Casandra Elizabeth Ventura, known mononymously as Cassie, is an American singer, dancer and model. Born in New London, she began her career as a result of meeting record producer Ryan Leslie in late 2004, who signed her to NextSelection Lifestyle Group. During this time, Diddy heard "Me & U" in a club, Leslie convinced him to partner his Bad Boy Records with Leslie's NextSelection imprint for the release of Cassie's debut album. Cassie's self titled debut studio album was released in August 2006, peaking at number four on the Billboard 200 chart and features the Billboard Hot 100 top three hit "Me & U". In 2008, Cassie released the single "Official Girl" featuring Lil Wayne. In 2009, she released the singles "Must Be Love" featuring Diddy, "Let's Get Crazy" featuring Akon, signed a record deal with Interscope Records. In April 2013, Cassie released her debut mixtape RockaByeBaby, promoted with the music videos of "Numb" featuring Rick Ross and "Paradise" featuring Wiz Khalifa. Apart from music, Cassie is signed to modeling agency Wilhelmina One Management.
Cassie has modeled for Calvin Klein one and has been featured in magazines including GQ and Bust and becoming the face of ASOS 2013 spring collection, Cassie has appeared in adverts for Delia's, Abercrombie & Fitch, a commercial for Clean and Clear. Cassie has ventured into acting. Cassie Ventura was born in 1986 in Connecticut, she attended a preparatory school, located on the Connecticut College campus. At age 14 Cassie began modeling, when she was sixteen, she was modeling for local department stores, Delia's fashion catalog, Seventeen. Cassie briefly appeared in R&B singer Mario's "Just a Friend 2002" music video. Encouraged by producer Rockwilder, Cassie took vocal lessons, modern ballet, as well as using her school's performing arts program. Cassie finished high school in 2004, instead of going to college like her peers she moved to New York City, where she returned to modeling and classes at the Broadway Dance Center. While Cassie was in New York, she began booking print and commercial modeling gigs and being represented by Wilhelmina Models.
Ryan Leslie spotted Cassie at parties in late 2004 frequently. The two wrote a duet called "Kiss Me", after recording the track, Leslie played the song for music executive Tommy Mottola. Mottola offered Cassie a management deal, Leslie signed her to NextSelection Lifestyle Group, his music-media company he founded with online marketing partner Rasheed Richmond. Leslie wrote and produced Cassie's first single, "Me & U", in 2005; the song became. During this time, Diddy heard "Me & U" in a club, Leslie convinced him to partner his Bad Boy Records with Leslie's NextSelection imprint for the release of Cassie's debut album. Ryan Leslie produced most of the album, a mix of R&B/hip hop/pop. Ventura said in an interview, "I rap, I sing, I do my R&B, I do my slow songs and stuff that the girls will love, I have a down South joint, I have a rock song that I did with my girls this band called Pretty Boys." She paid tribute to her Filipino culture by incorporating OPM sounds into some of the ballads. The album, was released on August 8, 2006 and sold 321,000 copies in the United States.
The album's lead single "Me & U" peaked at number three on the Billboard Hot 100, selling more than 1 million digital downloads. To promote her album, Cassie performed on 106 & Park: BET's Top 10 Live, her performances were described as "rocky" and "less-than-stellar", but Diddy said that it was due to her inexperience. He said that he would be "with her through her development", that he has no "question on her ability ". Cassie addressed the events on her MySpace page, saying that she is aware that her performances were "pretty bad", that she was "still getting over stage fright". MTV News reported in June 2007 that contrary to rumors, Cassie had not been dropped from Bad Boy Records after releasing two singles from her self-titled debut album. Diddy said that she was in the studio working with producers Kanye West and Pharrell Williams on her second album, it was reported that Cassie was no longer collaborating with Ryan Leslie, who had produced the majority of her debut album. However, the singer stated that she was open to collaborating with Leslie again.
