1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Upton County, Texas
Upton County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 3,355, its county seat is Rankin. The county was created in 1887 and organized in 1910, it is named for two brothers: both colonels in the Confederate Army. Native Americans were the first inhabitants of the area. Tribes present at the time of conquest included the Comanches and Apache. One of the first routes bringing people through the area was the Chihuahua Trail connecting Mexico's state of Chihuahua with Santa Fe, New Mexico; the trail served as a trade route for nomadic tribes of Indians and Spaniards, as well as traders from both Mexico and Texas. The Butterfield Overland Mail crossed the area 1858–1861. Cattle drive Goodnight-Loving Trail. Served cowboys 1866-1888; the trail began at Young County and passed along the Pecos River, Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Colorado before ending in Cheyenne, Wyoming. Upton was formed in 1887 from Texas; the county was named after John C. Upton and his brother William F. Upton. of Tennessee.
Cattleman George Elliott became the first to establish a homestead in Upton County in 1880. Beginning as open range, the land was shared with sheepmen by the 1890s; the United States Census counted fifty-two people living in the county in 1890, only forty-eight in 1900. The agricultural sector of the county has been out-paced by cattle and sheep ranching. In 1982, about 92 percent of the land in Upton County was in farms and ranches, but less than 1 percent of the county was considered prime farmland, only 2 percent of the county was cultivated. In the fall of 1911, the Kansas City and Orient Railway reached the townsite of Rankin, by January 1912, most of the people living in Upland had moved to Rankin. Wildcatter George McCamey's Baker No. 1 in September 1925 opened up the McCamey Oil Field, established the town of McCamey and brought the subsequent oil boom to Upton County. The Yates Oil Field in Crockett and Pecos counties resulted in a financial boon for the town of Rankin, which served as a supply and service center.
The resulting financial windfall benefitted infrastructure in Rankin. In 1946, Mike Benedum began wildcatting in Upton County and opened up what would become known as the Benedum Oil Field; the Weir No. 1 gushed in 1961 and enabled Upton County to continue as an outstanding Texas production area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,242 square miles, of which 1,241 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. The Spraberry Trend, the third-largest oil field in the United States by remaining reserves, underlies much of the county. U. S. Highway 67 U. S. Highway 385 State Highway 329 State Highway 349 Midland County Reagan County Crockett County Crane County Ector County As of the census of 2000, there were 3,404 people, 1,256 households, 934 families residing in the county; the population density was 3 people per square mile. There were 1,609 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 77.79% White, 1.62% Black or African American, 1.20% Native American, 0.03% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 17.95% from other races, 1.35% from two or more races.
42.57% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,256 households out of which 36.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.10% were married couples living together, 9.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.60% were non-families. 23.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.19. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.30% under the age of 18, 7.90% from 18 to 24, 24.90% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, 14.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 95.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,977, the median income for a family was $37,083. Males had a median income of $30,729 versus $18,750 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,274.
About 18.10% of families and 19.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.60% of those under age 18 and 13.50% of those age 65 or over. McCamey Rankin Midkiff Paul Patterson, western author reared in Upton County Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Upton County http://genealogytrails.com/tex/bigbend/upton/ Upton County government’s website Upton County from the Handbook of Texas Online Inventory of county records, Upton County courthouse, Texas, hosted by the Portal to Texas History
Juan Domínguez de Mendoza
Juan Domínguez de Mendoza was a Spanish soldier who played an important role in suppressing the Pueblo Revolt of 1680 and who made two major expeditions from New Mexico into Texas. Juan Domínguez de Mendoza was born in 1631, he was a member of the wealthiest family in New Mexico. He had, at least, two siblings. At the age of twelve he went to New Mexico, he was to accompany several expeditions into what is now Texas, he was a member of the Diego de Guadalajara expedition of 1654 from Santa Fe to what is now San Angelo, where the three main tributaries of the Concho River converge. Domínguez rose in rank to lieutenant general and was appointed Maestro de Campo in New Mexico - second in command to the Governor, he was an able administrator, by the time of the Pueblo Revolt in 1680 was one of the most experienced and capable of the New Mexico militia leaders. When the Pueblo Revolt broke out, Domínguez advanced north from Isleta Pueblo to Cochiti, to the southwest of Santa Fe. However, he was forced to retreat to El Paso del Norte.
