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Cross-matching

In transfusion medicine, cross-matching or crossmatching is testing before a blood transfusion to determine if the donor's blood is compatible with the blood of an intended recipient. Cross-matching is used to determine compatibility between a donor and recipient in organ transplantation. Compatibility is determined through matching of different blood group systems, the most important of which are the ABO and Rh system, and/or by directly testing for the presence of antibodies against the antigens in a sample of donor blood or other tissue. Cross-matching is done by a certified laboratory technologist in a medical laboratory, it can be done electronically with a database if a patient has been tested, or serologically by physical testing if not. Simpler tests may be used to screen for antibodies only. Immediate-spin cross-matching is an abbreviated form of cross-matching, faster, less expensive but less sensitive, it is an immediate test that combines the patient's serum and donor's red blood cells at room temperature.

No agglutination indicates compatible match. Indications for ISCM are dependent on the circumstances of the patient and it can be used in place of a full cross-match or performed as a preliminary test. Electronic cross-matching is a computer-assisted analysis using data, from the donor unit and testing done on blood samples from the intended recipient; this includes ABO/Rh typing of the unit and of the recipient, an antibody screen of the recipient. Electronic cross-matching can only be used if a patient has a negative antibody screen, which means that they do not have any active red blood cell atypical antibodies, or they are below the detectable level of current testing methods. If all of the data entered is compatible, the computer will print a compatibility label stating that the unit is safe to transfuse. Cross-matching falls into two categories: Major cross-match: Here the Recipient serum is tested against donor packed cells to determine if the recipient has preformed antibodies against any antigens on the donor's cells.

This is the required cross-match prior to release of a unit of packed cell from blood bank. Minor cross-match: Here the Recipient red cells are tested against donor serum to detect donor antibodies directed against a patient's antigens; this is no longer required. It is assumed that the small amount of donor serum and antibodies left in a unit of packed cells will be diluted in a recipient; as the complete cross-matching process takes 1 hour, it is not always used in emergencies. In the case of an emergency, a type-specific blood to which the recipient has no antibodies, can be requested, it is thought that this lifesaving measure is of more benefit than any risk of an antibody-mediated transfusion reaction. This type of blood has less risk of a serious transfusion reaction because it is both ABO compatible and Rhesus -compatible. Universal donor blood, both type O and Rh negative, can be given if the recipient's blood group is not known, as may happen in an emergency; some institutions will only release O+ for male and O- blood for female patients.

This serves two purposes. First, it preserves the lower stock of O- blood and secondly, this eliminates the risk of O- negative mothers forming anti-D antibodies from exposure to O+ blood. Anti-D can cross the placenta during pregnancy and attack an unborn child's RBCs if they are D positive causing haemolytic disease of the newborn. In an emergency, blood grouping can be done and in 2 or 3 minutes in the laboratory on glass slides with appropriate reagents, by trained technical staff; this method depends on the presence or absence of agglutination, which can be visualized directly. Presence of agglutination indicates incompatibility. A light microscope may be needed. If laboratory services are not available, the bedside card method of blood grouping may be used, where a drop of the intended recipients blood is added to dried reagents on a prepared card; this method may not be as reliable as laboratory methods. Nobelprize.org Interactive online game for blood typing and transfusion

Saint Sarkis Church, Nor Nork

Saint Sarkis Church or Saint Sarkis Church is an Armenian Apostolic Church in the Nor Nork district of Yerevan, Armenia. The construction of the church began in 1998 and was sponsored by Sarkis Gabrellian, an Armenian benefactor from New York City; the church was built according to the design of the architect Baghdasar Arzoumanian. The painting of the Mother-of-God with the Christ child for the altar is by the painter Grigor Khanjyan; the newly erected St. Sarkis Church, with its architectural value, brings respect and honour to the authors of the project, to the builder-masters and to the Mother Church, its circular form and three-storeyed structure has been executed according to the traditional Armenian architectural style. The height of the main dome is 23 metre; the prayer-hall is bright, with a general area of 328 square metre. The chief altar is seen from every corner; the pillars of the prayer-hall have the symbolic high reliefs of the 12 apostles. Niches are designed for candle-lighting.