According to Bad Boy A&R Daniel'Skid' Mitchell, rather than relying on the one songwriter-producer, the new album's mix of writers and producers, as well as her own co-write input, makes it a more personal record for her. Additional production on the album came from LV, as well as Diddy himself. Cassie said that she had collaborated with Akon, The Neptunes, Eric Hudson, The Surf Club and Rob Holiday, although she was not sure which tracks were going to be included on the album. Commenting on the number of producers on the album, Cassie said that she "collaborated with a lot of different producers and a lot of different writers, an amazing opportunity for me, because on my first album, one producer straight through...which was fun, but it was nice to experience other people." In 2008, Cassie made her film debut as Sophie Donovan in the dance film Step Up 2: The Streets, Cassie sang the lead single "Is It You" to the Step Up soundtrack. The song was released on November 13, 2007, peaked at eighty-five on the Canadian Hot 100 and fifty-two in the United Kingdom.
In July 2009, Cassie announced. Cassie said that her new album wi
A crucifix is an image of Jesus on the cross, as distinct from a bare cross. The representation of Jesus himself on the cross is referred to in English as the corpus; the crucifix is a principal symbol for many groups of Christians, one of the most common forms of the Crucifixion in the arts. It is important in the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, but is used in the Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches, as well as by the Lutheran and Anglican Churches; the symbol is less common in churches of other Protestant denominations, which prefer to use a cross without the figure of Jesus. The crucifix emphasizes Jesus' sacrifice — his death by crucifixion, which Christians believe brought about the redemption of mankind. Most crucifixes portray Jesus on a Latin cross, rather than any other shape, such as a Tau cross or a Coptic cross. Western crucifixes have a three-dimensional corpus, but in Eastern Orthodoxy Jesus' body is painted on the cross, or in low relief. Speaking, to be a crucifix, the cross must be three-dimensional, but this distinction is not always observed.
An entire painting of the Crucifixion of Jesus including a landscape background and other figures is not a crucifix either. Large crucifixes high across the central axis of a church are known by the Old English term rood. By the late Middle Ages these were a near-universal feature of Western churches, but are now rare. Modern Roman Catholic churches have a crucifix above the altar on the wall; the standard, four-pointed Latin crucifix consists of an upright post or stipes and a single crosspiece to which the sufferer's arms were nailed. There may be a short projecting nameplate, showing the letters INRI; the Russian Orthodox crucifix has an additional third crossbar, to which the feet are nailed, and, angled upward toward the penitent thief Saint Dismas and downward toward the impenitent thief Gestas. The corpus of Eastern crucifixes is a two-dimensional or low relief icon that shows Jesus as dead, his face peaceful and somber, they are three-dimensional figures as in the Western tradition, although these may be found where Western influences are strong, but are more icons painted on a piece of wood shaped to include the double-barred cross and the edge of Christ's hips and halo, no background.
More sculptural small crucifixes in metal relief are used in Orthodoxy, including as pectoral crosses and blessing crosses. Western crucifixes may show Christ dead or alive, the presence of the spear wound in his ribs traditionally indicating that he is dead. In either case his face often shows his suffering. In Orthodoxy he has been shown as dead since around the end of the period of Byzantine Iconoclasm. Eastern crucifixes have Jesus' two feet nailed side by side, rather than crossed one above the other, as Western crucifixes have shown them since around the 13th century; the crown of thorns is generally absent in Eastern crucifixes, since the emphasis is not on Christ's suffering, but on his triumph over sin and death. The "S"-shaped position of Jesus' body on the cross is a Byzantine innovation of the late 10th century, though found in the German Gero Cross of the same date. More from Byzantine influence, it spread elsewhere in the West to Italy, by the Romanesque period, though it was more usual in painting than sculpted crucifixes.
