A brigade is a major tactical military formation, composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements. It is equivalent to an enlarged or reinforced regiment. Two or more brigades may constitute a division. Brigades formed into divisions are infantry or armored. In addition to combat units, they may include combat support units or sub-units, such as artillery and engineers, logistic units or sub-units; such brigades have sometimes been called brigade-groups. On operations, a brigade may comprise both organic elements and attached elements, including some temporarily attached for a specific task. Brigades may be specialized and comprise battalions of a single branch, for example cavalry, armored, air defence, engineers, signals or logistic; some brigades are classified as independent or separate and operate independently from the traditional division structure. The typical NATO standard brigade consists of 3,200 to 5,500 troops. However, in Switzerland and Austria, the numbers could go as high as 11,000 troops.
The Soviet Union, its forerunners and successors use "regiment" instead of brigade, this was common in much of Europe until after World War II. A brigade's commander is a major general, brigadier general, brigadier or colonel. In some armies, the commander is rated as a General Officer; the brigade commander has staff. The principal staff officer a lieutenant colonel or colonel, may be designated chief of staff, although until the late 20th century British and similar armies called the position'brigade-major'; some brigades may have a deputy commander. The headquarters has a nucleus of staff officers and support that can vary in size depending on the type of brigade. On operations, additional specialist elements may be attached; the headquarters will have its own communications unit. In some gendarmerie forces, brigades are the basic-level organizational unit. "The brigade as a military unit came about starting in the 15th century when the British army and militia developed a unit to control more than one infantry regiment or cavalry squadron".
Each regiment, cavalry squadron, or artillery battery operated somewhat independently, with its own field officer or battery commander reporting directly to the field force or "army" commander. As such a "field army" became larger, the number of subordinate commanders became unmanageable for the officer in general command of said army a major general, to command. In order to streamline command relationships, as well as effect some modicum of tactical control in regard to combined arms operations, an intermediate level of command became evident. "The term's origin is found in two French roots, which together, meant roughly'those who fight' ". Another theory for derivation of the term brigade derives from Italian brigata, as used for example in the introduction to The Decameron, where it refers only to a group of ten, or Old French brigare, meaning "company" of an undefined size, which in turn derives from a Celtic root briga, which means "strife"; the so-called "brigada" was a well-mixed unit, comprising infantry and also artillery, designated for a special task.
The size of such "brigada" ranged from a reinforced "company" of up to two regiments. The "brigada" was the forerunner of the modern "battalion task force", "battle group", or "brigade"; the brigade was improved as a tactical unit by the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus, who introduced it in 1631 during a reorganization of the Swedish Army during the Thirty Years' War. The creation of the brigade overcame the lack of coordination inherent in the traditional army structure consisting of independent regiments of infantry and units of supporting arms acting separately under their individual commanding officers. Gustavus accomplished this battlefield coordination by combining battalions of infantry with cavalry troops and artillery batteries into a "battle group", viz. brigada or "brigade" commanded by a senior colonel, or lieutenant colonel, appointed as a brigadier-general. The brigade organization was copied in France by Maréchal Turenne, who made it a permanent standing unit, requiring the creation in 1667 of a permanent rank of brigadier des armées du roi.
Unlike the Swedish brigades, French brigades at that time were composed of two to five regiments of the same branch. The rank, intermediate between colonel and maréchal de camp, disappeared in 1788 and should not be confused with that of général de brigade, equivalent to a brigadier general. In the Argentinian Army, the typical brigade is composed of an HQ company, two or three battalions of the brigade´s main branch, which give the brigade its denomination, plus one battalion of the other branch, plus one or two artillery groups, an engineers battalion or company, a signals company, intelligence company, an army aviation section and a logistics battalion. Mountain brigades have a special forces company; the brigade is commanded by a brigadier general or a senior colonel, who may be promoted to general during his tenure as brigade comman
Ordre du Mérite Maritime
The Ordre du Mérite Maritime is a French order established on 9 February 1930 for services rendered by the seafarers to distinguish the risks involved and the services rendered by seamen. The order was reorganized in 1948, again by decree on 17 January 2002. Merchant marine crew, civilian administrators, the crews of lifeboats and rescues Naval military personnel Individuals who have distinguished themselves in maritime field Demougin, Jacques. Les décorations françaises. Paris: Trésor du Patrimoine. ISBN 2-911468-99-6. "Fédération nationale du Mérite maritime et de la Médaille d'honneur des marins". Fédération nationale du Mérite maritime. 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-06
Croix de guerre des théâtres d'opérations extérieures
The Croix de guerre des théâtres d'opérations extérieurs called the Croix de Guerre TOE for short, is a French military award denoting citations earned in combat in foreign countries. The Armistice of November 11, 1918 ended the war between France and Germany, but French soldiers continued fighting in theatres outside metropolitan France. Combat operations continued in Syria, Constantinople, French West Africa and French Equatorial Africa. A law was passed on April 30, 1921 establishing the new Croix de guerre for "Théâtres d'opérations extérieurs", it was intended to commemorate the individual citations awarded during operations carried out since November 11, 1918 or that would occur in the future, for war service directly related to an expeditionary force used outside of the borders of France, the statute of the Croix de guerre TOE was the same as that of the 1914 - 1918 Croix de guerre. Following the combat operations of the immediate post World War 1 Era, the Croix de Guerre TOE was again awarded for actions in Indochina, Madagascar and during the Suez Crisis.
