Eucalyptus camaldulensis known as the river red gum, is a tree, endemic to Australia. It has smooth white or cream-coloured bark, lance-shaped or curved adult leaves, flower buds in groups of seven or nine, white flowers and hemispherical fruit with the valves extending beyond the rim. A familiar and iconic tree, it is seen along many watercourses across inland Australia, providing shade in the extreme temperatures of central Australia. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a tree that grows to a height of 20 metres but sometimes to 45 metres and does not develop a lignotuber; the bark is smooth white or cream-coloured with patches of pink or brown. There is loose, rough slabs of rough bark near the base; the juvenile leaves are lance-shaped, 80 -- 13 -- 25 mm wide. Adult leaves are lance-shaped to curved, the same dull green or geyish green colour on both sides, 50–300 mm long and 7–32 mm wide on a petiole 8–33 mm long; the flower buds are arranged in groups of seven, nine or sometimes eleven, in leaf axils on a peduncle 5–28 mm long, the individual flowers on pedicels 2–10 mm long.
Mature buds are oval to more or less spherical, green to creamy yellow, 6–9 mm long and 4–6 mm wide with a prominently beaked operculum 3–7 mm long. Flowering occurs in summer and the flowers are white; the fruit is a woody, hemispherical capsule 2–5 mm long and 4–10 mm wide on a pedicel 3–12 mm long with the valves raised above the rim. The limbs of river red gums, sometimes whole trees fall without warning so that camping or picnicking near them is dangerous if a tree has dead limbs or the tree is under stress. Eucalyptus camaldulensis was first formally described in 1832 by Friedrich Dehnhardt who published the description in Catalogus Plantarum Horti Camaldulensis. Seven subspecies of E. camaldulensis have been described and accepted by the Australian Plant Census. The most variable character is the shape and size of the operculum, followed by the arrangement of the stamens in the mature buds and the density of veins visible in the leaves; the subspecies are: Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp.
Acuta Ian Brooker & M. W. McDonald has mature flower buds with a pointed operculum 6–9 mm long and erect stamens and broadly lance-shaped or egg-shaped juvenile leaves. Arida Ian Brooker & M. W. McDonald has bluish green adult leaves with only a few veins and mature flowers buds with a curved to rounded operculum 3–7 mm long. Subsp. Camaldulensis has a beaked operculum, incurved or irregularly bent stamens and narrow lance-shaped juvenile leaves. Minima Ian Brooker & M. W. McDonald has mature flower buds that are small with a conical operculum 2–4 mm long and broad juvenile leaves that are covered with a powdery bloom. Obtusa Ian Brooker & M. W. McDonald has white, powdery bark in some months and mature flower buds with a curved, conical operculum 4–7 mm long. Refulgens Ian Brooker & M. W. McDonald has glossy green adult leaves with a dense network of veins. Simulata Ian Brooker & Kleinig. has a horn-shaped operculum 9–16 mm long. The specific epithet is a reference to a private estate garden near the Camaldoli monastery in Naples, where Frederick Dehnhardt was the chief gardener.
The type specimen was grown in the gardens from seed collected in 1817 near Condobolin by Allan Cunningham, was grown there for about one hundred years before being removed in the 1920s. Although Dehnhardt was the first to formally describe E. camaldulensis, his book was unknown to the botanical community. In 1847 Diederich von Schlechtendal gave the species the name Eucalyptus rostrata but the name was illegitimate because it had been applied by Cavanilles to a different species. In the 1850s, Ferdinand von Mueller labelled some specimens of river red gum as Eucalyptus longirostris and in 1856 Friedrich Miquel published a description of von Mueller's specimens, formalising the name E. longirostris. In 1934, William Blakely recognised Dehnhardt's priority and the name E. camaldulensis for river red gum was accepted. Northern Territory aboriginal names for this species are: aper, aper or per, aylpele, ngapiri, yitara apara, piipalya, kunjumarra and ngapiri. Dimilan is the name of this tree in the Miriwoong language of the Kimberley.