It's in Italy that the emphasis was put on Jesus' suffering and realistic details, during a process of general humanization of Christ favored by the Franciscan order. During the 13th century the suffering Italian model triumphed over the traditional Byzantine one anywhere in Europe due to the works of artists such as Giunta Pisano and Cimabue. Since the Renaissance the "S"-shape is much less pronounced. Eastern Christian blessing crosses will have the Crucifixion depicted on one side, the Resurrection on the other, illustrating the understanding of Orthodox theology that the Crucifixion and Resurrection are two intimately related aspects of the same act of salvation. Another, depiction shows a triumphant Christ, clothed in robes, rather than stripped as for His execution, with arms raised, appearing to rise up from the cross, sometimes accompanied by "rays of light", or an aureole encircling His Body, he may be robed as a prophet, crowned as a king, vested in a stole as Great High Priest. On some crucifixes a skull and crossbones are shown below the corpus, referring to Golgotha, the site at which Jesus was crucified, which the Gospels say means in Hebrew "the place of the skull."
Medieval tradition held that it was the burial-place of Adam and Eve, that the cross of Christ was raised directly over Adam's skull, so many crucifixes manufactured in Catholic countries still show the skull and crossbones below the corpus. Large crucifixes have been built, the largest being the Cross in the Woods in Michigan, with a 31 feet high statue. Prayer in front of a crucifix, seen as a sacramental, is part of devotion for Christians those worshipping in a church privately; the person may sit, stand, or kneel in front of the crucifix, sometimes looking at it in contemplation, or in front of it with head bowed or eyes closed. During the Middle Ages small crucifixes hung on a wall, beca
A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance. There are various views on the meaning of such rites. Many Christians consider the sacraments to be a visible symbol of the reality of God, as well as a means by which God enacts his grace. Many denominations, including the Catholic, Lutheran and Reformed, hold to the definition of sacrament formulated by Augustine of Hippo: an outward sign of an inward grace, instituted by Jesus Christ. Sacraments signify God's grace in a way, outwardly observable to the participant; the Catholic Church and the Old Catholic Church recognise seven sacraments: Baptism, Eucharist, Marriage, Holy Orders, Anointing of the Sick. The Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodox Church believe that there are seven major sacraments, but apply the corresponding Greek word, μυστήριον to rites that in the Western tradition are called sacramentals and to other realities, such as the Church itself. Many Protestant denominations, such as those within the Reformed tradition, identify two sacraments instituted by Christ, the Eucharist and Baptism.
The Lutheran sacraments include these two adding Confession as a third sacrament. Anglican and Methodist teaching is that "there are two Sacraments ordained of Christ our Lord in the Gospel, to say and the Supper of the Lord," and that "those five called Sacraments, to say, Penance, Orders and Extreme Unction, are not to be counted for Sacraments of the Gospel."Some traditions do not observe any of the rites, or hold that they are reminders or commendable practices that do not impart actual grace—not sacraments but "ordinances" pertaining to certain aspects of the Christian faith. The English word "sacrament" is derived indirectly from the Ecclesiastical Latin sacrāmentum, from Latin sacrō, from sacer; this in turn is derived from the Greek New Testament word "mysterion". In Ancient Rome, the term meant a soldier's oath of allegiance. Tertullian, a 3rd-century Christian writer, suggested that just as the soldier's oath was a sign of the beginning of a new life, so too was initiation into the Christian community through baptism and Eucharist.
Roman Catholic theology enumerates seven sacraments: Baptism, Eucharist, Matrimony, Holy Orders and Anointing of the Sick. These seven sacraments were codified in the documents of the Council of Trent, which stated: CANON I.- If any one saith, that the sacraments of the New Law were not all instituted by Jesus Christ, our Lord. CANON IV.- If any one saith, that the sacraments of the New Law are not necessary unto salvation, but superfluous. During the Middle Ages, sacraments were recorded in Latin. After the Reformation, many ecclesiastical leaders continued using this practice into the 20th century. On occasion, Protestant ministers followed the same practice. Since W was not part of the Latin alphabet, scribes only used it when dealing with places. In addition, names were modified to fit a "Latin mold". For instance, the name Joseph would be rendered as Josephus; the Catholic Church indicates that the sacraments are necessary for salvation, though not every sacrament is necessary for every individual.
