A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements. It is roughly equivalent to an enlarged or reinforced regiment, two or more brigades may constitute a division. Brigades formed into divisions are usually infantry or armored, in addition to combat units, they may include combat support units or sub-units, such as artillery and engineers, and logistic units or sub-units. Historically, such brigades have sometimes been called brigade-groups, on operations, a brigade may comprise both organic elements and attached elements, including some temporarily attached for a specific task. Brigades may be specialized and comprise battalions of a branch, for example cavalry, armored, air defence, engineers. Some brigades are classified as independent or separate and operate independently from the division structure. The typical NATO standard brigade consists of approximately 3,200 to 5,500 troops, however, in Switzerland and Austria, the numbers could go as high as 11,000 troops.
The Soviet Union, its forerunners and successors, mostly use regiment instead of brigade, a brigades commander is commonly a major general, brigadier general, brigadier or colonel. In some armies, the commander is rated as a General Officer, the brigade commander has a self-contained headquarters and staff. Some brigades may have a deputy commander, the headquarters has a nucleus of staff officers and support that can vary in size depending on the type of brigade. On operations, additional specialist elements may be attached, the headquarters will usually have its own communications unit. In some gendarmerie forces, brigades are the organizational unit. The brigade as a military unit came about starting in the 15th century when the British army, as such a field army became larger, the number of subordinate commanders became unmanageable for the officer in general command of said army, usually a major general, to effectively command. In order to streamline command relationships, as well as effect some modicum of control, especially in regard to combined arms operations.
The terms origin is found in two French roots, which together, meant roughly those who fight, the so-called brigada was a well-mixed unit, comprising infantry and normally artillery, designated for a special task. The size of such brigada ranged from a company of up to two regiments. The brigada was the forerunner of the battalion task force, battle group. The brigade was improved as a unit by the Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers. Infantry divisions during the World Wars ranged between 10,000 and 30,000 in nominal strength, in most armies, a division is composed of several regiments or brigades, in turn, several divisions typically make up a corps. In the West, the first general to think of organising an army into smaller units was Maurice de Saxe, Marshal General of France. He died at the age of 54, without having implemented his idea, victor-François de Broglie put the ideas into practice. He conducted successful practical experiments of the system in the Seven Years War. The first war in which the system was used systematically was the French Revolutionary War. It made the more flexible and easy to manoeuvre. Under Napoleon, the divisions were grouped together into corps, because of their increasing size, napoleons military success spread the divisional and corps system all over Europe, by the end of the Napoleonic Wars, all armies in Europe had adopted it.
In modern times, most military forces have standardized their divisional structures, the peak use of the division as the primary combat unit occurred during World War II, when the belligerents deployed over a thousand divisions. With technological advances since then, the power of each division has increased. Divisions are often formed to organize units of a particular type together with support units to allow independent operations. In more recent times, divisions have mainly been organized as combined arms units with subordinate units representing various combat arms, in this case, the division often retains the name of a more specialized division, and may still be tasked with a primary role suited to that specialization. For the most part, large cavalry units did not remain after World War II, in general, two new types of cavalry were developed, air cavalry or airmobile, relying on helicopter mobility, and armored cavalry, based on an autonomous armored formation. The former was pioneered by the 11th Air Assault Division, formed on 1 February 1963 at Fort Benning, on 29 June 1965 the division was renamed as the 1st Cavalry Division, before its departure for the Vietnam War.
After the end of the Vietnam War, the 1st Cavalry Division was reorganised and re-equipped with tanks, the development of the tank during World War I prompted some nations to experiment with forming them into division-size units. Many did this the way as they did cavalry divisions, by merely replacing cavalry with AFVs. This proved unwieldy in combat, as the units had many tanks, instead, a more balanced approach was taken by adjusting the number of tank, infantry and support units. A panzer division was a division of the Wehrmacht and the Waffen-SS of Germany during World War II
Charles Eugène Jules Marie Nungesser, MC was a French ace pilot and adventurer, best remembered as a rival of Charles Lindbergh. Nungesser was an ace in France, ranking third highest in the country with 43 air combat victories during World War I. After the war, Nungesser mysteriously disappeared on an attempt to make the first non-stop transatlantic flight from Paris to New York and their aircraft took off from Paris on 8 May 1927, was sighted once more over Ireland, and was never seen again. Two weeks after Nungesser and Colis attempt, Charles Lindbergh successfully made the journey and museums honoring Nungesser and Colis attempt exist at Le Bourget airport in Paris and on the cliffs of Étretat, the location from which their plane was last sighted in France. Charles Nungesser was born on 15 March 1892 in Paris and and his interest in racing soon led him to flying airplanes, Nungesser learned to fly by using a Blériot plane owned by a friend. After he eventually found his uncle, he worked on his sugar plantation in the Buenos Aires province.