After a hiatus of thirty-five years, it was again awarded for actions between January 17, 1991 and May 5, 1992 during the Gulf War. It was extended to military operations conducted in Kosovo in 1999; the award criteria for the Croix de Guerre TOE are the same as those governing the Croix de Guerre 1914-1918, the citations for the entire armed forces are made by the Minister of Defense unless this authority has been specially delegated to the commanding general of the expeditionary forces. The Croix de Guerre TOE is awarded to military personnel and civilians who have received an individual citation during war/combat operations on foreign soil. More it was awarded for citations earned in the following operational foreign theatres: The Levant in 1918 and 1919, in the East from 1918 to 1920 in Morocco in 1918. For naval citations, their levels differ from the army as follows: army level = made by a vice-admiral commander in chief of a naval force or fleet; the Croix de guerre des théâtres d'opérations extérieures is a bronze 37 mm wide cross pattée, between the arms, two crossed swords pointing upward.
It was designed by the sculptor Albert Bartholome. On the obverse in a circular medallion, the effigy of the Republic wearing a cap decorated with a laurel wreath, surrounded by a ring bearing the legend: "RÉPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE". On the reverse, in the circular medallion the inscription: "THÉÂTRES D'OPÉRATIONS EXTÉRIEURS"; the cross is suspended by a ring through the suspension loop to a 38 mm wide grey silk moiré ribbon with 10 mm wide red edge stripes. The Croix de guerre TOE is worn on the left side of the chest and when in the presence of other medals of France, is located after the Croix de guerre 1939 - 1945. Citations: A bronze star for regimental or brigade level citations. A silver star for divisional level citations. A silver-gilt star for corps level citations. A bronze palm for army level citations. A silver palm represents five bronze ones. General Maxime Weygand Military nurse Geneviève de Galard General Philippe François Marie, comte de Hauteclocque General Jacques Émile Massu Major Hélie Denoix de Saint Marc Admiral Sir Manley Laurence Power General Jacques Pâris de Bollardière Colonel Jean Sassi General Mariano Francisco Julio Goybet General Edgard de Larminat Brigadier General Jean Raoux General Paul-Jean-Louis Azan General Marcel "Bruno" Bigeard General Alphonse Pierre Juin Lieutenant Colonel Prince Dimitri Zedguinidze-Amilakhvari Brigadier General Pierre Charles Albert Marie Langlais Admiral Georges Thierry d'Argenlieu Lieutenant Colonel Pierre Paul Jeanpierre Lieutenant Bernard de Lattre de Tassigny Major Barthélémy "Rémy" Raffali Colonel Peter J. Ortiz, USMCR Croix de guerre 1914–1918 Croix de guerre 1939–1945 Croix de guerre France Phaléristique
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War. The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German and Italian aggression. At the start of the war on 1 September 1939, the Allies consisted of France and the United Kingdom, as well as their dependent states, such as British India. Within days they were joined by the independent Dominions of the British Commonwealth: Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. After the start of the German invasion of North Europe until the Balkan Campaign, the Netherlands, Belgium and Yugoslavia joined the Allies. After first having cooperated with Germany in invading Poland whilst remaining neutral in the Allied-Axis conflict, the Soviet Union perforce joined the Allies in June 1941 after being invaded by Germany; the United States provided war materiel and money all along, joined in December 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
China had been in a prolonged war with Japan since the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937, but joined the Allies in 1941. The alliance was formalised by the Declaration by United Nations, from 1 January 1942. However, the name United Nations was used to describe the Allies during the war; the leaders of the "Big Three"—the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States—controlled Allied strategy. The Big Three together with China were referred as a "trusteeship of the powerful" were recognized as the Allied "Big Four" in the Declaration by United Nations and as the "Four Policemen" of the United Nations. After the war ended, the Allied nations became the basis of the modern United Nations. Members The origins of the Allied powers stem from the Allies of World War I and cooperation of the victorious powers at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Germany resented signing Treaty of Versailles; the new Weimar Republic's legitimacy became shaken. However, the 1920s were peaceful. With the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the ensuing Great Depression, political unrest in Europe soared including the rise in support of revanchist nationalists in Germany who blamed the severity of the economic crisis on the Treaty of Versailles.