The Church applies this teaching to the sacrament of baptism, the gateway to the other sacraments. It states that "Baptism is necessary for salvation for those to whom the Gospel has been proclaimed and who have had the possibility of asking for this sacrament." But it adds: "God has bound salvation to the sacrament of Baptism, but he himself is not bound by his sacraments," and accordingly, "since Christ died for the salvation of all, those can be saved without Baptism who die for the faith. Catechumens and all those who without knowing Christ and the Church, still sincerely seek God and strive to do his will can be saved without Baptism; the Church in her liturgy entrusts children who die without Baptism to the mercy of God."In the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church, "the sacraments are efficacious signs of grace, instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, by which divine life is dispensed to us. The visible rites by which the sacraments are celebrated signify and make present the graces proper to each sacrament.
They bear fruit in those who receive them with the required dispositions."The Church teaches that the effect of the sacraments comes ex opere operato, by the fact of being administered, regardless of the personal holiness of the minister administering it. However, as indicated in this definition of the sacraments given by the Catechism of the Catholic Church, a recipient's own lack of proper disposition to receive the grace conveyed can block a sacrament's effectiveness in that person; the sacraments presuppose faith and through their words and ritual elements, nourish and give expression to faith. Though not ev
Anglican devotions are private prayers and practices used by Anglican Christians to promote spiritual growth and communion with God. Among members of the Anglican Communion, private devotional habits vary depending on personal preference and on their affiliation with low-church or high-church parishes. Private prayer and Bible reading are the most common practices of devout Anglicans outside church; some base their private prayers on the Book of Common Prayer. Devotional practices among people and parishes who self-identify as Anglo-Catholic will be different from those Anglicans who are Evangelical. Anglo-Catholics are to follow devotional customs familiar to the majority of Christians that have roots in the early and mediaeval periods as well as the contemporary form of devotion; these include daily prayer the Daily Office, meditative and contemplative devotions hallowed by the centuries, e.g. the Rosary, the Stations of the Cross and Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. Anglo-Catholics are discovering the spiritual riches of Eastern Christianity, e.g. praying with icons and the use of the Jesus Prayer.
Evangelical Anglicans have been influenced by the Protestant Reformation and, in some cases, by pietistic, charismatic or Pentecostal habits. The Book of Common Prayer was a foundational prayer book of Anglicanism when printed in 1549; the original was one of the instruments of the English Reformation. In addition to the authorized Prayer Book of the Church of England, the book by the tame issued in 1662, many member churches of the Anglican Communion have their own official versions, which may be used by individual Anglicans for their private devotions. Most Anglican churches, use contemporary alternatives to the Various editions of the Book of Common Prayer, such as Common Worship, or the Book of Alternative Services; the liturgies of the Episcopal church in the United States and the Church of Ireland use modern books each of, named after the Book of Common Prayer. Many devout Anglicans begin and end their day with the Daily Office of a prayer book, which includes the forms for morning, noonday and bedtime prayer, as well as suggested Bible readings appropriate to each.
Some Anglo-Catholics use forms of the Roman Catholic Daily Office, such as the Divine Office, or the forms contained in the Anglican Breviary. The Litany in the Book of Common Prayer, or litanies from other sources, is a devotion used for private or family prayer by some Anglicans. Quiet Time, a time of prayer and Bible reflection is quite common among evangelical Anglicans, while Lectio Divina, a similar practice, is advocated by more Catholic-minded Anglicans. Although direct prayer to the saints is a practice, continued in the first Litany in English, it was not encouraged after the English Reformation, it is, however, an important part of Anglo-Catholics' private spiritual practices. In Anglo-Catholic theology, veneration is a type of honour distinct from the worship due to God alone. High church theologians have long used the terms latria for the sacrificial worship due to God alone, dulia for the veneration given to saints and icons, they base this distinction on the conclusions of the Seventh Ecumenical Council, which decreed that iconoclasm is a heresy that amounts to a denial of the incarnation of Jesus.