Eucalyptus camaldulensis has the widest natural distribution of any eucalyptus species. It is found along waterways and there are only a few locations where the species is found away from a watercourse. Subspecies acuta is common along rivers from south of Cape York Peninsula in Queensland to the north west slopes and plains of New South Wales but is absent from coastal areas and the arid inland. Subspecies arida has the widest distribution of the subspecies and is found in all mainland states except Victoria, it grows in arid regions but only. Subspecies camaldulensis is the dominant eucalypt along the Murray-Darling river system and its tributaries, it occurs on the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas and Kangaroo Island in South Australia and in some locations along the Hunter River in New South Wales. I
Adelaide city centre
Adelaide city centre is the innermost locality of Greater Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia. It is known by locals as "The City" or "Town" to distinguish it from Greater Adelaide and from the City of Adelaide; the locality is split into two key geographical distinctions: the city "square mile", bordered by North, East and West Terraces. The locality is home to the Parliament of many key state government offices. Due to the construction of many new apartments in the city, the population has grown over ten years from 10,229 to 15,115. Before the European settlement of South Australia, the Adelaide Plains, on which Adelaide was built, were home to the Kaurna group of Indigenous Australians; the colony of South Australia was established in 1836 at Glenelg, the city itself established in 1837. The location and layout of the city is accredited to Colonel William Light, in a plan known as Light's Vision; the area where the Adelaide city centre now exists was once known as "Tarndanya", which translates as "male red kangaroo rock" in Aboriginal, an area along the south bank of what is now known as the River Torrens, which flows through Adelaide.
Kaurna numbers were reduced by at least two widespread epidemics of smallpox which preceded European settlement, having been transported downstream along the Murray River. When European settlers arrived in 1836, estimates of the Kaurna population ranged from 300 to 1000 people. British Captain Matthew Flinders, along with French Captain Nicolas Baudin, charted the southeast coast of Australia, where Adelaide is located. Flinders provided little information on Adelaide itself. Charles Sturt explored the Murray and wrote a favourable reflection on what he saw. Colonel William Light is credited with settling and laying out the Adelaide region, which included a grid plan of Adelaide's streets. Adelaide was not as badly affected by the 1860s economic depression in Australia as other gold rush cities like Sydney and Melbourne, allowing it to prosper. Historian F. W. Crowley noted that the city was full of elite upper-class citizens which provided a stark contrast to the grinding poverty of the labour areas and slums outside the inner city ring.
Due to its historic puritan wealth during the 20th century, the city retains a notable portion of Victorian architecture. Adelaide is separated from its greater metropolitan area by a ring of public parklands on all sides; the so-called "square mile" within the park lands is defined by a small area of high rise office and apartment buildings in the centre north, around King William Street, which runs north-to-south through the centre. Surrounding this central business district are a large number of medium to low density apartments and detached houses which make up the residential portion of the city centre; the layout of Adelaide, known as Light's Vision, features a cardinal direction grid pattern of wide streets and terraces and five large public squares: Victoria Square in the centre of the city, Hindmarsh, Light and Whitmore Squares in the centres of each of the four quadrants of the Adelaide city centre. These squares occupy 32 of the 700 numbered "town acre" allotments on Light's plan.
All east-west roads change their names as they cross King William Street, except for North and South terraces. They alternate between being wide and narrow, 99 and 66 feet, except for the central Grote and Wakefield which are extra-wide, 132 feet, along with the surrounding four terraces. In the south half of the city, in several places the Adelaide City Council has constructed wide footpaths and road markings to restrict traffic to a lesser number of lanes than the full width of the road could support; the street pairs, design widths, town acres in Light's Vision are illustrated in this diagram: The streets and squares were named by a committee of a number of prominent settlers after themselves, after early directors of the South Australian Company, after Commissioners appointed by the British government to oversee implementation of the acts that established the colony, after various notables involved in the establishment of the colony. The Street Naming Committee comprised: All members of the committee had one or more of the streets and squares in the Adelaide city centre and North Adelaide named after themselves.
Brown Street, named for John Brown, was subsequently subsumed as a continuation of Morphett Street in 1967. In the same year, Hanson Street, named for Richard Hanson, was subsumed as a continuation of Pulteney Street; the squares were named after: Victoria - the regent the monarch Queen Victoria Hindmarsh - Rear Admiral Sir John Hindmarsh, first Governor Hurtle - Sir James Hurtle Fisher, first Resident Commissioner Light - Colonel William Light, Surveyor General Whitmore - William Wolryche-Whitmore MP, a Colonial Commissioner in LondonThe east-west streets named on 22 December 1836 were: Rundle – John Rundle MP, Director of the South Australian Company Hindley – Charles Hindley MP, Director of South Australian Company Grenfell – Pascoe St Leger Grenfell MP, presented town acre for Holy Trinity Church and other country lands Currie – Raikes Currie MP, Director of South Australian Company Pirie – Sir John Pirie and Lord Mayor of London, Director of South Australian Company Waymouth – Henry Waymouth, Director South Australian Company Flinders – Matthew Flinders, explorer Franklin – Rear Admiral Sir John Franklin, midshipman under Flinders Wakefield – Daniel Bell Wakefield, bar
Vulkathunha-Gammon Ranges National Park
The Vulkathunha-Gammon Ranges National Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located in the northern Flinders Ranges southwest of and adjacent to the Arkaroola Protection Area. They encompass some of the most spectacular country in South Australia; the central ranges are of a different topographical nature to the rest of the Flinders, being composed of flat-lying strata, creating a high plateau into which spectacular gorges have been cut, instead of the buckled and folded strata further south which lead to the ubiquitous cuestas of Wilpena Pound. The Gammons are dominated by "The Plateau" in the southwest, contiguous with and of much the same height as the Blue Range further northeast, culminating in Benbonyathe Hill, the highest point in the Flinders north of Wilpena. Other summits on the flat range and plateau include Elephant Hill, Mount Changeweather, Four Winds Hill, Prow Point. Of these "rounded hills" of the plateau, Warren Bonython writes that "at their edge the slope, gentle near the crest, progressively steepens and changes into a precipice plunging down to a rock-strewn creek bed a thousand feet below" Some of the features of the ranges are the deep gorges cut in the south-eastern side of the Blue Range: Bunyip Chasm, The Terraces, Fern Chasm are all areas visited by bushwalkers.
