Frode Estil is a retired Norwegian cross-country skier. He lives in Meråker with his wife Grete whom he married in the summer of 2001, they have two sons, born in August 2002, Konrad. Estil was classical specialist and a specialist at succeeding in World Championships and Olympics. While Estil only won four World Cup races, he won one individual Olympic Gold and one individual World Championship gold. In addition, he won three team events in the World Championships and another team gold in the Olympics. Estil's first World Cup victory was in 1999 in the 30 km event at Davos, his best standing at the end of a season was during 2001/02. Estil has been competing in the World Cup since 1995/96, in which he finished the season in 42nd place, in 1996/97 he finished 63rd; the year after however he jumped up to 12th. The following two years he finished 12th. In the 2000/01 season he finished inside the top ten of the world, finishing 8th; the next season was better for Estil, not only did he get married in the summer but he finished in 5th place overall, his highest overall ranking.
The next two seasons he finished in 6th. After the 2002/03 season he stopped competing in the sprint events after finishing the season in 58th, he had finished the sprint seasons in 48th, 18th, 18th, 32nd, 39th in 2001/02. In 2003/04 he finished 3rd in the distance standings. 2004/05 was a poor season, finishing 14th in the distance, 25th in the overall. Estil finished the 2005/06 season in 9th place in the FIS World Cup standings, 456 points behind winner Tobias Angerer. Estil finished 4th in the distance, 420 points behind Angerer, again did not compete in the sprints. Estil has had 18 World Cup podium finishes. Four of them in 1st place, six in 2nd place and eight in 3rd place, his wins came in 1999/00, 2002/03 and two in 2003/04. The most podium finishes he has had in a single season was in 2002/03, he had side of that season. All of his wins have been except one double pursuit; the 15 km is his most successful event in terms of numbers of podium finishes. Through the years he has had three second places and three third places.
His most successful event in terms of wins is the 30 km. Estil's first gold medal in an international championship was in the relay in the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2001 in Lahti, where he took silver in the 30 km. At the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2003, held in Val di Fiemme, Estil won a gold in the 4 x 10 km relay and bronze in the 15 km and 30 km. At the 2005 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Oberstdorf, Estil won gold in the 50 km race, the 4 x 10 km relay. In the 50 km race he won in a time of 2:30:10.1, beating Anders Aukland by 0.7 seconds, Odd-Bjørn Hjelmeset came third making it a Norwegian sweep. A characteristic of Estil is to start slow and come through the pack towards the end of the race, he was 23rd after 12.5 km, 11th after 27.5 km, but by 42.5 km he was 3rd, came through to win. In the relay, Norway won, with Germany second and Russia third. Norway finished 17.7 seconds ahead with Estil skiing Norway's second fastest leg. He won a bronze medal in the 15 km + 15 km double pursuit, in a time of 1:19:21.3, 0.8 seconds behind winner Vincent Vittoz, losing silver to Giorgio Di Centa in a photo finish.
At the 2007 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Sapporo, Estil won only one medal. He lost the gold at the finish line of the 50 km event to fellow Norwegian Odd-Bjørn Hjelmeset. Estil has nine World Championship medals as of the Sapporo championships with four gold, two silver, three bronze. Estil has competed in two Winter Olympics. In the 2002 Games Estil won golds in the 10 km + 10 km combined pursuit, the 4 x 10 km relay. In the 2006 Winter Olympics he won a silver medal in the 15 km + 15 km double pursuit. In the 10 km + 10 km combined pursuit, Estil tied with fellow Norwegian Thomas Alsgaard for second place, with Johann Mühlegg winning the race; however Mühlegg was found guilty of doping and disqualified by the IOC in February 2004, therefore upgrading Estil and Alsgaard to joint gold medalists. Alsgaard and Estil clocked times of 49:48.9, 4 seconds ahead of Per Elofsson. In the same Olympic Games, he won a silver medal in the 15 km Classic race, a gold medal in the 4 x 10 km relay together with Alsgaard, Kristen Skjeldal and Anders Aukland.