He was criticized for not being sufficiently aggressive in his action against the Pueblos. In 1681 a group of Jumano Indians came to El Paso asking for the Spanish to establish missions in their country; the Jumano chief Juan Sabeata had been understood Spanish ways. He was seeking protection for his people against the Apaches, whom he hoped the Spanish would engage in war. To gain the attention of the Spanish he said that thirty-six nations of Indians needed missions and claimed that a multi-colored cross had appeared above La Junta de los Ríos, at the junction of the Rio Conchos and Rio Grande near modern-day Presidio, Texas, he talked of wooden houses floating on the sea, which the Spanish took to refer to French ships. Three friars left at once for La Junta; the Governor Domingo Jironza Petriz de Cruzate sent Domínguez de Mendoza and Fray Nicolás López to explore the Jumano country and establish missions. He was instructed to explore for pearls; the expedition called the Mendoza Expedition, set off from El Paso on 15 December 1683, going down the Rio Grande to La Junta.
Fray Antonio de Acevedo was left there in charge of new missions. The rest of the expedition, joined by many Indians, followed Indian trails north to the Pecos River followed the Concho River downstream to its junction with the Colorado River, they spent six weeks on what Domínguez called the "glorious San Clemente" river, building a fort near the location of present-day Ballinger, Texas as defense against Apaches and hunting buffalo for hides and food. They baptized many of the friendly local people who visited their camp. Dominguez de Mendoza and the Jumano leader, Juan Sabeata, clashed early in the expedition. Sabeata, Dominguez said, was untruthful and spread false rumors of hostile Apaches to bring the expedition to a halt. Sabeata believed that the Spaniards were more interested in hunting buffalo than fighting Apache. Sabeata abandoned the expedition. A grand council of Indians envisioned by the Spanish never took place and the Spaniards returned to El Paso having collected 5,000 valuable buffalo hides.
On returning to La Junta de los Ríos, Domínguez took possession of the north bank of the Rio Grande in the name of Spain. Domínguez and López returned to El Paso, went on to Mexico City in 1685, where they made a strong case for sending soldiers and missionaries to the Jumano country. Domínguez and López were optimistic about the potential for setting up missions among the Jumanos. However, Governor Jironza was unable to help since his forces were tied up combating local insurrections by the Suma and the Manso Indians; the incursion into eastern Texas by Frenchman René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle in 1685 caused another distraction, so there was no immediate follow-up to Dominguez de Mendoza's expedition. Citations Sources Further reading
Irion County, Texas
Irion County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 1,599, its county seat is Mertzon. The county is named for a secretary of state of the Republic of Texas. Irion County is included in TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. Irion is the only county in the nation to issue marriage licenses that refuses to issue them to same-sex couples. First inhabitants Kickapoo. 1650 Captains Hernán Martín and Diego del Castillo explore the region. 1684 Juan Domínguez de Mendoza and Nicolás López report on local Indians. 1761 Spanish soldier Felipe Rábago y Terán passes through the area. 1858 -1861 Butterfield Overland Mail crosses the region. 1876 John Arden brings the first flock of sheep from California. Billy Childress establishes the longhorn 7D Ranch. 1889 The Texas legislature forms Irion County from Tom Green County. Sherwood becomes the county seat. 1928 Oil is discovered in Irion County. 1936 Mertzon becomes county seat. The Old Irion County Courthouse in Sherwood is the only property in the county, listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,052 square miles, of which 1,052 square miles is land and 0.07 square miles is water. The Spraberry Trend, the third-largest oil field in the United States by remaining reserves, underlies much of the county. U. S. Highway 67 State Highway 163 Tom Green County Schleicher County Crockett County Reagan County As of the census of 2000, there were 1,771 people, 694 households, 523 families residing in the county; the population density was 2 people per square mile. There were 914 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.68% White, 0.40% Black or African American, 0.79% Native American, 6.55% from other races, 1.58% from two or more races. 24.62% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 694 households out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.80% were married couples living together, 6.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.50% were non-families.
21.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 2.97. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.70% under the age of 18, 4.70% from 18 to 24, 26.90% from 25 to 44, 26.10% from 45 to 64, 15.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 100.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,500, the median income for a family was $45,458. Males had a median income of $35,642 versus $20,395 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,515. About 8.30% of families and 8.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.20% of those under age 18 and 7.90% of those age 65 or over. Mertzon Barnhart Sherwood Laura Bullion, female Old West outlaw, born in Knickerbocker; this county is overwhelmingly Republican, although independent Ross Perot won here in 1992.