When World War I broke out, Nungesser returned to France where he enlisted with the 2e Régiment de Hussards, during one patrol, he and several soldiers commandeered a German Mors patrol car after killing its occupants. This impressed his superiors and he was awarded the Médaille militaire. As a military pilot, he was transferred to Escadrille VB106, while there, in July 1915, he shot down his first plane, a German Albatros and was awarded the Croix de guerre. This action initiated the Nungesser legend, on 31 July 1915, Nungesser and his mechanic Roger Pochon were on standby duty. The two took off in a Voisin 3LAS despite Nungessers assignment to non-flying duties, in an encounter with five Albatros two-seaters, the French duo shot one down near Nancy, France. Returning to their airfield, Nungesser was placed under house arrest for eight days for his insubordination and he was decorated and forwarded to training in Nieuport fighters. By the time Nungesser left VB106, he had flown 53 bombing missions and he had emblazoned at least one of the escadrilles planes with his elaborate gruesome personal insignia, the freebooters skull and crossbones and a coffin with two candles.
In November 1915, after retraining, he was transferred to Escadrille N.65 and was attached to the famous Lafayette Escadrille. While visiting the Escadrille on one of his convalescent periods recuperating from his wounds, he borrowed a plane, by the end of 1916, he had claimed 21 air kills. Despite being a pilot, Nungesser was placed under house arrest on more than one occasion for flying without permission. He disliked strict military discipline and went to Paris to enjoy its many pleasures as often as possible and he was a leading fighter pilot whose combat exploits against the Germans were widely publicized in France. Nungessers rugged good looks, flamboyant personality, and appetite for danger, beautiful women, wine and he would sometimes arrive for morning patrol still dressed in the tuxedo hed worn the night before and even occasionally with a female companion
Marshal Joseph Jacques Césaire Joffre, was a French general who served as Commander-in-Chief of French forces on the Western Front from the start of World War I until the end of 1916. He is best known for regrouping the retreating allied armies to defeat the Germans at the strategically decisive First Battle of the Marne in September 1914. His political position waned after unsuccessful offensives in 1915, the German attack on Verdun in 1916, and the disappointing results of the Anglo-French offensive on the Somme in 1916. At the end of 1916 he was promoted to Marshal of France, the first such promotion under the Third Republic, in the war he led an important mission to the United States. His popularity led to his nickname Papa Joffre, Joffre was born in Rivesaltes, Pyrénées-Orientales, into a family of vineyard owners. He entered the École Polytechnique in 1870 and became a career officer and he first saw active service as a junior artillery officer during the Siege of Paris in the Franco-Prussian War.
After the war he underwent further training at the École Polytechnique before transferring to the génie, Joffre subsequently spent much of his career in the colonies as a military engineer, serving with distinction in the Keelung Campaign during the Sino-French War. As a major, he led a column from Ségou to Timbuktu in Mali, who had been killed on a recent expedition. His mission killed over a hundred Tuareg and captured fifteen hundred cattle and he was promoted as a result. He served under Joseph Gallieni in Madagascar, Joffre returned to France and was made commander in chief of the French Army in July 1911, after General Victor-Constant Michel was removed and General Gallieni declined the post. With the revival of the army and a purge of defensive-minded officers, he adopted the strategy devised by Ferdinand Foch and he was selected to command despite never having commanded an Army, even on paper, and having no knowledge whatever of General Staff work. After a left-wing government came to power in 1914, he was due to be replaced by Maurice Sarrail in the autumn, at the outbreak of war, the French plan clashed with the German Schlieffen Plan, much to the detriment of the French.
The French First and Second Armies attacked into Alsace-Lorraine on 19 and 20 August and were back with severe loss by German forces. Joffre believed that Liège was still holding out, and hoped that Lanrezac would be able to reach Namur, on 21 August the French Second Army was pressed by a German counterattack. Édouard de Castelnau asked for permission to abandon Nancy and its fortified heights, the Fifth Army was now attacked on its right by Max von Hausens German Third Army, although these attacks were held, Lanrezac asked Joffre for permission to retreat. On 23 August the Fifth Army was attacked again, the German Fourth and Fifth Armies were in fact advancing against the French forces in front of them rather than moving westwards as Joffre believed. Messimy fully supported Joffre in his purge of unsuccessful generals, even suggesting that, as in 1793, michel-Joseph Maunoury was put in command of the newly formed Sixth Army, which initially assembled near Amiens and fell back toward Paris.