Although lower than the mountains which surround it on three sides, the dramatic Cleft Peak is often visited, so-named for a spectacular cleft separating it into two summits, providing opportunities for rockclimbing to a summit, not necessary with peaks in the Flinders. The high central range and plateau is surrounded by a number of smaller outlying ranges, creating the encircling "pounds" of low hills: Balcanoona Range encloses Illinawortina Pound to the east, Mainwater Pound is to the north, enclosed by the Yankaninna Range, Arcoona Pound to the west. There are several major mountains on the margin of the Gammons, two of which are higher the main range: Gammon Hill in the north, overlooking Mainwater and Arcoona Pounds, Mount McKinlay dominating the south; the local Aboriginal people are the Adnyamathanha. The current generation live on the neighbouring station of Mount Serle and Aboriginal lands at Nepabunna and Nantawarrina; the national park is managed under a co-operative system which involves Adnyamathanha people in the running of the national park.
Included in the national park is a wide strip of territory running 40 km from the edge of the ranges to the shores of Lake Frome, an area, used by the local Aboriginal people for hunting kangaroos and emus. Curiously, regarding the mining controversies attendant with the national park, this area of the national park is traversed by the Moomba Adelaide Pipeline System gas pipeline; the first European to see the ranges was Edward Eyre on his 1840 expedition along the western side of the Flinders. Attempting to find a way through the salt lakes that he thought barred the path to the north, he climbed Mount Serle; this high range was the western heights of the Gammons. The next explorer to reach the area was the Surveyor General, Edward Charles Frome, on his second expedition up the eastern side of the Flinders three years later. After finding his route to the east blocked by the lake which would bear his name, he headed for the highest point in the ranges he could see, which he thought was Eyre's Mount Serle: however, his paintings show it to be Mount McKinlay.
A private surveyor, J. M. Painter, was employed in a survey of the area in 1857, his party climbed Gammon Hill and Mount McKinlay, but didn't penetrate to the peaks of the central range or plateau. One of several survey cairns built on a line they surveyed between Mount Rowe and Arcoona Bluff on the western edge of the ranges has been restored and can be visited today; the area has a colourful history of pastoral settlement dating from the turn of the century: the now-restored holiday cottage Grindell's Hut in Illinawortina Pound is named after John Grindell, who ran a small cattle station in the pound in the early part of the twentieth century. Grindell had a difficult relationship with his son-in-law George Snell, who ran the neighbouring Yankaninna station, suspecting him of rustling cattle; when Snell disappeared in August 1918, a search party found remains at a campfire in the ranges, Grindell was arrested and charged with Snell's murder. Despite the evidence being flimsy, Grindell was convicted at Port Augusta in December and sentenced to death, though it was commuted to life imprisonment.