Estil finished the 15 km race in 37:43.4, 36 seconds behind Andrus Veerpalu of Estonia, 7.4 seconds ahead of Jaak Mae of Estonia. Estil took part in the 50 km classic, but finished ninth, in a time of 2:10:44.8, 4:22.0 behind winner Mikhail Ivanov of Russia. At the 2006 Olympics in Turin, Estil won the silver medal in the men's 15 km + 15 km double pursuit competition despite taking a fall and breaking a ski at the start of the race which put him in last place. Eugeni Dementiev of Russia won the race, 1.6 seconds ahead of Estil, who finished the race in 1:17:01.8, 0.3 seconds ahead of Pietro Piller Cottrer who came third. In the same Games Estil took part in the 15 km classical, the 50 km freestyle mass start, but finished 17th and 28th respectively. Estil's results mirrored those of the Norwegian cross-country team who failed to win a single Gold medal in Turin, owing to stomach illness and waxing mistakes made by Norway's eight man strong service team. Estil's Olympic medals
Mikhail Viktorovich Botvinov. He won two medals at the Winter Olympics with a silver in the men's 30 km freestyle mass start event in 2002 and a bronze in the men's 50 km freestyle mass start in 2006, he competed for the Unified Team in the 1992 Winter Olympics and for Russia in the 1994 Winter Olympics. Botvinov won the 50 km event at the Holmenkollen Ski Festival in 1999, becoming the first Austrian to win the prestigious cross country event, he won the Vasaloppet event in Sweden two years earlier. His biggest successes were at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, he won a bronze in 1993 for Russia in the 4 × 10 km relay. In 1999, representing Austria, won a gold in the 4 × 10 km relay and a bronze in the 50 km. Botvinov emigrated from Russia to Austria in 1996 and was forced to sit out both the 1996–97 FIS World Cup Season and the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano until he could his citizenship status clarified, but returned to form in 1998, he encountered controversy with his teammate Christian Hoffmann regarding blood doping in 2002, though both were cleared by the International Olympic Committee on 9 April 2002.
Botvinov retired after the 2006–07 World Cup season. All results are sourced from the International Ski Federation. 2 victories 19 podiums 4 victories 17 podiums Media related to Mikhail Botvinov at Wikimedia Commons Mikhail Botvinov at the International Ski Federation Mikhail Botvinov at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com Mikhail Botvinov at the International Olympic Committee Holmenkollen winners since 1892 at the Wayback Machine - click Vinnere for downloadable pdf file skifaster.net April 9, 2002 article clearing Botvinov and Hoffman. Http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/olympics/events/1998/nagano/athletes/416.htm
Pietro Piller Cottrer
Pietro Piller Cottrer is an Italian former cross-country skier who won gold medal in the 4 x 10 km relay at the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin. He was born at province of Belluno. Piller Cottrer's first relevant success in the cross-country skiing world cup came in 1997, when he won the 50 km race at the Holmenkollen ski festival. In the same year he won the bronze medal with the Italian relay at the world championships in Trondheim. Thanks to Piller Cottrer's presence, the Italian relay confirmed as one of the best in the world winning silver medal in the 2002 Winter Olympics and, better, to gold medal in the home Olympics of Turin, he won an Olympic bronze medal in the 15 + 15 km pursuit. His successes include a World Championship gold medal in the 15 km freestyle pursuit at Oberstdorf, a total of seven victories in the World Cup; the latest in Vancouver 2009. Piller Cottrer won a bronze medal in the 15 km + 15 km double pursuit at the 2007 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Sapporo. At the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver Piller Cottrer skied a 34:00.9 in the 15 km freestyle event and won the silver medal.