Prayer is directed to God. Article XXII of the Thirty-nine Articles states the "Romish doctrine" of the invocation of saints in the 16th century was not grounded in Scripture, hence many low-church or broad-church Anglicans consider prayer to the saints to be unnecessary. One example of Anglo-Catholic veneration is the annual procession in honour of Our Lady of Walsingham, it was suspended in 1538 and revived in 1922 by some clergy and lay members of the Church of England. The use of Anglican prayer beads by some Anglicans and members of other Christian denominations began in the 1980s; this bead set is used in a variety of ways. The beads are used in tandem with a fixed prayer format, but they are used to keep count of whatever prayers the user has chosen for the occasion. For some, the set is carried as a tangible reminder of the owner's faith, with no prayers being said on the beads at all, while some prefer to pray the traditional Dominican Rosary of the Blessed Virgin Mary instead of or in addition to Anglican prayers.
All Christians use sacramentals, whether they are so called or not. Sacramentals among Anglo-Catholics may include images of Christian saints, a cross or crucifix, votive candles, Mary garden and holy water; these are examples of sacramentals the purpose of which are to remind the user of God, or serve as a focus of prayer or meditation. Depending on personal preference, the sacramentals found in an Anglican home will vary; some will have few visible signs of their faith in the public areas of the home, whereas some will have a prominent Bible or cross in the sightline of any who come through the front door. Some may have a holy water font by their front door, into which the fingers of the right hand are dipped to make the sign of the cross upon entering and exiting the house; some may have devotional pictures of Jesus, or of Mary and other saints around the home, or an icon corner, a practice borrowed in recent decades from Eastern Orthodox tradition. Devotional literature Guild of All Souls Piety Hagiography Iconography Pilgrimage
The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph referred to as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally. It was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in 1855 as Daily Telegraph & Courier; the Telegraph is regarded as a national "newspaper of record" and it maintains an international reputation for quality, having been described by the BBC as "one of the world's great titles". The paper's motto, "Was, is, will be", appears in the editorial pages and has featured in every edition of the newspaper since 19 April 1858; the paper had a circulation of 363,183 in December 2018, having declined following industry trends from 1.4 million in 1980. Its sister paper, The Sunday Telegraph, which started in 1961, had a circulation of 281,025 as of December 2018; the Daily Telegraph has the largest circulation for a broadsheet newspaper in the UK and the sixth largest circulation of any UK newspaper as of 2016. The two sister newspapers are run separately, with different editorial staff, but there is cross-usage of stories.
Articles published in either may be published on the Telegraph Media Group's www.telegraph.co.uk website, under the title of The Telegraph. Editorially, the paper is considered conservative; the Telegraph has been the first newspaper to report on a number of notable news scoops, including the 2009 MP expenses scandal, which led to a number of high-profile political resignations and for which it was named 2009 British Newspaper of the Year, its 2016 undercover investigation on the England football manager Sam Allardyce. However, including the paper's former chief political commentator Peter Oborne, accuse it of being unduly influenced by advertisers HSBC; the Daily Telegraph and Courier was founded by Colonel Arthur B. Sleigh in June 1855 to air a personal grievance against the future commander-in-chief of the British Army, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge. Joseph Moses Levy, the owner of The Sunday Times, agreed to print the newspaper, the first edition was published on 29 June 1855; the paper was four pages long.
The first edition stressed the quality and independence of its articles and journalists: We shall be guided by a high tone of independent action. However, the paper was not a success, Sleigh was unable to pay Levy the printing bill. Levy took over the newspaper, his aim being to produce a cheaper newspaper than his main competitors in London, the Daily News and The Morning Post, to expand the size of the overall market. Levy appointed his son, Edward Levy-Lawson, Lord Burnham, Thornton Leigh Hunt to edit the newspaper. Lord Burnham relaunched the paper as The Daily Telegraph, with the slogan "the largest and cheapest newspaper in the world". Hunt laid out the newspaper's principles in a memorandum sent to Levy: "We should report all striking events in science, so told that the intelligent public can understand what has happened and can see its bearing on our daily life and our future; the same principle should apply to all other events—to fashion, to new inventions, to new methods of conducting business".
