charts and going to No. 26 on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1989. As Nasty As They Wanna Be reached No. 3 on the rap album charts and No. 29 on the album chart. The album sold millions of copies; because of the controversy, the song's title was never mentioned by Shadoe Stevens when he played the song on the radio show American Top 40, though it did get mentioned on a Summer 1990 episode when the group's second top 40 hit, Banned in the U.
S. A. was on the chart. The success of the single and the album led to concern over the explicit nature of rap lyrics both by 2 Live Crew and by gangsta rappers such as Geto Boys, Ice-T and N. W. A. Then-Broward County prosecutor Jack Thompson prosecuted 2 Live Crew on obscenity charges and persuaded a Federal District judge to declare the album obscene in June 1990. 2 Live Crew performed songs from the album including "Me So Horny" and were prosecuted for obscenity. Record store clerks who sold copies of the album were arrested. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. testified on behalf of the group during the trial. The decision was overturned on appeal and the ruling was upheld by the US Supreme Court; the publicity from the trials led to further sales of the album. In 1999, the group, minus former bandleader Luther Campbell, rerecorded the song as "Bill So Horny" during the impeachment of U. S. President Bill Clinton for perjury under oath about his relationship with Monica Lewinsky. However, the remix failed to chart.
In 2008, it was ranked number 83 on VH1's 100 Greatest Songs of Hip Hop. The music video features the members of the band rapping while scantily clad women are shown dancing on a stage. Two versions of the video were released; the original "uncut" version featured the dancing women in G-string bikini bottoms and sport brassieres. The MTV version featured alternate lyrics for the song and alternate footage of the dancers in cycling shorts instead of bikinis. American industrial metal act Revolting Cocks covered the song on their 2010 longplayer Got Cock?. The album included a remix of the track. Andy LaPlegua of Combichrist made an EBM version of the song for his solo album "13 Ways to Masturbate" released under the moniker of Dj Scandy. A comedy hip-hop duo known as 2 Live Jews released a spoof of the song, called "Oy! It's So Humid"; this spoof replaces the line, "Me love you long time" with "It's like a sauna in here." This is one of the tracks of their first album, titled As Kosher. Richard Cheese and Lounge Against the Machine did a Lounge cover on the 2005 album, Aperitif for Destruction.
A parody group known as "MC Pillsberry & the 4 Large Crew" made a spoof of the song called, "Me So Hungry". This title was used for a similar spoof by 3 Local Boyz; the parody music video "Me Want Maury" on the January 19, 1992 third season episode of In Living Color mocked Maury Povich and Connie Chung's attempts to conceive a child. In the movie Disturbia Ashley changes Kale's ringtone to "Me So Horny" whenever his best friend Ronnie calls. In the movie Bruce Almighty, the song is renamed "Bruce So Horny", as one of the many ways Jim Carrey attempts to win back his girlfriend. In the movie Be Cool, Vince Vaughn goes to a strip club and "Me So Horny" is playing. In the movie How to Lose Friends & Alienate People, when Simon Pegg gets back to his apartment with Kirsten Dunst, she says she loves this song and it is playing i