After Lanrezac spent the day arguing against the order, Joffre visited him at 8.30 am on 28 August, after a heated discussion, Joffre had Gamelin draw up a written order and signed it in Lanrezacs presence
Mentioned in dispatches
In a number of countries, a servicemembers name must be mentioned in dispatches as a condition for receiving certain decorations. In the British Armed Forces, the despatch is published in the London Gazette, for 1914–1918 and up to 10 August 1920, the decoration consisted of a spray of oak leaves in bronze. This decoration was established in 1919, but it had retroactive effect. From 1920 to 1993, the decoration consisted of a bronze oak leaf. In a change introduced in 2014 to the British Armed Forces, prior to this change, even if the soldier was mentioned in dispatches more than once, only a single such decoration was worn. In Britain, since 1993, the decoration is a silver oak leaf. In each case the decoration is pinned or sewn diagonally on to the campaign medal ribbon. If no campaign medal is awarded, the oak leaf is worn on the left breast of the dress uniform, prior to 1979, a mention in dispatches was one of the three awards that could be made posthumously, the others being the Victoria Cross and George Cross.
The 1979 reform removed the all or nothing lottery, soldiers can be mentioned multiple times. The British First World War Victoria Cross recipient John Vereker, Field Marshal Viscount Gort, was mentioned in dispatches nine times, the Australian general Gordon Bennett was mentioned in dispatches a total of eight times during the First World War, as was Field Marshal Sir John Dill. Similarly, the equivalents of the MiD for acts of bravery by civilians, the reformed and comprehensive system is now as follows, The Commendation for Gallantry is now the fourth level decoration for gallantry. The Commendation for Brave Conduct recognises acts of bravery carried by soldiers not directly fighting the enemy, a mention in dispatches – in French, Citation à lordre du jour – gives recognition from a senior commander for acts of brave or meritorious service, normally in the field. The Mention in dispatches is among the list of awards presented by the Governor General of Canada, personnel can be mentioned in dispatches posthumously and multiple awards are possible.
A recipient of a mention in a dispatch is entitled to wear an emblem and they are issued with an official certificate from the Ministry of Defence. The emblem, which was regarded as a decoration, was worn on the ribbon of the Victory Medal, only one emblem was worn, irrespective of the number of times a recipient had been mentioned. The Afrikaans rendition of mentioned in dispatches is Eervolle Vermelding in Berigte, the mention in dispatches was one of only four awards which could be made posthumously. The others were the Victoria Cross, the George Cross, the oak leaf emblem was worn on the ribbon of the War Medal 1939–1945. The Kings Commendation was denoted by a bronze King Protea flower emblem worn on the ribbon of the Africa Service Medal and it could be awarded posthumously and was the equivalent of a mention in dispatches for services rendered away from the battlefield
Croix de Guerre
The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of France. It was first created in 1915 and consists of a medal on two crossed swords, hanging from a ribbon with various degree pins. The decoration was awarded during World War I, again in World War II, the Croix de guerre was commonly bestowed on foreign military forces allied to France. The Croix de guerre may either be awarded as an individual or unit award to soldiers who distinguish themselves by acts of heroism involving combat with the enemy. The medal is awarded to those who have mentioned in dispatches. The unit award of the Croix de guerre with palm was issued to military units whose members performed heroic deeds in combat and were recognized by headquarters. The Croix de guerre medal varies depending on which country is bestowing the award, separate French medals exist for the First and Second World War. For the unit decoration of the Croix de guerre, a fourragère is awarded, regulations permitted the wearing of multiple Croix de guerre, meaning that such medals were differentiated in service records by specifying French Croix de guerre, French Croix de guerre, etc.