By the early 1930s, the Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler became the dominant revanchist movement in Germany and Hitler and the Nazis gained power in 1933. The Nazi regime demanded the immediate cancellation of the Treaty of Versailles and made claims to German-populated Austria, German-populated territories of Czechoslovakia; the likelihood of war was high, the question was whether it could be avoided through strategies such as appeasement. In Asia, when Japan seized Manchuria in 1931, the League of Nations condemned it for aggression against China. Japan responded by leaving the League of Nations in March 1933. After four quiet years, the Sino-Japanese War erupted in 1937 with Japanese forces invading China; the League of Nations initiated sanctions on Japan. The United States, in particular, was sought to support China. In March 1939, Germany took over Czechoslovakia, violating the Munich Agreement signed six months before, demonstrating that the appeasement policy was a failure. Britain and France decided that Hitler had no intention to uphold diplomatic agreements and responded by preparing for war.
On 31 March 1939, Britain formed the Anglo-Polish military alliance in an effort to avert a German attack on the country. The French had a long-standing alliance with Poland since 1921; the Soviet Union sought an alliance with the western powers, but Hitler ended the risk of a war with Stalin by signing the Nazi–Soviet non-aggression pact in August 1939. The agreement secretly divided the independent nations of Eastern Europe between the two powers and assured adequate oil supplies for the German war machine. On 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. On 17 September 1939, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east. A Polish government-in-exile was set up and it continued to be one of the Allies, a model followed by other occupied countries. After a quiet winter, Germany in April 1940 invaded and defeated Denmark, Belgium, the Netherlands and France. Britain and its Empire stood alone against Mussolini. In June 1941, Hitler broke the non-aggression agreement with Stalin and Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
In December, Japan attacked the Britain. The main lines of World War II had formed. During December 1941, U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt devised the name "United Nations" for the Allies and proposed it to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, he referred to the Big Three and China as a "trusteeship of the powerful", later the "Four Policemen". The Declaration by United Nations on 1 January 1942 was the basis of the modern United Nations. At the Potsdam Conference of July–August 1945, Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman, proposed that the foreign ministers of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States "should draft the peace treaties and boundary settlements of Europe", which led to the creation of the Council of Foreign Ministers of the "Big Five", soon thereafter the establishment of those states as the permanent members of the UNSC. Great Britain and other members of the British Commonwealth, most known as the Dominions, declared war on Germany separately from 3 September 1939 with the UK first, all within one week of each other.
British West Africa and the British colonies in E
National Order of Merit (France)
The National Order of Merit is a French order of merit with membership awarded by the President of the French Republic, founded on 3 December 1963 by President Charles de Gaulle. The reason for the order's establishment was twofold: to replace the large number of ministerial orders awarded by the ministries, it comprises about 187,000 members worldwide. The National Order of Merit replaced the following ministerial and colonial orders: Ordre de l'Étoile d'Anjouan Ordre du Nichan El-Anouar Ordre de l'Étoile Noire Ordre du Mérite social Ordre de la Santé publique Ordre du Mérite commercial et industriel Ordre du Mérite artisanal Ordre du Mérite touristique Ordre du Mérite combattant Ordre du Mérite postal Ordre de l'Économie nationale Ordre du Mérite sportif Ordre du Mérite du travail Ordre du Mérite militaire Ordre du Mérite civil Ordre du Mérite Saharien French citizens as well as foreign nationals and women, can be received into the order for distinguished military or civil achievements, though of a lesser level than that required for the award of the Legion of Honour.