He was released from prison in 1928, dying two years at the age of 77. A restored building at the site of his old hut is now rented out as a holiday cottage; the bushman R. M. Williams is reputed to have learnt everything he knew about boot-making and leather from another man he met while camped in Italowie Gap at the southern end of the ranges; the ranges were explored more in the first half of the 20th century: the Greenwood family, pastoralists in the area, had explored the edges in the twenties and thirties, discovering Fern Chasm, but it was not until expeditions by Warren Bonython and others in the late 1940s that the Plateau and main central
Eucalyptus goniocalyx, is a small to medium-sized tree native to south-eastern Australia. Common names include olive-barked box and bundy; the species has persistent bark to the small branches. It is fibrous, becoming fissured and shaggy in larger trees. Adult leaves are stalked, lanceolate to 20 x 3 cm, concolorous and green. White flowers appear in early autumn to mid winter. Distribution occurs on the tablelands of New South Wales and in Victoria west to the South Australian border. In South Australia from the Mount Lofty Ranges to the Flinders Ranges; the leaves are distilled for the production of cineole based eucalyptus oil
Birdwood, South Australia
Birdwood is a town near Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in the local government areas of the Adelaide Hills Council and the Mid Murray Council. Birdwood was named Blumberg, by Prussian settlers originating from the area around Zullichau; the original name's origins are uncertain, but it is that it derives from Groß Blumberg, a village on the Oder River in the settler's area of origin. The German town name was anglicised to "Birdwood" during World War I, along with many others in the region in 1917; the new name honoured Sir William Birdwood, the Australian Imperial Force general who led the ANZACs at Gallipoli. Around the same time, the government closed the German-language school; the first Europeans to explore the district were Dr. George Imlay and John Hill in January 1838. In 1839-40 the South Australian Company claimed several Special Surveys in the district which were subdivided to allow for closer settlement. Migrants who had temporarily settled at Lobethal began looking for land of their own in 1848.
Pastor Fritzsch recommended this spot beside the Torrens. Birdwood grew with homes on land leased from a church some distance away; the town prospered by the 1850s, the area was producing enough grain to justify the construction of the Blumberg Flour Mill. In 1865, during the local gold rush, the Blumberg Inn was built. Birdwood sits on a crossroads between the Adelaide-Mannum Road, the road leading north towards Williamstown and the Barossa Valley, the road leading south towards Lobethal and the South Eastern Freeway. Birdwood has a government-operated primary and high school, small supermarket, a few delicatessens and antique shops and a petrol station. A number of churches have formed part of the history of the town, including the Roman Catholic Church near the sports grounds, the nearby Lutheran church and cemetery, just beyond the town limits. Birdwood is home to the National Motor Museum, is the endpoint of the annual Bay to Birdwood run, in which vintage motor vehicles are driven by their owners from Glenelg past the city and through the hills to finish at the museum where a festival is held.
The museum was started by Jack Kaines and Len Vigar in 1964, was purchased by the South Australian Government in 1976, holding a large and important collection of cars and commercial vehicles. Just north of Birdwood is the Cromer Conservation Park, proclaimed in 1976, with an open-forest formation of long-leafed box with Pink Gum and an open woodland formation of Red Gum, which forms an important habitat for honeyeaters. Mining for yellow ochre occurred in the park during the 1800s. There are no formal walking trails or visitor facilities, it is home to Birdwood High School which has over 700 students and Birdwood Primary school with about 200 students. The area is not serviced by Adelaide Metro public transport. A coach is operated from Tea Tree Plaza Interchange to Gumeracha and Mount Pleasant by LinkSA. Birdwood has a lot of through traffic, a traffic calming device was installed at the Adelaide end of town to discourage speeding. A significant number of road accidents occur on the Adelaide-Mannum Road, the sites of these are marked with red and black posts.
Birdwood once had a train station on the Mount Pleasant railway line at 44.13 miles from Adelaide. The line came via Balhannah and was not a direct route; the line was closed during one of the rail reformations as it was not a profitable line due to the more direct Adelaide–Mannum Road. The track is now long gone but the earthworks can still be seen along the edges of the Birdwood flat to Mount Torrens and towards Mount Pleasant. Still standing is an old stone railway bridge near Mount Torrens; the line closed in 1953
Eucalyptus leucoxylon known as yellow gum, blue gum or white ironbark, is a species of eucalypt, endemic to Australia. It is distributed on plains and nearby mountain ranges or coastal South Australia, where it is known as the Blue Gum and extends into the western half of Victoria where it is known as the yellow gum. Yellow gum is a small to medium-sized tree with rough bark on the lower 1–2 m of the trunk, above this, the bark becomes smooth with a white, yellow or bluish-grey surface. Adult leaves are stalked, lanceolate to broad-lanceolate, to 13 x 2.5 cm, dull, green. The white, pink or red flowers appear during winter; the leaves are distilled for the production of cineole based eucalyptus oil. The species has been divided into numerous subspecies. A spectacular red-flowered form of uncertain provenance Eucalyptus leucoxylon ‘Rosea’ is planted as an ornamental plant, it flowers profusely in winter. A threatened subspecies known as the Bellarine yellow gum is endemic to the Bellarine Peninsula at the south-eastern end of the species' range.
