Jacobite rising of 1745
The Jacobite rising of 1745 known as the Forty-five Rebellion or the'45, was an attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for his father, James Francis Edward Stuart. It took place during the War of the Austrian Succession, when the bulk of the British Army was fighting in mainland Europe, proved to be the last in a series of revolts that began in 1689, with major outbreaks in 1708, 1715 and 1719. Charles launched the rebellion on 19 August 1745 at Glenfinnan in the Scottish Highlands, capturing Edinburgh and winning the Battle of Prestonpans in September. At a council in October, the Scots agreed to invade England after Charles assured them of substantial support from English Jacobites and a simultaneous French landing in Southern England. On that basis, the Jacobite army entered England in early November, reaching Derby on 4 December, where they decided to turn back. Similar discussions had taken place at Carlisle and Manchester and many felt they had gone too far already.
The invasion route had been selected to cross areas considered Jacobite but the promised English support failed to materialise. The decision was supported by the vast majority but caused an irretrievable split between Charles and his Scots supporters. Despite victory at Falkirk Muir in January 1746, the Battle of Culloden in April ended the Rebellion and significant backing for the Stuart cause. Charles escaped to France, but was unable to win support for another attempt, died in Rome in 1788; the 1688 Glorious Revolution replaced James II and VII with his Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband William, who ruled as joint monarchs of England and Scotland. Neither Mary, who died in 1694, nor her sister Anne, had surviving children, which left their Catholic half-brother James Francis Edward as the closest natural heir. To ensure a Protestant monarch, the 1701 Act of Settlement excluded Catholics from the succession and when Anne became queen in 1702, her heir was the distantly related but Protestant Sophia of Hanover.
Sophia died in June 1714 and when Anne followed two months in August, her son succeeded as George I. Louis XIV of France, the Stuarts' main backer, died in 1715 and his successors needed peace with Britain in order to rebuild their economy; the 1716 Anglo-French alliance forced James to leave France. Rebellions in 1715 and 1719 failed, the latter so badly its planners concluded that it might "ruin the King's Interest and faithful subjects in these parts." Senior exiles like Bolingbroke now accepted pardons and returned home or took employment elsewhere and while many remained sympathetic, the Stuart cause seemed at an end. The birth of his sons Charles and Henry helped maintain public interest but by 1737, James was "living tranquilly in Rome, having abandoned all hope of a restoration."In the 1730s, French statesmen began to see the post-1713 expansion of British commercial strength as a threat to the European balance of power and looked for ways to reduce it. A Stuart restoration would be expensive, risky and of little value, since they were unlikely to be any more pro-French than the Hanoverians.
A low level, ongoing insurgency was far more cost-effective and the Scottish Highlands an ideal location, due to the feudal nature of clan society, their remoteness and terrain. An opportunity was provided due to unhappiness with the London government, resulting in the 1725 malt tax riots and 1737 Porteous riots. In March 1743, the Highland-recruited 42nd Regiment or Black Watch was posted to Flanders, contrary to an understanding their service was restricted to Scotland and led to a short-lived mutiny. However, mutinies over pay and conditions were not unusual and the worst riots in 1725 took place in Glasgow, a town Charles noted in 1746 as one'where I have no friends and who are not at pains to hide it.' Trade disputes between Spain and Britain led to the 1739 War of Jenkins' Ear, followed in 1740–41 by the War of the Austrian Succession. The long-serving British prime minister Robert Walpole was forced to resign in February 1742 by an alliance of Tories and anti-Walpole Patriot Whigs, who did a deal that excluded the majority of their Tory partners from government.
Furious Tories such as the Duke of Beaufort now asked for French help in restoring James to the British throne. While war with Britain was only a matter of time, Cardinal Fleury, chief minister since 1723, viewed the Jacobites as unreliable fantasists, an opinion shared by most French ministers. One exception was the Marquis D'Argenson. In 1745, supporters of the exiled Stuarts, or Jacobites, remained a significant element in British and Irish politics but with different and competing goals; these divisions between the Scots and Irish, became apparent during the 1745 Rising, which demonstrated estimates of English support confused indifference to the Hanoverians with enthusiasm for the Stuarts. Charles' senior advisors included Irish exiles such as John O'Sullivan, who wanted an autonomous, Catholic Ireland and the return of lands confiscated after the Irish Confederate Wars. James II promised these concessions in return for Irish support in the 1689–91 Williamite War, only a Stuart on the throne of Great Britain could ensure their fulfilment.
