Financial District, San Francisco
The Financial District is a neighborhood in San Francisco, that serves as its main central business district. It is home to the citys largest concentration of headquarters, law firms, insurance companies, real estate firms, banks and loans. All six San Francisco Fortune 500 companies—McKesson, Wells Fargo, PG&E, Charles Schwab, the citys tallest buildings, including 555 California Street and the Transamerica Pyramid, and many other tall buildings, such as 101 California Street and 345 California Street are located there. Montgomery Street is the heart of the district. Since the 1980s, restrictions on high rise construction have shifted new development to the adjacent South of Market area surrounding the Transbay Transit Center and this area is sometimes called the South Financial District by real estate developers, or simply included as part of the Financial District itself. It was not until 1835 that the first settlers established themselves on the shore of Yerba Buena Cove, Yerba Buenas potential as a seaport made it the eventual center for European and American settlement.
Gold Rush wealth and business made it the capital of the west coast as many banks. The west coasts first and only skyscrapers, were built in the area along Market Street, the neighborhood was completely destroyed in the 1906 Earthquake and Fire. By 1910, the area was rebuilt with low-rise, masonry-clad buildings ranging from six to twelve stories in height. Due to new building and earthquake retrofitting technologies, the restrictions were lifted. This boom accelerated under mayor Dianne Feinstein during the 1980s, something her critics labelled as Manhattanization and this caused widespread opposition citywide leading to the skyscraper revolt similar to the freeway revolt in the city years earlier. The skyscraper revolt led to the city imposing extremely strict, European-style height restrictions on building construction citywide. Due to these restrictions, lack of buildable lots, and changes in the local real estate market. To encourage new development south of Market, and to fund the replacement for the Transbay Terminal.
As a result, nearly all new high rise construction since the 1980s has taken place South of Market, notable examples include the JPMorgan Chase Building,555 Mission Street,101 Second Street, the Four Seasons Hotel, The Paramount, and the Millennium Tower. Adjacent to the Financial District to the west is the Union Square shopping district, to the northwest is Chinatown, and to the north is North Beach and Jackson Square. To the east lies the Embarcadero waterfront and the Ferry Building, to the south lies Market Street and the South of Market district. The Financial District is served by more than two dozen Muni bus and rail lines, including one cable car line, as well as Montgomery Street Station, the nickname FiDi is occasionally employed, analogous to nearby SoMa
The death of Queen Victoria in January 1901 marked the end of the Victorian era. The new king Edward VII was already the leader of an elite that set a style influenced by the art. The Liberals returned to power in 1906 and made significant reforms, below the upper class, the era was marked by significant shifts in politics among sections of society that had been largely excluded from wielding power in the past, such as common labourers. The Edwardian period is sometimes imagined as a golden age of long summer afternoons and garden parties. This perception was created in the 1920s and by those who remembered the Edwardian age with nostalgia, the Edwardian age was seen as a mediocre period of pleasure between the great achievements of the preceding Victorian age and the catastrophe of the following war. Recent assessments emphasise the differences between the wealthy and the poor during the Edwardian era and describe the age as heralding great changes in political and social life. Robert Tressells popular novel The Ragged-Trousered Philanthropists is an example of the eras social critique.
Despite this, this type of perception has been challenged more recently by modern historians, the British historian Lawrence James has argued that, during the early 20th century, the British felt increasingly threatened by rival powers such as Germany and the United States. There was a political awareness of the working class, leading to a rise in trade unions. The aristocracy remained in control of top government offices, the Conservatives – at the time called Unionists – were dominant from the 1890s to 1906. The party had many strengths, appealing to voters supportive of imperialism, the Church of England, a powerful Royal Navy, and traditional hierarchical society. There was a powerful leadership base in the aristocracy and landed gentry in rural England, plus strong support from the Church of England. Historians have used election returns to demonstrate that Conservatives did surprisingly well in working-class districts and they had an appeal as well to the better-off element of traditional working class Britons in the larger cities.