Hillary Clinton only had 90 votes in the entire county for 11.8% of the vote in 2016, the worst by a Democrat in this county. Lyndon Johnson was the last Democrat to win this county in his 1964 landslide. List of museums in West Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Irion County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Irion County Irion County government website Irion County from the Handbook of Texas Online Inventory of county records, Irion County courthouse, Texas, hosted by the Portal to Texas History Irion County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
Battle of the Alamo
The Battle of the Alamo was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution. Following a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under President General Antonio López de Santa Anna reclaimed the Alamo Mission near San Antonio de Béxar, killing the Texian and immigrant occupiers. Santa Anna's cruelty during the battle inspired many Texians, both legal Texas settlers and illegal immigrants from the United States, to join the Texian Army. Buoyed by a desire for revenge, the Texians defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto, on April 21, 1836, ending the rebellion. Several months Texians had driven all Mexican troops out of Mexican Texas. About 100 Texians were garrisoned at the Alamo; the Texian force grew with the arrival of reinforcements led by eventual Alamo co-commanders James Bowie and William B. Travis. On February 23 1,500 Mexicans marched into San Antonio de Béxar as the first step in a campaign to retake Texas. For the next 10 days, the two armies engaged in several skirmishes with minimal casualties.
Aware that his garrison could not withstand an attack by such a large force, Travis wrote multiple letters pleading for more men and supplies from Texas and from the United States, but the Texians were reinforced by fewer than 100 men because the United States had a treaty with Mexico, supplying men and weapons would have been an overt act of war. In the early morning hours of March 6, the Mexican Army advanced on the Alamo. After repelling two attacks, the Texians were unable to fend off a third attack; as Mexican soldiers scaled the walls, most of the Texian fighters withdrew into interior buildings. Occupiers unable to reach these points were slain by the Mexican cavalry as they attempted to escape. Between five and seven Texians may have surrendered. Most eyewitness accounts reported between 182 and 257 Texians died, while most historians of the Alamo agree that around 600 Mexicans were killed or wounded. Several noncombatants were sent to Gonzales to spread word of the Texian defeat; the news sparked both a strong rush to join the Texian army and a panic, known as "The Runaway Scrape", in which the Texian army, most settlers, the new, self-proclaimed but unrecognized, Republic of Texas government fled eastward toward the United States ahead of the advancing Mexican Army.
Within Mexico, the battle has been overshadowed by events from the Mexican–American War of 1846–48. In 19th-century Texas, the Alamo complex became known as a battle site rather than a former mission; the Texas Legislature purchased the land and buildings in the early part of the 20th century and designated the Alamo chapel as an official Texas State Shrine. The Alamo has been the subject of numerous non-fiction works beginning in 1843. Most Americans, are more familiar with the myths and legends spread by many of the movie and television adaptations, including the 1950s Disney mini-series Davy Crockett and John Wayne's 1960 film The Alamo. In 1835, there was a drastic shift in the Mexican nation; the triumph of conservative forces in the elections unleashed a series of events that culminated on October 23, 1835, under a new constitution, after the repeal of the federalist Constitution of 1824. Las Siete Leyes (Spanish:, or Seven Laws were a series of constitutional changes that fundamentally altered the organizational structure of Mexico, ending the first federal period and creating a unitary republic the Mexican Republic.
Formalized under President Antonio López de Santa Anna on 15 December 1835, they were enacted in 1836. They were intended to strengthen the national government; the aim of the previous constitution was to create a political system that would emulate the success of the United States, but after a decade of political turmoil, economic stagnation, threats and actual foreign invasion, conservatives concluded that a better path for Mexico was centralized power. The new policies, the increased enforcement of immigration laws and import tariffs, incited many immigrants to revolt; the border region of Mexican Texas was populated by immigrants from the United States, some legal but most illegal. These people were accustomed to a federalist government and to extensive individual rights, they were quite vocal in their displeasure at Mexico's law enforcement and shift towards centralism. Suspicious after previous American attempts to purchase Mexican Texas, Mexican authorities blamed much of the Texian unrest on American immigrants, most of whom had entered illegally and made little effort to adapt to the Mexican culture.
In October, Texians engaged Mexican troops in the first official battle of the Texas Revolution. Determined to quell the rebellion of immigrants, Santa Anna began assembling a large force, the Army of Operations in Texas, to restore order. Most of his soldiers were raw recruits, a large number had been forcibly conscripted; the Texians systematically defeated the Mexican troops stationed in Texas. The last group of Mexican soldiers in the region—commanded by Santa Anna's brother-in-law, General Martín Perfecto de Cos—surrendered on December 9 following the siege of Béxar. By this point, the Texian Army was dominated by recent arrivals to the region illegal immigrants from the United States. Many Texas settlers, unprepared for a long campaign, had returned home. Angered by what he perceived to be American interference in Mexican affairs, Santa Anna spearheaded a resolution classifying foreign immigrants found fighting in Texas as pirates; the resolution banned the taking of prisoners of war: in this period of time, captured pirates were executed immediately