Croatian is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina, other neighboring countries. It is the official and literary standard of Croatia and one of the official languages of the European Union. Croatian is one of the official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina and a recognized minority language in Serbia and neighboring countries. Standard Croatian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, more on Eastern Herzegovinian, the basis of Standard Serbian and Montenegrin. In the mid-18th century, the first attempts to provide a Croatian literary standard began on the basis of the Neo-Shtokavian dialect that served as a supraregional lingua franca pushing back regional Chakavian and Shtokavian vernaculars; the decisive role was played by Croatian Vukovians, who cemented the usage of Ijekavian Neo-Shtokavian as the literary standard in the late 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, in addition to designing a phonological orthography.
Croatian is written in Gaj's Latin alphabet. Besides the Shtokavian dialect, on which Standard Croatian is based, there are two other main dialects spoken on the territory of Croatia and Kajkavian; these dialects, the four national standards, are subsumed under the term "Serbo-Croatian" in English, though this term is controversial for native speakers, paraphrases such as "Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian" are therefore sometimes used instead in diplomatic circles. In the late medieval period up to the 17th century, the majority of semi-autonomous Croatia was ruled by two domestic dynasties of princes, the Zrinski and the Frankopan, which were linked by inter-marriage. Toward the 17th century, both of them attempted to unify Croatia both culturally and linguistically, writing in a mixture of all three principal dialects, calling it "Croatian", "Dalmatian", or "Slavonian", it is still used now in parts of Istria, which became a crossroads of various mixtures of Chakavian with Ekavian/Ijekavian/Ikavian dialects.
The most standardized form became the cultivated language of administration and intellectuals from the Istrian peninsula along the Croatian coast, across central Croatia up into the northern valleys of the Drava and the Mura. The cultural apex of this 17th century idiom is represented by the editions of "Adrianskoga mora sirena" by Petar Zrinski and "Putni tovaruš" by Katarina Zrinska. However, this first linguistic renaissance in Croatia was halted by the political execution of Petar Zrinski and Fran Krsto Frankopan by the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I in Vienna in 1671. Subsequently, the Croatian elite in the 18th century abandoned this combined Croatian standard; the Illyrian movement was a 19th-century pan-South Slavic political and cultural movement in Croatia that had the goal to standardize the regionally differentiated and orthographically inconsistent literary languages in Croatia, merge them into a common South Slavic literary language. Three major groups of dialects were spoken on Croatian territory, there had been several literary languages over four centuries.
The leader of the Illyrian movement Ljudevit Gaj standardized the Latin alphabet in 1830–1850 and worked to bring about a standardized orthography. Although based in Kajkavian-speaking Zagreb, Gaj supported using the more populous Neo-Shtokavian – a version of Shtokavian that became the predominant dialectal basis of both Croatian and Serbian literary language from the 19th century on. Supported by various South Slavic proponents, Neo-Shtokavian was adopted after an Austrian initiative at the Vienna Literary Agreement of 1850, laying the foundation for the unified Serbo-Croatian literary language; the uniform Neo-Shtokavian became common in the Croatian elite. In the 1860s, the Zagreb Philological School dominated the Croatian cultural life, drawing upon linguistic and ideological conceptions advocated by the members of the Illyrian movement. While it was dominant over the rival Rijeka Philological School and Zadar Philological Schools, its influence waned with the rise of the Croatian Vukovians.
Croatian is characterized by the Ijekavian pronunciation, the sole use of the Latin alphabet, a number of lexical differences in common words that set it apart from standard Serbian. Some differences are absolute, while some appear in the frequency of use. However, "an examination of all the major'levels' of language shows that BCS is a single language with a single grammatical system." Croatian, although technically a form of Serbo-Croatian, is sometimes considered a distinct language by itself. Purely linguistic considerations of languages based on mutual intelligibility are incompatible with political conceptions of language so that varieties that are mutually intelligible can not be considered separate languages. "There is no doubt of the near 100% mutual intelligibility of Croatian and Serbian, as is obvious from the ability of all groups to enjoy each others’ films, TV and sports broadcasts, rock lyrics etc." Differences between various standard forms of Serbo-Croatian are exaggerated for political reasons.
