Croft (land)

A croft is a fenced or enclosed area of land small and arable, but not always, with a crofter's dwelling thereon. A crofter is one who has tenure and use of the land as a tenant farmer in rural areas; the word croft is West Germanic in etymology and is now most familiar in Scotland, most crofts being in the Highlands and Islands area. Elsewhere the expression is archaic. In Scottish Gaelic, it is rendered croit. Similar positions have been the medieval villein and the Swedish torpare and Norwegian husmenn; the Scottish croft is a small agricultural landholding of a type, subject to special legislation applying to the Highland region of Scotland since 1886. The legislation was a response to the complaints and demands of tenant families who were victims of the Highland Clearances; the modern crofters or tenants appear little in evidence before the beginning of the 18th century. They were tenants at will underneath the tacksman and wadsetters, but their tenure was secure enough; the first evidence that can be found of small tenants holding directly of the proprietor is in a rental of the estates of Sir D. MacDonald in Skye and North Uist in 1715.

The first planned crofting townships in the Outer Hebrides were Barragloum and Kirkibost which were laid out into 32 large "lots" of between 14 and 30 acres in the uniform rectangular pattern that would become familiar in decades. This work was carried out in 1805 by James Chapman for the Earl of Seaforth; the first edition of the Ordnance Survey in 1850 highlights the division of this land and the turf and stone boundaries built by the first tenants in 1805 are still in use today as croft boundaries. Kirkibost was'cleared' of its tenants in 1823 and the 1850 mapping shows roofless ruins on each parcel of land; the township was however re-settled in 1878 following the Bernera Riot four years earlier using the same division boundaries set out in 1805. The Parliament of the United Kingdom created the Crofters' Act 1886, after the Highland Land League had gained seats in that parliament; the government was Liberal, with William Ewart Gladstone as Prime Minister. Another Crofters' Act was created in 1993.

The earlier Act established the first Crofting Commission, but its responsibilities were quite different from those of the newer Crofters Commission created in 1955. The Commission is based in Inverness. Crofts held subject to the provisions of the Crofters' Acts are in the administrative counties of Shetland, Caithness, Ross-shire, Inverness-shire and Argyll, in the north and west of Scotland. Under the 1886 legislation protected crofters are members of a crofters' township, consisting of tenants of neighbouring crofts with a shared right to use common pasture. Since 1976 it has been possible for a crofter to acquire title to his croft, thus becoming an owner-occupier; the Land Reform Act 2003 gives crofters the right to buy their land. Crofting Torp This article incorporates text from "Dwelly's Gaelic Dictionary". Scottish Crofting Federation Crofters CommissionArticles Crofters, Indigenous People of the Highlands and Islands at Scottish Crofting Foundation

2015 Southern Conference Softball Tournament

The 2015 Southern Conference softball tournament was held at Jim Frost Stadium on the campus of Chattanooga University in Chattanooga, Tennessee from May 6 through May 9, 2015. Chattanooga won their eight tournament championship and earned the SoCon's automatic bid to the 2015 NCAA Division I Softball Tournament; the Championship game was broadcast on ESPN3 while all other games weree broadcast on the SoCon Digital Network. The SoCon Tournament takes the top 7 teams and places them in a double elimination tournament, up until the championship. Seed 1 gets a bye to the 2nd Round; the championship game is played with a winner-take-all single game format. Jason Patterson and Phil Cox will call all the games for the SoCon Digital Network. Darren Goldwater and Stephanie Cushing will call the championship for ESPN3

George Washington's teeth

American President George Washington's teeth began to fall out before he reached the age of 30, he lost them all. During his lifetime, he had at least 4 sets of dentures made to replace them. Although many believe they were made of wood, they were made of ivory and other human teeth. In 1756, when Washington was 24 years old, a dentist pulled his first tooth. According to his diary, he paid 5 shillings to a "Doctr Watson" for the removal, his diary regularly mentioned troubles such as aching teeth and lost teeth. John Adams says he lost his teeth because he used them to crack Brazil nuts but modern historians suggest mercury oxide, which he was given to treat illnesses such as smallpox and malaria contributed to the loss. On April 30, 1789, the date of his presidential inauguration, although he had dentures, he had only one remaining natural tooth, a premolar. During that same year, he began wearing full dentures. Washington's last tooth was given as keepsake to his dentist John Greenwood. During his lifetime, Washington had four sets of dentures.

He began wearing partial dentures by 1781. Despite many people believing they were made of wood, they contained no wood, they were made of other materials such as hippopotamus ivory, brass and human teeth, The dentures had metal fasteners, springs to force them open, as well as bolts to keep them together. He took the oath of office while wearing a special set of dentures made from ivory and gold built for him by dentist John Greenwood, it is possible that he had a set made with real human teeth ones he purchased from "several unnamed Negroes Mount Vernon slaves" in 1784. According to his diaries, Washington's dentures disfigured his mouth and caused him pain, for which he took laudanum. Washington once wrote; this distortion is noticeable on his image on the one-dollar bill, an image taken from the Athenaeum Portrait, a 1796 unfinished painting by Gilbert Stuart. He once wrote to his dentist, Greenwood, to avoid modifying the dentures "which will, in the least degree force the lips out more than now do, as it does this too much already."

Apart from the disfiguration caused by the dentures, the distress may be apparent in many of the portraits painted while he was still in office. He spent constant effort maintaining his dentures, had them shipped to Greenwood, for maintenance; the mistaken belief that Washington's dentures were wooden, was accepted by 19th century historians and appeared as fact in school textbooks until well into the 20th century. The possible origin of this myth is that the ivory teeth became stained and may have had the appearance of wood to observers. A letter from Greenwood to Washington in 1798 advised more thorough cleaning since: "the sett you sent me from Philadelphia...was black... Port wine being sower takes of all the polish"; the only existing complete set of Washington's dentures are owned by the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, who own and operate George Washington's estate in northern Virginia. That set is made of human teeth, animal teeth, ivory. There is another complete, lower jaw denture dated 1795 at the National Museum of Dentistry, Maryland.

At least three of Washington's dentists are identified. His diary mentions "Doctr Watson", the dentist, his personal dentist and friend was Jean-Pierre Le Mayeur. John Greenwood of New York City maintained his dentures. Media related to George Washington's teeth at Wikimedia Commons