A prominent factor in Tory opposition to th
Thomas Dixon Jr.
Thomas Frederick Dixon Jr. was the most famous American at the beginning of the 20th century, what today would be a media celebrity. He was first a lawyer and member of the North Carolina State Legislature a Southern Baptist minister drawing overflow crowds to his sermons a full-time and skillful lecturer in great demand a successful novelist and playwright, he was the South's spokesperson. Dixon was a proud racist and believed in white supremacy and the Lost Cause of the Confederacy, which he did more than anyone else to popularize, he opposed female as well as black suffrage. Two of his novels, The Leopard's Spots: A Romance of the White Man's Burden – 1865–1900 and The Clansman: A Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan, in which the Klan saves the country, were combined by film director D. W. Griffith in The Birth of a Nation, the most expensive and innovative movie made up to that date; the movie had as direct result the rebirth of the Klan. The Klan's white robes and cross burning were innovations of Dixon.
Dixon was born in Shelby, North Carolina, the son of Thomas Jeremiah Frederick Dixon II and Amanda Elvira McAfee. He had an elder brother, preacher Amzi Clarence Dixon, who helped to edit The Fundamentals, a series of articles influential in fundamentalist Christianity. "He won international acclaim as one of the greatest ministers of his day."Dixon's father, Thomas J. F. Dixon Sr. son of an English–Scottish father and a German mother, was a well-known Baptist minister, as well as landowner and slave-owner. His grandfather, Frederick Hambright, was a German Palatine migrant who fought in both the local militia and in the North Carolina Line of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. Dixon Sr. had inherited slaves and property through his first wife's father, slaves worth $100,000 in 1862. In his adolescence, Dixon helped out on the family farms, an experience that he hated, but he would say that it helped him to relate to the plight of the working man. Dixon grew up during Reconstruction after the Civil War.
The government confiscation of farmland, coupled with what Dixon saw as the corruption of local politicians, the particular vengefulness of Union troops, the general lawlessness embittered the young Dixon, who became staunchly opposed to the Reconstruction reforms. Dixon's father, Thomas Dixon Sr. and his maternal uncle, Col. Leroy McAfee, both joined the Klan early in the Reconstruction era with the aim of "bringing order" to the tumultuous times. McAfee was head of the Ku Klux Klan in Piedmont North Carolina. "The romantic colonel made a lasting impression on the boy's imagination", The Clansman was dedicated "To the memory of a Scotch-Irish leader of the South, my uncle, Colonel Leroy McAfee, Grand Titan of the Invisible Empire Ku Klux Klan". Dixon claimed that one of his earliest recollections was of a parade of the Ku Klux Klan through the village streets on a moonlight night in 1869, when Dixon was 5. Another childhood memory was of the widow of a Confederate soldier who had served under McAfee, accusing a black man of the rape of her daughter and seeking Dixon's family's help.
Dixon's mother praised the Klan after it had shot the alleged rapist in the town square. In 1877, Dixon entered the Shelby Academy. In September 1879, at the age of 15, Dixon enrolled at Wake Forest College, where he studied history and political science; as a student, Dixon performed remarkably well. In 1883, after only four years, he earned a master's degree, his record at Wake Forest was outstanding, he earned the distinction of achieving the highest student honors awarded at the university until then. As a student there, he was a founding member of the chapter of Kappa Alpha Order fraternity. After his graduation from Wake Forest, Dixon received a scholarship to enroll in the political science program at Johns Hopkins University, "then the leading graduate school in the nation". There he befriended fellow student and future President Woodrow Wilson. "As a special student in history and politics he undoubtedly felt the influence of Herbert Baxter Adams and his circle of Anglo-Saxon historians, who sought to trace American political institutions back to the primitive democracy of the ancient Germanic tribes.
The Anglo-Saxonists were staunch racists in their outlook, believing that only latter-day Aryan or Teutonic nations were capable of self-government." On January 11, 1884, despite the objections of Wilson, Dixon left Johns Hopkins to pursue journalism and a career on the stage. Dixon enrolled in the Frobisher School of Drama to study drama; as an actor, Dixon's physical appearance became a problem. He was 6 feet 3 inches but only 150 pounds, making for a lanky appearance. One producer remarked that because of his appearance, he would not succeed as an actor, but Dixon was complimented for his intelligence and attention to detail; the producer recommended Dixon to put his love for the stage into scriptwriting. Despite the compliment, Dixon returned home to North Carolina in shame. Upon his return to Shelby, Dixon realized that he was in the wrong place to begin to cultivate his playwriting skills. After his initial disappointment from his rejection, with the encouragement of his father, enrolled in the Greensboro Law School in Greensboro, North Carolina.