Most Croatian linguists regard Croatian as a separate language, considered key to national identity. The issue is sensitive in Croatia as the notion of a separate language being the most important characteristic of a nation is accepted, stemming from the 19th-centu
Jacob Tsimerman is a Canadian mathematician at the University of Toronto specialising in number theory and related areas. He obtained his PhD degree from Princeton University in 2011 under the guidance of Peter Clive Sarnak, he was awarded the SASTRA Ramanujan Prize in the year 2015 in recognition for his work on the André–Oort conjecture and for his work in both analytic number theory and algebraic geometry. Jacob Tsimerman was born in Kazan, Russia, on April 26, 1988. In 1990 his family first moved to Israel and in 1996 to Canada. In 2003 and 2004 he represented Canada in the International Mathematical Olympiad and won gold medals both years, with a perfect score in 2004. Following his PhD, he had a post-doctoral position at Harvard University as a Junior Fellow of the Harvard Society of Fellows. In July 2014 he was awarded a Sloan Fellowship and he started his term as assistant professor at the University of Toronto; as of 2019, he is an associate professor. The SASTRA Ramanujan Prize is the first major international prize awarded to him.
Tsimerman has worked at Radix Trading LLC developing quantitative trading models Together with Jonathan Pila, Tsimerman demonstrated the André–Oort conjecture for Siegel modular varieties. He completed the proof of the full André-Oort conjecture for all moduli spaces of abelian varieties by reducing the problem to the averaged Colmez conjecture, proved by Xinyi Yuan and Shou-Wu Zhang as well as independently by Andreatta, Goren and Madapusi-Pera
Telespazio VEGA UK Ltd. is a British space company based in Luton, Bedfordshire. Founded in 1978 by a small group of engineers at the European Space Operations Centre in Darmstadt, Germany, VEGA now works with Space agencies, satellite operators and manufacturers around the world, it works with the European Space Agency and ESOC in Germany, European Space Research and Technology Centre in Noordwijk, the Netherlands, ESA Centre for Earth Observation in Rome and European Space Astronomy Centre in Madrid, Spain. Since 1978, VEGA has worked on every ESA mission and many other European and international programmes, including Mars Express, the Automated Transfer Vehicle for the International Space Station, the Eumetsat Polar System, the Ground Segment Development for ADEN. On 1 January 2011, VEGA Space Ltd, became a part of Telespazio, the Rome-based space systems services company, it was a part of Finmeccanica (now Leonardo, having been acquired in 2008 as VEGA Group PLC. Telespazio VEGA is an active member of UKspace, the trade association for Britain's space industry, is involved with the International Space Innovation Centre based in Harwell.
VEGA was established in 1978 by a small group of engineers at the European Space Operations Centre in Darmstadt, who bid for and won a contract to provide satellite operations support to ESA missions. Since VEGA has continued to provide support on the same contract, re-tendered every five years; the company has grown and evolved in the past 32 years, including the following milestones: 1991 – VEGA formed its German subsidiary company, based in Darmstadt, the home of its two largest German-based customers, ESOC and EUMETSAT 1992 – VEGA floated on the London Stock Exchange 2004 – VEGA acquired Anite Systems GmbH – a specialist Space ground systems company 2008 – VEGA delisted as PLC from London Stock Exchange, following acquisition by Finmeccanica 2009 – VEGA's parent in the Finmeccanica Group, SELEX Systems Integration Ltd, continues to trade in the Space domain under the name of VEGA 2010 – VEGA Space Ltd formed as a subsidiary company of SELEX Systems Integration Ltd 2011 – Ownership of VEGA Space Ltd transferred within Finmeccanica to Telespazio on 1 January 2011.
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