South Australian blue gum is endemic to several regions of South Australia Mount Lofty Ranges and Kangaroo Island Another variety known as Euky Dwarf is popular as a street and garden tree, growing around 5-6m in height. Eucalyptus leucoxylon pruinosa is found in western Victoria.
Xanthorrhoea is a genus of about 30 species of flowering plants endemic to Australia. All have a secondary thickening meristem in the stem. Many, but not all, species develop; the stem may take up to twenty years to emerge. Plants begin as a crown of rigid grass-like leaves, the caudex growing beneath; the main stem or branches continue to develop beneath the crown, This is rough-surfaced, built from accumulated leaf-bases around the secondarily thickened trunk. The trunk is sometimes unbranched, some species will branch if the growing point is damaged, others grow numerous branches. Flowers are borne on a long spike above a bare section called a scape. Flowering occurs in a distinct flowering period, which varies for each species, stimulated by bushfire. Fires will burn the leaves and blacken the trunk, but the tree survives as the dead leaves around the stem serve as insulation against the heat of a wildfire; the rate of growth of Xanthorrhoea is slow. However, this is generalized to mean they all grow at the rate of about an inch per year.
After the initial establishment phase, the rate of growth varies from species to species. Thus, while a five-metre-tall member of the fastest-growing Xanthorrhoea may be 200 years old, a member of a more growing species of equal height may have aged to 600 years. Xanthorrhoea is allied to the family Asphodelaceae as monotypic subfamily Xanthorrhoeoideae; the Xanthorrhoeoideae are part of order Asparagales. A reference to its yellow resin, Xanthorrhoea means "yellow flow" in Ancient Greek. Smith named it from xanthos and rhœa; the invalid Acoroides was a temporary designation in Solander's manuscript from his voyage with Cook not meant for publication. Common names for Xanthorrhoea include grasstree, grass gum-tree, kangaroo tail and blackboy, based on the purported similarity in appearance of the trunked species to an Aboriginal man holding an upright spear. In the South West, the Noongar name balga' is used for X. preissii. In South Australia, Xanthorrhoea is known as yakka spelled yacca and yacka, a name from a South Australian Aboriginal language likely Kaurna.
The name grasstree is applied to many other plants. Kingia and Dasypogon are unrelated Australian plants with a similar growth habit to Xanthorrhoea. Both genera have at times been confused with xanthorrhoeas and misnamed as "grasstrees"; some plant classification systems such as Cronquist have included a wide range of other genera in the same family as Xanthorrhoea. However anatomical and phylogenetic research has supported the view of Dahlgren who regarded Xanthorrhoea as the sole member of his family Xanthorrhoeaceae sensu stricto, now treated as the subfamily Xanthorrhoeoideae. A genus endemic to Australia, occurring in all national territories; some species have a restricted range, others are distributed. According to the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, as of September 2014 the following species are accepted: Grasstrees grow in coastal heaths, wet and dry forests of Australia, they are frost tolerant. The grass tree occurs in soils that are free draining and low in nutrients, it survives in the poorest soils, with a shallow root system, enabling it access nutrients from decaying litter, while storing all the food reserves in its stem.
The grass tree has developed adaptations. If a fire breaks out, the grass tree has a special physiological adaptation called thermal insulation that helps protect the plant; the grass tree holds its thick, dead leaves around its stem which serves as insulation, helps to protect the plant against the heat of the fire. They need fire to clear away dead leaves and promote flowering, as these slow-growing trees were among the first flowering plants to evolve. Grass trees have developed a structural adaptation which helps the grass tree take advantage of soil fertilized with ash after fire, producing a flowering stalk in the aftermath; the grass tree has a symbiosis relationship with Mycorrhiza deep in its root system. Mycorrhiza is fungi; the fungus increases the tree root’s access to water and nutrients and therefore increases tree growth in poor conditions. The grass tree suffers from a condition known as phytophthera dieback. Phytophthora cinnamomi is a discrete soil borne pathogen that attacks and destroys vascular root systems, causing hosts to perish through lack of nutrients and water.
It is spread through the movement of contaminated soil and gravel. Xanthorrhoea may be cultivated, as seed is collected and germinated. While they do grow quite attractive plants with short trunks and leaf crowns up to 1.5 m can be achieved in 10 years. The slow growth rate means. Most Xanthorrhoea sold in nurseries are established plants taken from bushland. Nurseries charge high prices for the plants. However, there is a low survival rate for nursery-purchased plants, which may take several years to die; the most successful examples of transplanting have been where a substantial amount of soil, greater than one cubic metre, has been taken with the plants. The genus Xanthorrhoea, more known as the grass tree, is an iconic plant that epitomizes the Australian bush in its ability to live in poor nutrient soils