An excellent student, Dixon received his law degree in 1885. It was during law school that Dixon's
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was dependent upon agriculture cotton, a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves; each state declared its secession from the United States, which became known as the Union during the ensuing civil war, following the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U. S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Before Lincoln took office in March, a new Confederate government was established in February 1861, considered illegal by the government of the United States. States volunteered militia units and the new government hastened to form its own Confederate States Army from scratch overnight.
After the American Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South—Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina—also declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The Confederacy accepted Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither declared secession nor were they largely controlled by Confederate forces; the government of the United States rejected the claims of secession and considered the Confederacy illegally founded. The War began with the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. No foreign government recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although Great Britain and France granted it belligerent status, which allowed Confederate agents to contract with private concerns for arms and other supplies. In early 1865, after four years of heavy fighting which led to 620,000–850,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered and the Confederacy vanished; the war lacked a formal end.
By 1865 Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States of America for the duration of the civil war, lamented that the Confederacy had "disappeared". On February 22, 1862, the Confederate Constitution of seven state signatories – Mississippi, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Texas – replaced the Provisional Constitution of February 8, 1861, with one stating in its preamble a desire for a "permanent federal government". Four additional slave-holding states – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy following a call by U. S. President Abraham Lincoln for troops from each state to recapture Sumter and other seized federal properties in the South. Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions adopting the forms of state governments without control of substantial territory or population in either case; the antebellum state governments in both maintained their representation in the Union. Fighting for the Confederacy were two of the "Five Civilized Tribes" – the Choctaw and the Chickasaw – in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona.
Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of martial law. A Unionist government was formed in opposition to the secessionist state government in Richmond and administered the western parts of Virginia, occupied by Federal troops; the Restored Government recognized the new state of West Virginia, admitted to the Union during the war on June 20, 1863, re-located to Alexandria for the rest of the war. Confederate control over its claimed territory and population in congressional districts shrank from 73% to 34% during the course of the American Civil War due to the Union's successful overland campaigns, its control of the inland waterways into the South, its blockade of the southern coast. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal; as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers; the most notable advance was Sherman's "March to the Sea" in late 1864.
Much of the Confederacy's infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs and bridges. Plantations in the path of Sherman's forces were damaged. Internal movement became difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and limiting army mobility; these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance. Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Davis's administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, allegations of autocratic government. After four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. A few days General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant signalling the collapse of the Confederacy. President Davis was captured on May 10, 1865, jailed in preparation for a treason trial, never held; the initial Confederacy was established in the Montgomery Convention in February 1861 by seven states (South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin
William Joseph Simmons
William Joseph Simmons was the founder of the second Ku Klux Klan on Thanksgiving of 1915. Simmons was born in Harpersville, Alabama, to Calvin Henry Simmons, a physician, his wife Lavonia Simmons, daughter of Thomas C. Davis. In his young years he attempted to study medicine at Johns Hopkins University, but could not afford it, so he served in the Spanish–American War, where he became honorably discharged; when he came home he became a teacher for the Methodist Episcopal Church, South but was suspended by the church in 1912 for inefficiency. Simmons joined two churches and twelve different fraternal organizations, which flourished in the early twentieth century, he was known as "Joe", "Doc" or "Colonel". While convalescing in 1915 after being hit by a car, Simmons decided to rebuild the Klan which he had seen depicted in the newly released film The Birth of a Nation directed by D. W. Griffith, he obtained a copy of the Reconstruction Klan's "Prescript", used it to write his own prospectus for a reincarnation of the organization.