In February 2013, Piller Cottrer announced his retirement. All results are sourced from the International Ski Federation. 6 victories – 21 podiums – 4 victories – 20 podiums – Pietro Piller Cottrer at the International Ski Federation Holmenkollen winners since 1892 - click Vinnere for downloadable pdf file Official website Piller Cottrer retires
Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance. Cross-country skiing is practiced as a sport and recreational activity. Variants of cross-country skiing are adapted to a range of terrain which spans unimproved, sometimes mountainous terrain to groomed courses that are designed for the sport. Modern cross-country skiing is similar to the original form of skiing, from which all skiing disciplines evolved, including alpine skiing, ski jumping and Telemark skiing. Skiers propel themselves either by striding forward or side-to-side in a skating motion, aided by arms pushing on ski poles against the snow, it is practised in regions with snow-covered landscapes, including Northern Europe, Canada and regions in the United States. Competitive cross-country skiing is one of the Nordic skiing sports. Cross-country skiing and rifle marksmanship are the two components of biathlon, ski-orienteering is a form of cross-country skiing, which includes map navigation along snow trails and tracks.
The word ski comes from the Old Norse word skíð. Skiing started as a technique for traveling cross-country over snow on skis, starting five millennia ago with beginnings in Scandinavia, it may have been practised as early as 600 BCE in Daxing ` anling, in. Early historical evidence includes Procopius's description of Sami people as skrithiphinoi translated as "ski running samis". Birkely argues that the Sami people have practiced skiing for more than 6000 years, evidenced by the old Sami word čuoigat for skiing. Egil Skallagrimsson's 950 CE saga describes King Haakon the Good's practice of sending his tax collectors out on skis; the Gulating law stated that "No moose shall be disturbed by skiers on private land." Cross-country skiing evolved from a utilitarian means of transportation to being a worldwide recreational activity and sport, which branched out into other forms of skiing starting in the mid-1800s. Early skiers used one long pole or spear in addition to the skis; the first depiction of a skier with two ski poles dates to 1741.
Traditional skis, used for snow travel in Norway and elsewhere into the 1800s comprised one short ski with a natural fur traction surface, the andor, one long for gliding, the langski—one being up to 100 cm longer than the other—allowing skiers to propel themselves with a scooter motion. This combination has a long history among the Sami people. Skis up to 280 cm have been produced in Finland, the longest recorded ski in Norway is 373 cm. Ski warfare, the use of ski-equipped troops in war, is first recorded by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in the 13th century; these troops were able to cover distances comparable to that of light cavalry. The garrison in Trondheim used skis at least from 1675, the Danish-Norwegian army included specialized skiing battalions from 1747—details of military ski exercises from 1767 are on record. Skis were used in military exercises in 1747. In 1799 French traveller Jacques de la Tocnaye recorded his visit to Norway in his travel diary: Norwegian immigrants used skis in the US midwest from around 1836.
Norwegian immigrant "Snowshoe Thompson" transported mail by skiing across the Sierra Nevada between California and Nevada from 1856. In 1888 Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen and his team crossed the Greenland icecap on skis. Norwegian workers on the Buenos Aires - Valparaiso railway line introduced skiing in South America around 1890. In 1910 Roald Amundsen used skis on his South Pole Expedition. In 1902 the Norwegian consul in Kobe imported ski equipment and introduced skiing to the Japanese, motivated by the death of Japanese soldiers during a snow storm. Norwegian skiing regiments organized military skiing contests in the 18th century, divided in four classes: shooting at a target while skiing at "top speed", downhill racing among trees, downhill racing on large slopes without falling, "long racing" on "flat ground". An early record of a public ski competition occurred in Tromsø, 1843. In Norwegian, langrenn refers to "competitive skiing where the goal is to complete a specific distance in groomed tracks in the shortest possible time".
In Norway, ski touring competitions are long-distance cross-country competitions open to the public, competition is within age intervals. A new technique, skate skiing, was experimented with early in the 20th Century, but was not adopted until the 1980s. Johan Grøttumsbråten used the skating technique at the 1931 World Championship in Oberhof, one of the earliest recorded use of skating in competitive cross-country skiing; this technique was used in ski orienteering in the 1960s on roads and other firm surfaces. It became widespread during the 1980s after the success of Bill Koch in 1982 Cross-country Skiing Championships drew more attention to the skating style. Norwegian skier Ove Aunli started using the technique in 1984, when he found it to be much faster than classic style. Finnish skier, Pauli Siitonen, developed a one-sided variant of the style in the 1970s, leaving one ski in the track while skating to the side with the other one during endurance events. While the noun ski originates from the Norwegian language, unlike the English skiing there is no corresponding verb in Norwegian.