Nevertheless, the weaknesses were accumulating, and proved so overwhelming in 1906 that they did not return to power until 1922. The Conservative Party was losing its drive and enthusiasm, especially after the retirement of the charismatic Joseph Chamberlain, there was a bitter split on tariff reform, that drove many of the free traders over to the Liberal camp. Tariff reform was an issue that the Conservative leadership inexplicably clung to. Support among the top tier of the class, and in lower middle class weakened. The 1906 election was a landslide for the opposition, which saw its total vote jump 25 percent, the Liberal Party lacked a unified ideological base in 1906
Nob Hill, San Francisco
Nob Hill is a neighborhood in San Francisco, centered on the intersection of California Street and Powell Street. It is one of San Franciscos 44 hills, and one of its original Seven Hills, prior to the 1850s, Nob Hill was called California Hill. It was renamed after the Central Pacific Railroads Big Four – called the Nobs – built mansions there, the actual peak of Nob Hill lies slightly to the northwest, approximately at the intersection of Jones and Sacramento Streets. South of Nob Hill is Lower Nob Hill neighborhood, the district of Union Square, the Tenderloin neighborhood. To the east is San Franciscos Chinatown and a little farther, northeast of Nob Hill is North Beach and Telegraph Hill. North of Nob Hill is Russian Hill, and eventually, the areas of the waterfront such as Pier 39. The area was settled in the rapid urbanization happening in the city in the late 19th century, because of the views and its central position, it became an exclusive enclave of the rich and famous on the west coast who built large mansions in the neighborhood.
This included prominent tycoons such as Leland Stanford, founder of Stanford University, for this reason, its early citizens were known as nabobs, which was shortened to nob, giving the area its eventual name. The neighborhood was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake and fire, except for the walls surrounding the Stanford, Huntington. Those walls remain and black caused by smoke from the intense fires that burned after the quake can still be seen. Also gutted by the fires was the newly completed Fairmont Hotel at Mason and California Streets, both structures had stone exteriors that survived the fires, and both buildings were subsequently cleaned and refurbished. The Fairmont Hotel remains in operation to day and the Flood Mansion is the headquarters of the exclusive Pacific-Union Club. While the neighborhood was able to maintain its affluence following the quake, some rebuilt mansions further west in San Francisco, for example, in Pacific Heights and Cow Hollow. In place of where the mansions had been located, swank hotels were erected, hotels built over the ruins of the former mansions include the Mark Hopkins and Stanford Court.
Nob is disparaging British slang abbreviation of noble/nobility referring to the monied, the location is derisively referred to as Snob Hill. The intersection of California and Powell streets is the location of two of its four well-known and most expensive hotels, the Fairmont Hotel, the Mark Hopkins Hotel, the Mark Hopkins Hotel and the Huntington Hotel are located one block away at Mason & California. The hotels were named for three of The Big Four, four entrepreneurs of the construction of the Central Pacific Railroad, Leland Stanford, the fourth, Charles Crocker has a garage named after him in the neighborhood. The Fairmont is named for a San Francisco tycoon, James G. Fair, opposite the Fairmont Hotel and Pacific Union Club is Grace Cathedral, one of the citys largest houses of worship
Civic Center, San Francisco
It has two large plazas and a number of buildings in classical architectural style. The Bill Graham Civic Auditorium, the United Nations Charter was signed in the War Memorial Veterans Buildings Herbst Theatre in 1945 and it is where the 1951 Treaty of San Francisco was signed. The San Francisco Civic Center was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1987, the Civic Center is bounded by Market Street on the south, Franklin Street on the west, Turk Street on the north, and Leavenworth and Seventh streets on the east. The Civic Center was built in the early 20th century after a city hall was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake. Although the noted architect and urban planner Daniel Burnham had provided the city plans for a neo-classical Civic Center shortly before the 1906 earthquake. A temporary city hall was put up on Market Street, but planning for a permanent structure. The current civic center was planned by a group of local architects, the current City Hall was completed in 1915, in time for the Panama-Pacific Exposition.
The War Memorial Opera House and its twin, the War Memorial Veterans Building, the Main Library. During World War II, Army barracks and Victory gardens were constructed in the plaza in front of City Hall. The Louise M. Davies Symphony Hall and Harold L. Zellerbach Rehearsal Hall were added in 1980, the 1990s saw the construction of a new Main Library with the conversion of the old Main Library building into the Asian Art Museum, and the removal of all public benches. In 1998, the city officially renamed part of the plaza the Joseph L. Alioto Performing Arts Piazza after the former mayor. Its central location, vast open space, and the collection of government buildings have made and it has been the scene of massive anti-war protests and rallies since the Korean War. It was the scene of major moments of the Gay Rights Movement, activist Harvey Milk held rallies and gave speeches there. After his assassination on November 27,1978, a candlelight vigil was held there. Later, it was the scene of the White Night Riots in response to the lenient sentencing of Dan White, Civic Center was the center point of the Gay Marriage activism, as Mayor Gavin Newsom married couples there.