Simmons' planning took place during a period which coincided with the lynching of Leo Frank, on August 16, 1915. Frank, a Jewish northern industrialist, had been convicted of murdering Mary Phagan, one of his young factory workers; when Frank's death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment by the outgoing governor, the public was outraged. Frank was lynched by a mob, calling themselves the Knights of Mary Phagan; as the nucleus of his revived Klan, Simmons organized a group of friends, in addition to two elderly men, members of the original Klan. On Thanksgiving night 1915, they climbed Stone Mountain to burn a cross and inaugurate the new Klan, with fifteen charter members. Simmons' account of the founding included a dramatic story of "a temperature far below freezing", although weather records showed that the temperature had never fallen below 45 °F that night on Stone Mountain. Simmons declared himself the Imperial Wizard of the Invisible Empire of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan; the imagery of the burning cross, which had not been used by the original Klan, had been introduced by Griffith in The Birth of a Nation.
The film, in turn, had derived the image from the works of Thomas Dixon, Jr. upon which the film was based. He had been inspired by the historical practices of Scottish clans, who had burned crosses as a method of signaling from one hilltop to the next; the image occurs in Lady of the Lake, a long poem by Walter Scott. The signature white robes of this new Klan likely come from "The Birth of a Nation."In the first years of the new Klan, a few thousand members enrolled but it became more popular and hundreds of thousands of new members pledged allegiance in industrial cities of the Midwest. Portraying itself as another fraternal organization, the Klan was opposed to the new immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, who were Jews and Roman Catholics and anybody else, not a native-born Anglo-Saxon or Celtic Protestant; when the New York World exposed violent affairs conducted by the Ku Klux Klan, Simmons was called to testify in front of the U. S. House Committee on Rules. Hearings lasted for over a week.
Simmons stressed the Klan's fraternal nature. Congressional hearings ended with no direct consequences for the Klan, though Simmons lost his influence. Having built up his own network of influence, Hiram Wesley Evans succeeded Simmons in the position of the Imperial Wizard in November 1922. Simmons was at the same time elected Emperor for life; the Klan started to decline after a peak of membership and influence in 1925 because of the scandal in which D. C. Stephenson, one of its top leaders, was convicted of killing Madge Oberholtzer. Simmons died in Atlanta on May 18, 1945; the Ku Klux Klan ABC of the Invisible Empire, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan The Klan Unmasked Atlanta, Ga. Wm. E. Thompson Pub. Co. 1923 America's menace.
A vigilante is a civilian or organization acting in a law enforcement capacity without legal authority. "Vigilante justice" is rationalized by the belief that proper legal forms of criminal punishment are either nonexistent, insufficient, or inefficient. Vigilantes see the government as ineffective in enforcing the law. Persons alleged to be escaping the law or above the law are sometimes the victims of vigilantism. Vigilante conduct involves varied degrees of violence. Vigilantes could assault targets verbally and/or physically, damage and/or vandalize property, or murder individuals. In a number of cases, vigilantism has involved targets with mistaken identities. In Britain in the early 2000s, there were reports of vandalism and verbal abuse towards people wrongly accused of being pedophiles, following the murder of Sarah Payne. In Guyana in 2008, Hardel Haynes was beaten to death by a mob. In South Africa, since the year 2002, there has been an increase in vigilantism against the mining sector in response to perceived failures in the mitigation of acid mine drainage in the Witwatersrand Goldfields and Mpumalanga Coalfields.
Vigilantism and the vigilante ethos existed long before the word vigilante was introduced into the English language. There are conceptual and psychological parallels between the Dark Age and medieval aristocratic custom of private war or vendetta and the modern vigilante philosophy. Elements of the concept of vigilantism can be found in the Biblical account in Genesis 34 of the abduction and rape of Dinah, the daughter of Jacob, in the Canaanite city of Shechem by the eponymous son of the ruler, the violent reaction of her brothers Simeon and Levi, who slew all of the males of the city in revenge, rescued their sister and plundered Shechem; when Jacob protested that their actions might bring trouble upon him and his family, the brothers replied "Should he treat our sister as a harlot?" In 2 Samuel 13, Absalom kills Amnon after King David, their father, fails to punish Amnon for raping Tamar, their sister. Recourse to personal vengeance and dueling was considered a class privilege of the sword-bearing aristocracy before the formation of the modern centralized liberal-bureaucratic nation-state.