Fridtjov Nansen, for instance, describes the crossing of Greenland as På ski over Grønland "On skis across Greenland", while the English edition of the report was titled, The first crossing of Greenland. Nansen referred to the activity o
Yevgeny Alexandrovich Dementyev is a Russian cross-country skier. He attended Children and Youth Sports School of Sovetsky District, Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug, where his first trainer was Valery Ukhov. Dementyev's first international success was in 2001 at the Junior World Championship, he won two medals at the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, with a gold in the men's 15 km + 15 km pursuit event and a silver in the men's 50 km freestyle mass start. Dementyev finished 0.8 seconds behind the winner Giorgio Di Centa in the 50 km event, the closest margin of victory in Olympic history. This margin of victory eclipsed the previous record of 4.9 seconds set at the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo between fellow Swedes Thomas Wassberg and Gunde Svan. He won two medals at the 2003 Nordic skiing World Junior Championships with a gold in 10 km and a bronze in the 30 km. Dementyev has two 4×10 km medals at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships with a silver in 2007 and a bronze in 2005, his best individual finish at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships was 22nd in the 15 km + 15 km double pursuit in 2005.
On 25 August 2009, Russian newssite russiatoday.com reported that Dementyev has tested positive for recombinant erythropoietin. He returned in 2011 after a two-year ban. All results are sourced from the International Ski Federation. 1 victory 5 podiums 1 victories 4 podiums Yevgeny Dementyev at the International Ski Federation
Turin is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy. It is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Turin and of the Piedmont region, was the first capital city of Italy from 1861 to 1865; the city is located on the western bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley, is surrounded by the western Alpine arch and Superga Hill. The population of the city proper is 878,074 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million. The city has a rich culture and history, being known for its numerous art galleries, churches, opera houses, parks, theatres, libraries and other venues. Turin is well known for its Renaissance, Rococo, Neo-classical, Art Nouveau architecture. Many of Turin's public squares, castles and elegant palazzi such as the Palazzo Madama, were built between the 16th and 18th centuries. A part of the historical center of Turin was inscribed in the World Heritage List under the name Residences of the Royal House of Savoy.
The city used to be a major European political center. From 1563, it was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the Royal House of Savoy, the first capital of the unified Italy from 1861 to 1865. Turin is sometimes called "the cradle of Italian liberty" for having been the birthplace and home of notable individuals who contributed to the Risorgimento, such as Cavour; the city hosts some of Italy's best universities, academies and gymnasia, such as the University of Turin, founded in the 15th century, the Turin Polytechnic. In addition, the city is home to museums such as the Mole Antonelliana. Turin's attractions make it one of the world's top 250 tourist destinations and the tenth most visited city in Italy in 2008. Though much of its political significance and importance had been lost by World War II, Turin became a major European crossroad for industry and trade, is part of the famous "industrial triangle" along with Milan and Genoa. Turin is ranked third after Milan and Rome, for economic strength.
With a GDP of $58 billion, Turin is the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power. As of 2018, the city has been ranked by GaWC as a Gamma World city. Turin is home to much of the Italian automotive industry. Turin is well known as the home of the Shroud of Turin, the football teams Juventus F. C. and Torino F. C. the headquarters of automobile manufacturers Fiat and Alfa Romeo, as host of the 2006 Winter Olympics. The Taurini were an ancient Celto-Ligurian Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the Po River, in the center of modern Piedmont. In 218 BC, they were attacked by Hannibal as he was allied with their long-standing enemies, the Insubres; the Taurini chief town was captured by Hannibal's forces after a three-day siege. As a people they are mentioned in history, it is believed that a Roman colony was established in 9 BC under the name of Julia Augusta Taurinorum. Both Livy and Strabo mention the Taurini's country as including one of the passes of the Alps, which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times.