The President of the French Republic is the Grand Master of the order and appoints all its members by convention on the advice of the Government of France. The order has a common Chancery with the Legion of Honour; every Prime Minister of France is made a Grand cross of the order after 24 months of service. The Order has five classes, the same as the Légion d’honneur: Three ranks: Knight: to be of a minimum age of 35, have a minimum of 10 years of public service, "distinguished merits" Officer: minimum of 5 years in the rank of Knight Commander: minimum of 5 years in the rank of Officer Two dignities: Grand Officer: minimum 3 years in the rank of Commander Grand Cross: minimum 3 years in the rank of Grand Officer Knight - wears the Medal on the left chest Officer - wears the Medal with rosette on the left chest Commander - wears the necklet on the neck for men and women Grand Officer - wears the Medal with rosette on the left chest, plus the Star on the right side of the stomach; the medal and the plaque of the Order were designed by the French sculptor Max Leognany.
The medal of the order is a six-armed Maltese asterisk in gilt enamelled blue, with laurel leaves between the arms. The obverse central disc features the head of Marianne, surrounded by the legend République française; the reverse central disc has a set of crossed tricolores, surrounded by the name of the order and its foundation date. The badge is suspended by a laurel wreath; the star is worn by Grand Officier respectively. The central disc features the head of Marianne, surrounded by the legend République française and the name of the Order, in turn surrounded by a wreath of laurel; the ribbon for the medal is a solid blue field. For the grade of Officier and above, a rosette is centered in the field. For the grades of Commandeur, Grand Officier, Grand-Croix, the rosette is centered bar of silver; the individuals listed below have been admitted as members of the National Order of Merit: List of Foreign recipients of the Ordre national du Mérite Order Ribbons of the French military and civil awards State decoration Sources France Phaléristique
Mediterranean and Middle East theatre of World War II
The Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre was a major theatre of operations during the Second World War. The vast size of the Mediterranean and Middle East theatre saw interconnected naval and air campaigns fought for control of the Mediterranean, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East and Southern Europe; the fighting in this theatre lasted from 10 June 1940, when Italy entered the war on the side of Nazi Germany, until 2 May 1945 when all Axis forces in Italy surrendered. However, fighting would continue in Greece – where British troops had been dispatched to aid the Greek government – during the early stages of the Greek Civil War; the British referred to this theatre as the Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre while the Americans called the theatre of operations the Mediterranean Theater of War. The German official history of the fighting is dubbed The Mediterranean, South-East Europe, North Africa 1939–1942. Regardless of the size of the theatre, the various campaigns were not seen as neatly separated areas of operations but part of one vast theatre of war.
Fascist Italy aimed to carve out a new Roman Empire, while British forces aimed to retain the status quo. Italy unsuccessfully invaded Greece, not until the introduction of German forces were Greece and Yugoslavia overrun. Allied and Axis forces engaged in back and forth fighting across North Africa, with Axis interference in the Middle East causing fighting to spread there. With confidence high from early gains, German forces planned elaborate attacks to be launched to capture the Middle East and to attack the southern border of the Soviet Union. However, following three years of fighting, Axis forces were defeated in North Africa and their interference in the Middle East was halted. Allied forces commenced an invasion of Southern Europe, resulting in the Italians deposing Mussolini and joining the Allies. A prolonged battle for Italy took place between German forces; as the strategic situation changed in south-east Europe, British troops returned to Greece. The theatre of war had the longest duration of the Second World War, resulted in the destruction of the Italian Empire and altered the strategic position of Germany, resulting in German divisions being deployed to Africa and Italy and total German losses being over two million.
Italian losses amounted to around 177,000 men with a further several hundred thousand captured during the process of the various campaigns. British losses amount to over 300,000 men killed, wounded, or captured, total American losses in the region amounted to 130,000. During the late 1920s, Benito Mussolini claimed that Italy needed an outlet for its "surplus population" and that it would be in other countries' best interests to aid in this expansion; the regime wanted "hegemony in the Mediterranean–Danubian–Balkan region" and the gaining of world power by the conquest "of an empire stretching from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Strait of Hormuz". The Fascists had designs on Albania, large parts of Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Greece and harked back to the Roman empire; the regime sought to establish protectorates with Austria, Hungary and Bulgaria. Covert motives were for Italy to become the dominant power in the Mediterranean, capable of challenging France or Britain and gaining access to the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.