In addition, sociologists have posited a complex legal and ethical interrelationship between vigilante acts and rebellion and tyrannicide. In the Western literary and cultural tradition, characteristics of vigilantism have been vested in folkloric heroes and legendary outlaws. Vigilantism in literature and legend is connected to the fundamental issues of dissatisfied morality, the failures of authority and the ethical adequacy of legitimate governance. During medieval times, punishment of felons was sometimes exercised by such secret societies as the courts of the Vehm, a type of early vigilante organization, which became powerful in Westphalian Germany during the 15th century. Formally-defined vigilantism arose in the early American colonies. Established the mid-18th century, for instance, the Regulator movement of American colonial times was composed of citizen volunteers of the frontier who opposed official misconduct and extrajudicially punished banditry as well as protected colonists from indigenous Americans' enforcement of border control.
After the founding of the United States, a citizens arrest became known as a procedure, based in common law and protected by the United States Constitution, where an amateur authority figure or normal citizen arrests a fugitive. The exact circumstances under which this type of arrest, sometimes referred to as a detention, can be made varies from state to state. In India, vigilante refers to. Vigilantism is referred to as "mob justice", it is caused by perception of corruption and delays in the judicial system. As boom-towns, or mining towns in California because of the Gold Rush, started appearing towards the 1850s, vigilantes started taking justice into their own hands because these towns did not have any established forms of government; these people would assault accused thieves and murderers. When they assaulted these thieves, they would give it to the accuser. Other than reports and newspapers, there are not many records of vigilantes. Few names or groups are known. In the United States, vigilante groups arose in poorly governed frontier areas where criminals preyed upon the citizenry with impunity.
The death of Joseph Smith, Jr. on June 27, 1844, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement. In 1851, the San Francisco Vigilance Movement sought to eliminate crime perpetrated by the "Hounds", many who were members of gangs in New York that had come as soldiers during the Mexican–American War, an element of this movement focused on immigrants like the Sydney Ducks former convicts from Australia. Los Angeles and the bordering counties experienced outbursts of vigilantism from the early 1850s as many of the criminals driven out of San Francisco and the Gold Country expanded into the less-populated "Cow Counties" of Southern California, making the city and nearby countryside a dangerous place for many years. In Bleeding Kansas during the run-up to the American Civil War, the Sacking of Lawre
Piedmont, South Carolina
Piedmont is a census-designated place along the Saluda River in Anderson and Greenville counties in the U. S. state of South Carolina. The population was 5,103 at the 2010 census. Piedmont is a part of the Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area. Native Americans and early settlers of Piedmont called the area "Big Shoals of the Saluda" after the Saluda River; the Native Americans used the shoals as a crossing. David Garrison established a grist mill around 1850 upon the shoals changing the name of the area to Garrison Shoals. Henry Pinckney Hammett bought this property for his cotton mill; the name of the area became a mill town. The American Civil War disrupted Hammett's project until 1876. Piedmont was added to Hammett's charter for a railroad station. Water power from the Saluda River was used to produce electricity to run the machinery from the 1880s to the 1920s; the machinery of the Piedmont Manufacturing Company was from Saco Lowell and Whitin Machine Works that helped finance Hammett's company.
In 1946 the mills were sold to J. P. Stevens and Company where it was updated with modern features. Manufacturing continued in 1983 most of Piedmont Manufacturing Company burned down. Piedmont is located in northern Anderson County and southwestern Greenville County at 34°42′15″N 82°27′41″W, it is 12 miles south of the center of Greenville. Exit 35 on Interstate 85 is 2 miles to the west of the center of Piedmont. South Carolina state road 86 cuts through the small town connecting with Interstate 85 at Exit 35. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 8.8 square miles, of which 8.6 square miles is land and 0.15 square miles, or 1.93%, is water. The Saluda River flows southwards over a dam through the center of town; as of the census of 2000, there were 4,684 people, 1,829 households, 1,349 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 545.6 people per square mile. There were 1,992 housing units at an average density of 232.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 92.08% White, 5.85% African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.11% from other races, 1.52% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.20% of the population. There were 1,829 households out of which 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.4% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.2% were non-families. 23.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.95. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 24.9% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $36,310, the median income for a family was $41,654. Males had a median income of $34,890 versus $23,250 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $16,982. About 7.9% of families and 10.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.6% of those under age 18 and 15.8% of those age 65 or over.
Schools in Piedmont include Wren High School, Wren Middle School, Wren Elementary School, Spearman Elementary School all located in Anderson School District One, Woodmont High School, Woodmont Middle School, Sue Cleveland Elementary School all located in the Greenville County School District. The Birth of a Nation was set in Piedmont. Piedmont, South Carolina at Curlie