The centerpiece of the Civic Center is the City Hall, which heads the complex, the section of the street in front of the building was renamed for Dr. Carlton B. Goodlett, a local African American activist, across the street on McAllister Street is the headquarters of the Supreme Court of California. Across from that building is the Asian Art Museum, opened in 2004 in the building of the San Francisco Library which is now in a newer building constructed in 1995
North Beach, San Francisco
North Beach is a neighborhood in the northeast of San Francisco adjacent to Chinatown, Fishermans Wharf and Russian Hill. The neighborhood is San Franciscos Little Italy, and has historically been home to a large Italian American population and it is still home to many Italian restaurants today, though many other ethnic groups currently live in the neighborhood. It was the center of the beatnik subculture. The American Planning Association has named North Beach as one of ten Great Neighborhoods in America, main intersections are Union and Columbus, the southwest corner of Washington Square, Grant Avenue and Vallejo Street. Originally, the citys northeast shoreline extended only to what is today Taylor, the area largely known today as North Beach was an actual beach, filled in with landfill around the late 19th century. Warehouses, fishing wharves, and docks were built on the newly formed shoreline. Due to the proximity of the docks, the half of the neighborhood south of Broadway was home of the infamous Barbary Coast.
Following its reconstruction after the 1906 earthquake, a number of Italian immigrants created the Italian character of the neighborhood that still exists. During the 1950s, many of the cafes and bars became the home and epicenter of the Beat Generation. The term beatnik originated from the here and was coined in a derogatory fashion by famed San Francisco Chronicle columnist Herb Caen. Many of that generations most famous writers and personalities such as Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, Gregory Corso, during the 1960s a notable night spot was The Committee, an improvisational theatre group founded by alumni of The Second City in Chicago. The Committee opened April 10,1963 at 622 Broadway in a 300-seat cabaret theater, the Broadway area created innovations for the strip club industry. The Condor Club, on the corner of Columbus and Broadway, was opened in 1964 as Americas first topless bar, which it is again today. The Lusty Lady was the first striptease club to be structured as a worker cooperative, Broadway strip clubs owe their legacy to the Barbary Coast, which was located just one block south on Pacific Street during the late 19th-century.
In the 1970s and 1980s Broadway was the location of live music clubs, like the Stone. Paul Kantner was living in North Beach in an apartment unit above Als Attire at the corner of Grant Avenue and Vallejo Street at the time of his death, and was often a patron of nearby Cafe Trieste. The North Beach Festival street fair on Grant Avenue and Columbus Avenue usually held on Fathers Day weekend in June is one of the citys largest and it is considered one of the nations oldest street fairs. The neighborhood hosts a large Columbus Day/Italian American heritage day parade along Columbus Avenue to San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park, the neighborhood still retains an Italian character with many Italian restaurants and bakeries that line Columbus Avenue and Washington Square
Telegraph Hill, San Francisco
Telegraph Hill is a neighborhood in San Francisco, California. It is one of San Franciscos 44 hills, and one of its original Seven Hills, the San Francisco Chronicle defines the Chinatown, North Beach, and Telegraph Hill areas as bounded by Sacramento Street, Taylor Street, Bay Street, and the water. Originally named Loma Alta by the Spaniards, the hill was known as Goat Hill by the early San Franciscans. From 1825 through 1847, the area between Sansome and Battery and Vallejo streets was used as a ground for foreign non-Catholic seamen. The hill owes its name to a semaphore, a structure erected in September 1849. The information was used by operating for financiers, merchants. Knowing the nature of the cargo carried by the ship they could predict the local prices for those goods. Those who did not have information on the cargo might pay a too-high price from a merchant unloading his stock of a commodity — a price that was about to drop. On October 18,1850, the ship Oregon signaled to the hill as it was entering the Golden Gate the news of Californias recently acquired statehood, prompting a rogue in the gallery to shout, Sidewheel steamer.
Sailing ships brought cargo to San Francisco, but needed ballast when leaving, rocks for ballast were quarried from the bay side of Telegraph Hill. A second semaphore system was built at Point Lobos in 1853, with the advent of the electrical telegraph in 1862, both became obsolete. Telegraph Hill retained its name and is now registered as California Historical Landmark #91, in the 1920s, Telegraph Hill became with North Beach a destination for poets and bohemian intellectuals, dreaming of turning it into a West Coast West Village. Telegraph Hill is primarily an area, much quieter than adjoining North Beach with its bustling cafés. Aside from Coit Tower, it is known for its gardens flowing down Filbert Street down to Levi Plaza. Today Telegraph Hill is known for supporting a flock of parrots, primarily red-masked parakeets. The flock was popularized by a book and subsequent documentary, both titled The Wild Parrots of Telegraph Hill and they range widely, including along The Embarcadero and in the Presidio.