In the 1st century BC, the Romans founded Augusta Taurinorum. The typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city in the neighborhood known as the Quadrilatero Romano. Via Garibaldi traces the exact path of the Roman city's decumanus which began at the Porta Decumani incorporated into the Castello or Palazzo Madama; the Porta Palatina, on the north side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral. Remains of the Roman-period theater are preserved in the area of the Manica Nuova. Turin reached about 5,000 inhabitants at all living inside the high city walls. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the town was conquered by the Heruli and the Ostrogoths, recaptured by the Romans, but conquered again by the Lombards and the Franks of Charlemagne; the Contea di Torino was founded in the 940s and was held by the Arduinic dynasty until 1050. After the marriage of Adelaide of Susa with Humbert Biancamano's son Otto, the family of the Counts of Savoy gained control.
While the title of count was held by the Bishop as count of Turin it was ruled as a prince-bishopric by the Bishops. In 1230–1235 it was a lordship under the Marquess of Montferrat, styled Lord of Turin. At the end of the 13th century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city had 20,000 inhabitants. Many of the gardens and palaces were built in the 15th century; the University of Turin was founded during this period. Emmanuel Philibert known under the nickname of Iron Head, made Turin the capital of the Duchy of Savoy in 1563. Piazza Reale and Via Nuova were added along with the first enlargement of the walls, in the first half of the 17th century. In the second half of that century, a second enlargement of the walls was planned and executed, with the building of the arcaded Via Po, connecting Piazza Castello with the bridge on the Po through the regular street grid. In 1706, during the Battle of Turin, the French besieged the city for 117 days without conquering it. By the Treaty of Utrecht the Duke of Savoy acquir
Giorgio Di Centa
Giorgio Di Centa is an Italian cross country skier who won two gold medals at the 2006 Winter Olympics, including the individual 50 km freestyle race. He is brother to Olympic gold medalist cross country skier Manuela Di Centa. Di Centa began cross county skiing early in a family in which his elder brother Andrea was a professional skier. At the age of 16 he became a member of Italy's junior team while skiing for the Carabinieri sport team, he became a member of Italy's senior team in 1995. He finished 8th in the 30 km event at the 1998 Winter Olympics. After a silver medal at the 2005 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in the double pursuit and a silver medal at the 2002 Winter Olympics in the 4 x 10 km. Di Centa, who had never won an individual race in the cross country skiing World Cup, arrived in great shape for the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, he would finish a disappointing fourth in the 30 km double pursuit, losing a medal at the finish to fellow Italian Pietro Piller Cottrer. The two were key players in the strongest Italian relay team winning gold in the 4 x 10 km race.
Di Centa's greatest victory was in the 50 km race where he defeated Russian Eugeni Dementiev by 0.8 seconds, the closest 50 km event in Olympic history, eclipsing Thomas Wassberg's 4.9 second victory over Gunde Svan at the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo. The medals ceremony for the 50 km occurred during the Closing Ceremony where Di Centa's sister, Olympic medalist Manuela Di Centa, presented him with the gold medal, he won a bronze medal in the 15 km + 15 km double pursuit at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2009 in Liberec. For the 2010 Winter Olympics, a picture of Di Centa in competition during the 50 km event at the previous Olympics was used as a pictogram for the cross-country skiing events. In September 2009, it was announced that Di Centa was named flagbearer for the opening ceremony for the 2010 Games, he retired on March 1, 2015 at the age of 42 after the end of the 50 km at the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2015. In December 20th, 2015, he returned to the World Cup race in the 15 km classic in Italy.
All results are sourced from the International Ski Federation. 1 victory – 13 podiums – 7 victories – 23 podiums – List of flag bearers for Italy at the Olympics Giorgio Di Centa at the International Ski Federation NBCOlympics.com profile Evans, Hilary. "Giorgio Di Centa". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Media related to Giorgio Di Centa at Wikimedia Commons