There are three distinct Croix de guerre medals in the French system of honours, the French collaborationist government created two croix during World War II. These croix are now illegal under French law and wearing them is outlawed, The Croix was created by a law of April 2,1915, the Croix reinstated an older system of mentions in dispatches, which were only administrative honours with no medal. The sculptor Paul-André Bartholomé created the medal, a cross with swords. The French Croix represents a mention in dispatches awarded by a commanding officer, depending on the officer who issued the mention, the ribbon of the Croix is marked with extra pins. Mentioned in Despatches, a star for those who had been mentioned at the regiment or brigade level. A silver star, for those who had been mentioned at the division level, a silver gilt star for those who had been mentioned at the corps level. A bronze palm for those who had been mentioned at the army level, a silver palm stands for five bronze ones.
A silver gilt palm for those who had been mentioned at the Free French Forces level, the French Croix de guerre des TOE was created in 1921 for wars fought in theatres of operation outside France. It was awarded during the Indochina War, Korean War, when World War II broke out in 1939, a new Croix de guerre was created by Édouard Daladier. It was abolished by Vichy Government in 1941, which created a new Croix de guerre, in 1943 General Giraud in Algiers created another Croix de guerre
Legion of Honour
The Legion of Honour, full name National Order of the Legion of Honour, is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte. The order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction, Officier, Grand Officier and Grand-Croix. The orders motto is Honneur et Patrie and its seat is the Palais de la Légion dHonneur next to the Musée dOrsay, in the French Revolution, all French orders of chivalry were abolished, and replaced with Weapons of Honour. The Légion however did use the organization of old French orders of chivalry, the badges of the legion bear a resemblance to the Ordre de Saint-Louis, which used a red ribbon. Napoleon originally created this to ensure political loyalty, the organization would be used as a facade to give political favours and concessions. The Légion was loosely patterned after a Roman legion, with legionaries, commanders, regional cohorts, the highest rank was not a grand cross but a Grand Aigle, a rank that wore all the insignia common to grand crosses.
The members were paid, the highest of them extremely generously,5,000 francs to an officier,2,000 francs to a commandeur,1,000 francs to an officier,250 francs to a légionnaire. Napoleon famously declared, You call these baubles, well, it is with baubles that men are led, do you think that you would be able to make men fight by reasoning. That is good only for the scholar in his study, the soldier needs glory, rewards. This has been quoted as It is with such baubles that men are led. The order was the first modern order of merit, under the monarchy, such orders were often limited to Roman Catholics, and all knights had to be noblemen. The military decorations were the perks of the officers, the Légion, was open to men of all ranks and professions—only merit or bravery counted. The new legionnaire had to be sworn in the Légion and it is noteworthy that all previous orders were crosses or shared a clear Christian background, whereas the Légion is a secular institution. The jewel of the Légion has five arms, in a decree issued on the 10 Pluviôse XIII, a grand decoration was instituted.
This decoration, a cross on a sash and a silver star with an eagle, symbol of the Napoleonic Empire, became known as the Grand Aigle. After Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804 and established the Napoleonic nobility in 1808, the title was made hereditary after three generations of grantees. Napoleon had dispensed 15 golden collars of the legion among his family and this collar was abolished in 1815. The Légion dhonneur was prominent and visible in the French Empire, the Emperor always wore it and the fashion of the time allowed for decorations to be worn most of the time
Joseph de Goislard de Monsabert
Joseph de Goislard de Monsabert, was a French general who served during the Second World War. Monsabert graduated from Saint-Cyr military academy and was commissioned as a lieutenant in 1911 and he initially served with the 44th Infantry Regiment and was moved to the 3rd Moroccan Rifle Regiment, with which he first saw combat in 1912. Promoted to Colonel in 1937, he was made a Brigadier in August 1941 and this promotion was followed by promotion to Major General in March 1943. He was promoted again to Lieutenant General in August 1944, Monsabert commanded first the Corps Franc dAfrique and the reserve elements of the XIX Corps during the campaign for Tunisia. Subsequently, he commanded the 3rd Algerian Infantry Division with the French Expeditionary Corps in the Italian Campaign, on 3 July 1944 his forces liberated Siena. On 31 August 1944, Monsabert took command of the French II Corps of General Jean de Lattre de Tassignys Army B, Monsabert led the II Corps with distinction for the remainder of the war in Europe.
Monsabert, with about 130000 soldiers took Toulon and Marseille and played a part in Alsace with a corps numbering nearly 150000 soldiers at that time. In July 1945, he was made the commander of French forces in Germany, in 1946, he retired from active military service. From 1951 until 1955, Monsabert served as a deputy in the Rassemblement du Peuple Français political party in the National Assembly of France, representing the region Pyrénées-Atlantiques. dk