A controversial San Francisco city ordinance passed on June 5,2007, the feeding ban was championed by Mark Bittner, the birds most outspoken supporter who fed them for years and wrote the book The Wild Parrots of Telegraph Hill. Other local conservationists supported the ban, though some continue to object
Belden Place is a narrow alley in the Financial District of San Francisco, California that serves as the hub of the citys small French American community. Locally the street is sometimes called Belden Lane, Belden Alley, the area was home to San Franciscos first French settlers. Approximately 3,000, sponsored by the French government, arrived near the end of the Gold Rush in 1851. According to historian Gladys Hansen, the French shared Dupont Street with early Chinese settlers during the days of Chinatown. French novelist Alexandre Dumas, père, in his 1852 first-person account A Gil Blas in California, the enclave persisted, despite subsequent waves of Chinese, Italian and other immigrants to the area. It is roughly between Chinatown and the Financial District, in 1990, restaurateurs Olivier Azancot and Eric Klein opened Cafe Bastille, the mainstay that set the modern tone for the area. Notable restaurants in the alley itself include Sams Grill, Cafe Bastille, Cafe Tiramisu, Plouf, B44, Belden Taverna, nearby are Café de la Presse and Le Central.
Also nearby are the Alliance Française, the French consulate, and the Notre-Dame-des-Victoires Church, in the vicinity are several other restaurants, cafes and other French-related institutions along Bush Street and Claude Lane, another nearby alley. The cafes and restaurants of the area have a distinct joie de vivre befitting the neighborhoods heritage, due to cold weather and lack of available locations, no other neighborhood in San Francisco has a comparable street dining scene. The lane is closed to traffic and filled for lunch and dinner with portable chairs, umbrellas. At night the street is lit with candles, Christmas lights strung overhead. Restaurants send attractive hostesses out into the street to lure potential diners, every year, the area is the site of a boisterous Bastille Day celebration, the nations largest, and Bush Street is temporarily renamed Buisson
Pacific Heights, San Francisco
Pacific Heights is an affluent neighborhood of San Francisco, which is known for the notable people who reside in the area. Its location provides a temperate micro-climate that is clearer, but not always warmer, the Pacific Heights Residents Association defines the neighborhood as inside Pine Street, Presidio Avenue, Union Street, and Van Ness Avenue. Pacific Heights features two parks and Alta Plaza, visible to the north are the Golden Gate Bridge, the Marin Headlands, and Alcatraz Island. Lower Pacific Heights refers to the area located south of California Street down to Post Street, though previously simply considered part of the Western Addition, this new neighborhood designation became popularized by real estate agents in the early 1990s. The neighborhood was first developed in the 1870s, with small Victorian-inspired homes built, starting around the beginning of the 20th century, and especially after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many were replaced with period homes. Still residential, the area is characterized by painted Victorian style architecture, the oldest building in Pacific Heights, located at 2475 Pacific Avenue, was built in 1853, though the majority of the neighborhood was built after the 1906 earthquake.
The architecture of the neighborhood is varied, Mission Revival, several countries have consulates in Pacific Heights. They include Germany, Italy, Russia, South Korea, most of the neighborhoods boutiques and restaurants can be found along Fillmore Street, south of Pacific Avenue. They include stores like Athleta, Marc by Marc Jacobs, other businesses in Pacific Heights are located on California and Divisadero Streets, as well as on Van Ness Avenue. Universities and colleges include Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry, part of the University of the Pacific, the San Francisco Police Department Northern Station serves Pacific Heights. Larry Ellison, cofounder and CEO of Oracle Corporation Jonathan Ive, chief designer at Apple Inc
Union Square, San Francisco
Union Square is a 2. 6-acre public plaza bordered by Geary, Powell and Stockton Streets in downtown San Francisco, California. Union Square refers to the shopping, hotel. The area got its name because it was used for rallies and support for the Union Army during the American Civil War. Grand hotels and small inns, as well as repertory, off-Broadway, Union Square was originally a tall sand dune, and the square was set aside to be made into a public park in 1850. Union Square got its name from the pro-Union rallies held there on the eve of the Civil War, the monument itself is a tribute to the sailors of the United States Navy. It commemorates U. S. President William McKinley, who had been recently assassinated and it was the worlds first underground parking garage and was designed by Timothy Pflueger. During the late 1970s, and through the 1980s and 1990s, San Franciscos rowdy New Years parties used to happen yearly at the plaza with some sort of civil disruption and rioting happening afterward.