In 1876, Jules Verne published his novel Michael Strogoff, whose plot takes place during a fictional uprising and war in Siberia. Verne included among the book's characters a war correspondent of The Daily Telegraph, named Harry Blount—who is depicted as an exceptionally dedicated and brave journalist, taking great personal risks to follow the ongoing war and bring accurate news of it to The Telegraph's readership, ahead of competing papers. In 1908, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany gave a controversial interview to The Daily Telegraph that damaged Anglo-German relations and added to international tensions in the build-up to World War I. In 1928 the son of Baron Burnham, Harry Lawson Webster Levy-Lawson, 2nd Baron Burnham, sold the paper to William Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, in partnership with his brother Gomer Berry, 1st Viscount Kemsley and Edward Iliffe, 1st Baron Iliffe. In 1937, the newspaper absorbed The Morning Post, which traditionally espoused a conservative position and sold predominantly amongst the retired officer class.
William Ewart Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, bought The Morning Post with the intention of publishing it alongside The Daily Telegraph, but poor sales of the former led him to merge the two. For some years the paper was retitled The Daily Telegraph and Morning Post before it reverted to just The Daily Telegraph. In the late 1930s Victor Gordon Lennox, The Telegraph's diplomatic editor, published an anti-appeasement private newspaper The Whitehall Letter that received much of its information from leaks from Sir Robert Vansittart, the Permanent Under-Secretary of the Foreign Office, Rex Leeper, the Foreign Office's Press Secretary; as a result, Gordon Lennox was monitored by MI5. In 1939, The Telegraph published Clare Hollingworth's scoop. In November 1940, with Fleet Street subjected to daily bombing raids by the Luftwaffe, The Telegraph started printing in Manchester at Kemsley House, run by Camrose's brother Kemsley. Manchester quite printed the entire run of The Telegraph when its Fleet Street offices were under threat.
The name Kemsley House was changed to Thomson House in 1959. In 1986 printing of Northern editions of the Daily and Sunday Telegraph moved to Trafford Park and in 2008 to Newsprinters at Knowsley, Liverpool. During the Second World War, The Daily Telegraph covertly helped in the recruitment of code-breakers for Bletchley Park; the ability to solve The Telegraph's crossword in under 12 minutes was considered to be a recruitment test. The newspaper was asked to organise a crossword competition, after wh
Greek Orthodox Church
The name Greek Orthodox Church, or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and the New Testament, whose history and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire. Greek Orthodox Christianity has traditionally placed heavy emphasis and awarded high prestige to traditions of Eastern Orthodox monasticism and asceticism, with origins in Early Christianity in the Near East and in Byzantine Anatolia; the term "Greek Orthodox" has been used to describe all Eastern Orthodox Churches in general, since "Greek" in "Greek Orthodox" can refer to the heritage of the Byzantine Empire. During the first eight centuries of Christian history, most major intellectual and social developments in the Christian Church took place within the Empire or in the sphere of its influence, where the Greek language was spoken and used for most theological writings.
Over time, most parts of the liturgy and practices of the church of Constantinople were adopted by all, still provide the basic patterns of contemporary Orthodoxy. Thus, the Eastern Church came to be called "Greek" Orthodox in the same way that the Western Church is called "Roman" Catholic. However, the appellation "Greek" was abandoned by the Slavic and other Eastern Orthodox churches in connection with their peoples' national awakenings, from as early as the 10th century A. D. Thus, today it is only those churches that are most tied to Greek or Byzantine culture that are called "Greek Orthodox"; the Greek Orthodox churches are descended from churches which the Apostles founded in the Balkans and the Middle East during the first century A. D. and they maintain many traditions practiced in the ancient Church. Orthodox Churches, unlike the Catholic Church, have no single Supreme Pontiff, or Bishop, hold the belief that Christ is the head of the Church. However, they are each governed by a committee of Bishops, called the Holy Synod, with one central Bishop holding the honorary title of "first among equals".