Special fans are placed above them to protect the walls of the church from smoke. The St. Sarkis is the first church in Armenia, heated by the heating system under the marble floor. Araratian Patriarchal Diocese Yerevan Municipality: Churches in Yerevan

711th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

The 711th Infantry Division was a German Army infantry division in World War II. The 711th Infantry Division was raised in May 1941 as part of the 15th Army. Equipped only for occupation duties, it was sent to France as a component of the 15th Army; the division was placed along the demarcation line between German-occupied and Vichy France, but was moved along the coast to serve in the Atlantic Wall settling as part of the 15th Army's left flank in a sector between the Orne and Seine rivers. The division was armed with more effective weapons to assist in coastal defence, including weapons discarded by the Allies during the wide-scale retreats at the end of the Battle of France. Generalleutnant Josef Reichert took over command of the division in April 1943. During his time in command, he witnessed the transformation of the Atlantic Wall into a defensive fortification more comparable to "Fortress Europe" propaganda. However, the division's participation in the construction of defensive structures on behalf of Marshal Erwin Rommel led to Reichert's criticism of division training being "almost neglected" in favour of building concrete pillboxes for Organization Todt.

According to General of the Artillery Walter Warlimont, the divisions in place around Normandy were limited in early May. This began to change when Hitler concluded that Normandy was a spot for an invasion; this provided some level of relief for the division, who were assigned to prepare a series of mine fields that month. The division had been kept up all day on June 5 on an invasion alert, with the headquarters' guards company being dissolved a few days earlier in order to provide more men on the front line. Tired from the waiting and concluding that there was not going to be an invasion, Lieutenant General Reichert and his divisional staff were ready to retire at half-past twelve. Though the noise of low-flying planes could have indicated the invasion, the recent barrage of bombing raids had the divisional staff thinking that the planes were like any other. At around that time, two British paratroopers, attached to the British 6th Airborne Division, veered off course and landed at the divisional headquarters.

Upon spotting them as they fell and were captured, the alarm was sounded and the anti-aircraft guns were manned. Not long after, the planes had vanished from sight, illustrating an unintended red herring that this was a lone commando operation. Unable to get answers from the two prisoners, Reichert concluded that the two men were part of the expected invasion force and had landed outside headquarters knowingly as part of a plan to disrupt the division's command structure; as a first measure, the nearest available reinforcements, an engineering company, were called in from Saint Arnoult to reinforce headquarters. Other elements of LXXXI Corps were alerted of the incident, with Colonel Paul Frank of the nearby 364th Infantry Division hearing about it at around one o'clock. Over the next few hours, little action took place. According to Reichert, occasional machine gun fire could be heard, with the headquarters' poorly trained and nervous staff inadvertently firing at returning reconnaissance patrols, sent out to look for more paratroopers, found no one.

It was during this event that the divisional staff were engaging in a telephone conversation with the 15th Army's commander, General Hans von Salmuth, who misunderstood the commotion for the genuine invasion and alerted Marshal Erwin Rommel's stand in, General Hans Speidel immediately. Deciding not to alert his superior, Speidel went back to bed. In constant contact with his battalions, Reichert found there to be minimal Allied presence in his sector, allowing him to reorganize forces looking towards the Cotentin Peninsula, where he had expected the bulk of the invasion to be concentrated. At 02:45, elements of the 21st Panzer Division operating alongside the 711th took further British paratroopers prisoner. Meanwhile, the men, stationed at the coast were safe in their newly built bunkers and pillboxes, with only a few casualties from enemy volleys from the sea. Two reserve battalions were ordered to mop-up Allied forces between the coast and the Saint-Arnoult-Varaville road, from that road to Pont-l'Évêque.

It was Reichert's intention to keep the roads free of Allied interference in order to maintain transport and communication routes. At 07:30, the Panzers began attacking the British units who had grouped together at Ouistreham, along the Orne, with the 711th Division defending the bridgehead. Defending the bridgehead was considered necessary in that it would provide the panzers with space in which to focus on attacking the Allied landings on the coast. Despite their neglected training, the division was commended by Reichert for their performance in repelling Allied forces from the bridgehead east of the Orne; this operation was largely-completed by noon with the assistance of the 716th Static Division - sectored to the east. Lieutenant General Reichert took advantage of the cleared roads to drive over to the 744th Regiment's command post to meet with its staff. From the regiment's post, they witnessed the coastal batteries based near Houlgate fire at Allied landing craft attempting to take the port of Ouistreham.