In early 1998 city planners began plans to renovate the plaza to create more paved surfaces for easier maintenance, with outdoor cafes, finally in late 2000, the park was partially closed down to renovate the park and the parking garage. On July 25,2002, the reopened and ceremony was held with Mayor Willie Brown. Use it, it is square, said Mayor Willie Brown. In 2004 Unwire Now, a company founded by entrepreneur Jaz Banga, the network remains in place today. Public views of the square can be seen from surrounding places as the Sir Francis Drake Hotel, Macys top floor. The original Union Square Business Improvement District was founded in 1999 and focused primarily on cleaning, todays expanded district continues to recognize these needs, while adding marketing, advocacy and capital improvement programs to its portfolio. With a recent 10-year renewal, the BID is committed to making Union Square the best place in the world to live, work and play. Beginning in 2009, painted heart sculptures from the Hearts in San Francisco public art installation have been installed in each of the four corners of the square.
Each year, the sculptures are auctioned off to benefit the San Francisco General Hospital Foundation, many of the sculptures are permanently relocated to various other locations throughout the city. The Tiffany Building is an 11 story,100, 000-square-foot building at Union Square, the bottom two floors contain a Tiffany & Co. store, while the upper floors contain offices. The only hotel located on Union Square is the Westin St. Francis hotel which is celebrated for its historic Magneta Grandfather Clock
Daly City, California
Daly City is the largest city in San Mateo County, United States, with an estimated 2014 population of 106,094. Located immediately south of San Francisco, it is named in honor of businessman, archaeological evidence suggests the San Francisco Bay Area has been inhabited as early as 2700 BC. People of the Ohlone language group occupied Northern California from at least the 6th century, seven years later, in 1776, an expedition led by Juan Bautista de Anza selected the site for the Presidio of San Francisco, which José Joaquín Moraga would soon establish. Later the same year, the Franciscan missionary Francisco Palóu founded the Mission San Francisco de Asís, as part of the founding, the priests claimed the land south of the mission for sixteen miles for raising crops and for fodder for cattle and sheep. In 1778, the priests and soldiers marked out a trail to connect San Francisco to the rest of California, at the top of Mission Hill, the priests named the gap between San Bruno Mountain and the hills on the coast La Portezuela.
La Portezuela was referred to as Dalys Hill, the Center of Daly City, during Spanish rule, the area between San Bruno Mountain and the Pacific remained uninhabited. Upon independence from Spain, prominent Mexican citizens were granted land parcels to establish large ranches, Rancho Buri Buri was granted to Jose Sanchez in 1835 and covered 14,639 acres including parts of modern-day Colma, San Bruno, South San Francisco, and Millbrae. Rancho Laguna de la Merced was 2,219 acres acres, following the Mexican Cession of California at the end of the Mexican–American War the owners of Rancho Laguna de La Merced tried to claim land between San Bruno Mountain and Lake Merced. An 1853 US government survey declared that the area was in fact government property. There was a land rush as settlers, mainly Irish established ranches in farms in parts of what is now the neighborhoods of Westlake, Serramonte. A decade later, several families left as increase in the fog density killed grain, the few remaining families switched to dairy and cattle farming as a more profitable enterprise.
In the late 19th century as San Francisco grew and San Mateo County was established, Daly City gradually grew including homes, Daly City served as a location where San Franciscans would cross over county lines to gamble and fight. As tensions built in approach to the American Civil War, California was divided between pro-slavery, and Free Soil advocates, two of the main figures in the debate were US Senator David C. Broderick, a Free Soil advocate and David S. Terry who was in favor of extension of slavery into California. Quarreling and political fighting between the two led to a duel in the Lake Merced area at which Terry mortally wounded Broderick. The site of the duel is marked with two shafts were the men stood, and designated is California Historical Landmark number 19. On the morning of April 18,1906 a major earthquake struck just off the coast of Daly City near Mussel Rock. After quake and subsequent fire destroyed many San Franciscans homes, they left to temporary housing on the ranches of the area to the south, including the large one owned by John Daly
California Democratic Party
The California Democratic Party is the state branch of the United States Democratic Party in the state of California. Headquartered in Sacramento, it is chaired by veteran Democratic politician and former United States Representative John L. Burton and it is the majority party in both chambers of the California State Legislature, i. e. the State Assembly and the Senate. In regards to businesses and economics, the California Democratic party takes a stance that protects consumers, small businesses, the platform makes a point to champion the economic reforms of President Barack Obama. The 2012 platform addresses the issues of family in several sections, the platform promises to protect seniors and all types of families with fair economic and social policies. These policies range from continuing Medicare for the elderly and keeping playgrounds safe for children, the platform highlights the right of a woman to make choices for her own body and claims that healthcare is a natural right of all people.