On 30 November 1938, Mussolini addressed the Fascist Grand Council on the goal of capturing Albania, Corsica, the Ticino canton of Switzerland and "French territory east of the River Var". Mussolini alleged that Italy required uncontested access to the oceans and shipping lanes to ensure its national sovereignty. Italy was a "prisoner in the Mediterranean" and had to break the chains of British and French control. Corsica, Gibraltar, Malta and Tunisia would need to be taken and Egypt, Greece and the United Kingdom had to be challenged. Through armed conquest, the north and east African colonies would be linked and this'prison' destroyed. Italy would be able to march "either to the Indian Ocean through the Sudan and Abyssinia, or to the Atlantic by way of French North Africa". On 2 October 1935, the Second Italo -- Ethiopian War began. Mussolini lauded the conquest as a new source of raw materials and location for emigration and speculated that a native army could be raised there to "help conquer the Sudan.
"Almost as soon as the Abyssinian campaign ended, Italian intervention in the Spanish Civil War" began. On 7 April 1939, Mussolini began the Italian invasion of Albania and within two days had occupied the country. In May 1939, Italy formally allied to Nazi Germany in the Pact of Steel. Italian foreign policy went through two stages during the Fascist regime; until 1934–35, Mussolini followed a "modest... and responsible" course and following that date there was "ceaseless activity and aggression". "Prior to the Italian invasion of Ethiopia, Mussolini had made military agreements with the French and formed a coalition with the British and French to prevent German aggression in Europe." The Ethiopian War "exposed vulnerabilities and created opportunities that Mussolini seized to realise his imperial vision" At the Nyon Conference of 1937, Italy and the United Kingdom "disclaimed any desire to modify or see modified the national sovereignty of any country in the Mediterranean area, agreed to discourage any activities liable to impair mutual relations."
Italian diplomatic and military moves did not reflect this agreement. In the aftermath of the Italian invasion of Abyssin
Ordre des Palmes Académiques
The Ordre des Palmes académiques is a national order bestowed by the French Republic to distinguished academics and figures in the world of culture and education. Established in 1808 by Emperor Napoleon as a decoration to honour eminent members of the University of Paris, it was changed into its current form as an order of merit on 4 October 1955 by President René Coty; the early Palmes académiques was instituted on 17 March 1808 and was bestowed only upon teachers or professors. In 1850, the decoration was divided into two known classes: Officier de l'Instruction Publique. In 1866, the scope of the award was widened to include major contributions to French national education and culture made by anyone, including foreigners, it was made available to any French expatriates making major contributions to the expansion of French culture throughout the rest of the world. Since 1955, the Ordre des Palmes académiques has comprised three grades, each grade having a fixed number of recipients: Commander — gold cross of 60 mm with a coronet worn on necklet.
Officer — gold cross of 55 mm worn on ribbon with rosette on left breast. Knight — silver cross of 50 mm worn on ribbon on left breast. Decisions on nominations and promotions are decided by the Minister of National Education. For those not connected to state-sponsored public education, or the Ministry of National Education, these honours are announced on 1 January, New Year's Day. For all others, they are made on 14 July, French National Day. Bruno Bernard, Belgian author dictionary French foreign languages Louis Dewis, born Isidore Louis Dewachter in Belgium. Successful merchant and a Post-Impressionist painter, he was honored for his civic endeavors in the early 1900s. Allan L. Goldstein, American biochemist and co-discoverer of the Thymosins John Kneller, English-American professor and fifth President of Brooklyn College Francis L. Lawrence, classical drama and baroque poetry scholar, President of Rutgers University Alice Lemieux-Lévesque, Canadian-American writer Ahmad Kamyabi Mask, Iranian littérateur Léopold Sédar Senghor Ali-Akbar Siassi, Iranian intellectual and politician during the 1930s and 1960s, serving as the country's Foreign Minister, Minister of Education, Chancellor of University of Tehran, Minister of State without portfolio.
Javad Tabatabai, Iranian thinker Buddy Wentworth, Namibian politician, for his contributions to the Namibian independence struggle Andrea Zitolo, Italian physical-chemist and material scientist Mirabel-Sérodes, Françoise. Les palmes académiques. Paris: NANEditions. ISBN 9782843680724. OCLC 377991989. Association des Membres de l'Ordre des Palmes Académiques France: Order of the Academic Palms Medals of the World