Soon after, Reichert drove to Brucourt from where he could ascertain the extent of the airlandings between the Orne and Dives. By the evening, a total of 300 Allied soldiers had been taken prisoner, with the 711th Division suffering few casualties i

William Harben

William Nathaniel Harben was one of the most popular American authors of the early 20th century. He specialized in stories about the people of the mountains of Northern Georgia, he was sometimes credited as Will N. Will Harben. Harben was born in 1858 in Georgia to a rich family, he grew up to be a merchant in that same town. At age 30, Harben started writing stories. In 1889, Harben wrote his first bestseller, Slave, a story of a white girl raised in slavery in the American South. After the publication of this novel, moved his family to New York City. Harben's next novel, Almost Persuaded, was a religious novel; the novel gained enough attention. Harben published Mute Confessor, a romantic novel, Land of the Changing Sun, a science fiction novel, he produced three detective novels during this decade. Harben achieved his greatest literary success with Northern Georgia Sketches, a collection of short stories about Georgia "hillbillies", he became a friend of William Dean Howells. Two of his memorable characters were mountaineers Abner Daniel and Pole Baker, rustic philosophers and comedic characters.

Harben died in New York City in 1919 at age 61. White Marie: A Story of Georgia Plantation Almost Persuaded A Mute Confessor: The Romance of a Southern Town The Land of the Changing Sun The Carruthers Affair The North Walk Mystery Northern Georgia Sketches Westerfelt The Woman who Trusted: A Story of Literary Life in New York Abner Daniel The Substitute The Georgians: A Novel Pole Baker: A Novel Ann Boyd Mam' Linda: A Novel Gilbert Neal: A Novel The Redemption of Kenneth Galt Dixie Hart The Fruit of Desire Jane Dawson: A Novel Nobody's Paul Rundel: A Novel The Desired Woman The New Clarion: A Novel The Inner Law Second Choice: A Romance The Triumph The Hills of Refuge The Cottage of Delight The Divine Event Love Never Dies "Noted Novelist Corrects Misconceptions of the South". New York Times. December 8, 1907. William Harben on IMDb Will Harben in New Georgia Encyclopaedia Works by William Harben at Project Gutenberg

Boston Directory

The Boston Directory of Boston, was first published in 1789. It contained "a list of the merchants, mechanics and others, of the town of Boston. Included were listings for public officials, bank directors, firemen; the directory was issued annually after 1825. The number of listings in each directory reflected fluctuations in the population size of Boston. In 1789, the directory included some 1,474 listings. Publishers included John Norman. L. Polk & Co.. Boston Almanac and Business Directory Boston Register and Business Directory Massachusetts Register New England historical and genealogical register. Oct. 1862. Rockwell and Churchill, 1886. V. Williams, "Boston, Massachusetts", The Development and Growth of City Directories, Ohio: Williams Directory Co. HathiTrust. 1805 etc.

Primera Catalana

The Primera Catalana is the 5th tier of the Spanish football league system and the highest league in the autonomous community of Catalonia. The league was formed in 1991 to replace Regional Preferent as first level of Catalonia and was split into 2 groups since 2011. Primera Catalana is one of 19 regional premier leagues in Spanish football; the league comprises 36 teams. Over the course of a season, which runs annually from September to the following June, each team plays twice against the others in the league, once at'home' and once'away', resulting in each team competing in 34 games in total. Three points are awarded for one for a draw and zero for a loss; the teams are ranked in the league table by points gained. In the event that two or more teams finish the season equal in all these respects, teams are separated by head-to-head points head-to-head goal difference head-to-head goals scored goal difference and goals scored. At the end of the season, the top team of each group and the winner of the Primera Catalana promotion play-off are promoted to the Tercera División.

The loser of the Primera Catalana relegation play-off and the bottom four teams of each group are relegated to Segona Catalana. The Primera Catalana promotion play-off consist in two legs on a home-and-away basis played by teams finishing in 2nd place, the winner promote to the Tercera División. Teams finishing in 14th place plays the Primera Catalana relegation play-off like promotion play-off format; the three promoted teams are replaced in the division for the next season by the teams finishing in the bottom three in the Tercera División and the relegated teams are replaced by the teams finishing at the top of Segona Catalana and the three winners of the Segona Catalana promotion play-off. A total of 100 clubs have played in the Primera Catalana from its inception in 1991 up to and including the 2015–16 season; the record of total seasons was 15, owned by AD Guíxols. The following 36 clubs are competing in the Primera Catalana during the 2018–19 season; this section lists the past champions of the Primera Catalana