The California democrats further promise to protect the dignity of disabled citizens, the platform is dedicated to advocating for the rights of women through equal pay and affirmative action. The party prioritizes the creation of a sustainable and earth-friendly state, focus is placed on the development of alternative forms of energy and how energy is consumed. In addition, the stresses that green jobs are a solution to economic. Finally, the platform takes stances on open internet use, the Democrats of California support the right of the people to express their thoughts and ideas through any media, and their right to assemble. The party believes that laws should be fair and that immigrants should not be discriminated against. The party wishes to bring education to the forefront, aiming to turn California into a state for academic achievement. A Detailed description of the California Democratic Partys position on all of the issues can be found in their 2012 Platform document. The California Democratic Party passes multiple resolutions every year as a way of expressing their opinion to lawmakers statewide, while the partys resolutions have no legal force themselves, they are official documents that elected representatives should take into account when making decisions.
A few recent resolutions are summarised below,2012 Buy American This resolution, written 18 November 2012, encourages all arms of government to favor American suppliers of goods and services. The above are three of a long list of Resolutions passed by the California Democratic Party in 2012 and in preceding years. The history of the Democratic Party of California is complex and long, the State has traded hands every few cycles since its admission into the union in 1850. At that time, the state was firmly in the hands of the Democratic Party, until the early 1880s after the Republican Party abolished slavery, the Republicans held the state through the power and influence of railroad men. The Democratic Party responded by taking an anti-corporate, anti freedom of attainment position, in 1894, Democrat James Budd was elected to the governorship, and the Democratic Party attempted to make good on their promises to reform the booming railroad industry
Arts and Crafts movement
It stood for traditional craftsmanship using simple forms, and often used medieval, romantic, or folk styles of decoration. It advocated economic and social reform and was essentially anti-industrial and it had a strong influence on the arts in Europe until it was displaced by Modernism in the 1930s, and its influence continued among craft makers and town planners long afterwards. It was inspired by the ideas of architect Augustus Pugin, writer John Ruskin, the movement developed earliest and most fully in the British Isles, and spread across the British Empire and to the rest of Europe and North America. It was largely a reaction against the perceived impoverished state of the arts at the time. The Arts and Crafts style emerged from the attempt to reform design, but it was as much a movement of social reform as design reform and its leading practitioners did not separate the two. The art historian Nikolaus Pevsner has said that exhibits in the Great Exhibition showed ignorance of basic need in creating patterns.
Owen Jones, for example, declared that Ornament, fiona MacCarthy says that unlike zealots like Gandhi, William Morris had no practical objections to the use of machinery per se so long as the machines produced the quality he needed. Morriss followers had differing views or changed their minds over time. C. R. Ashbee, for example, a figure in the Arts and Crafts Movement. At the time of his Guild of Handicraft, initiated in 1888, he said, We do not reject the machine, but we would desire to see it mastered. Morris insisted that the artist should be a working by hand and advocated a society of free craftspeople. Because craftsmen took pleasure in their work, he wrote, the Middle Ages was a period of greatness in the art of the common people. The treasures in our museums now are only the common used in households of that age. Medieval art was the model for much Arts and Crafts design and medieval life, before capitalism, the founders of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society did not insist that the designer should be the maker.
Peter Floud, writing in the 1950s, said that The founders of the Society, never executed their own designs, but invariably turned them over to commercial firms. The Arts and Crafts Movement was associated with socialist ideas in the persons of Morris, T. J. Cobden Sanderson, Walter Crane, Ashbee, in the early 1880s Morris was spending more of his time on socialist propaganda than on designing and making. Ashbee established a community of craftsmen, the Guild of Handicraft, in east London and those adherents who were not socialists, for example, Alfred Hoare Powell, advocated a more humane and personal relationship between employer and employee. Lewis Foreman Day, a successful and influential Arts and Crafts designer, was not a socialist either