Greek Orthodox Churches are united in communion with each other, as well as with the other Eastern Orthodox Churches. The Orthodox hold a common doctrine and a common form of worship, they see themselves not as separate Churches but as administrative units of one single Church, they are notable for their extensive tradition of iconography, for their veneration of the Mother of God and the Saints, for their use of the Divine Liturgy on Sundays, a standardized worship service dating back to the fourth century A. D. in its current form. The most used Divine Liturgy of the Orthodox Church was written by Saint John Chrysostom. Others are attributed to St. Basil the Great, St. James, the Brother of God and St. Gregory the Dialogist; the current territory of the Greek Orthodox Churches more or less covers the areas in the Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean that used to be a part of the Byzantine Empire. The majority of Greek Orthodox Christians live within Greece and elsewhere in the southern Balkans, but in Jordan, the Occupied Palestinian territories, Syria, Cyprus, European Turkey, the South Caucasus.
In addition, due to the large Greek diaspora, there are many Greek Orthodox Christians who live in North America and Australia. Orthodox Christians in Finland, who compose about 1% of the population, are under the jurisdiction of a Greek Orthodox Church. There are many Greek Orthodox Christians, with origins dating back to the Byzantine and Ottoman periods, who are of Arabic-speaking or mixed Greek and Arabic-speaking ancestry and live in southern Turkey, Palestine, Syria, Lebanon and Egypt, they attend churches which conduct their services in Arabic, the common language of most Greek Orthodox believers in the Levant, while at the same time maintaining elements of the Byzantine Greek cultural tradition. Ethnic Greeks in Russia and Greeks in Ukraine, as well as Pontic Greeks and Caucasus Greeks from the former Russian Transcaucasus consider themselves both Greek Orthodox and Russian Orthodox, consistent with the Orthodox faith. Thus, they may attend services held in Old Russian and Old Church Slavonic, without this in any way undermining their Orthodox faith or distinct Greek ethnic identity.
Over the centuries, these Pontic Greek-speaking Greek Orthodox communities have mixed through intermarriage in varying degrees with ethnic Russians and other Orthodox Christians from Southern Russia, where most of them settled between the Middle Ages and early 19th century. The churches where the Greek Orthodox term is applicable are: The four ancient Patriarchates: The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, headed by the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, the "first among equals" of the Eastern Orthodox Communion The semi-autonomous Archdiocese of Crete The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Italy and Malta The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia The Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria The Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch The Greek Orthodox Church of JerusalemThe autonomous Church of Mount Sinai Three autocephalous churches: The Church of Greece The Church of Cyprus The Albanian Orthodox Church known as "Greek Orthodox Church of Alb
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company. Its programme includes textbooks, monographs and reference works in print and online. Palgrave Macmillan was created in 2000 when St. Martin's Press Scholarly and Reference in the USA united with Macmillan Press in the UK to combine their worldwide academic publishing operations; the company was known as Palgrave until 2002, but has since been known as Palgrave Macmillan. It is a subsidiary of Springer Nature; until 2015, it was part of the Macmillan Group and therefore owned by the German publishing company Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. As part of Macmillan, it was headquartered at the Macmillan campus in Kings Cross London with other Macmillan companies including Pan Macmillan, Nature Publishing Group and Macmillan Education, having moved from Basingstoke, England, United Kingdom in 2014, it maintains offices in London, New York, Melbourne, Hong Kong and Johannesburg. Palgrave is named after the Palgrave family. Classical historian Sir Francis Palgrave, who founded the Public Record Office, his four sons were all tied with Macmillan Publishers in the 19th century: Francis Turner Palgrave acted as assistant private secretary to future Prime Minister Gladstone, before creating his Palgrave's Golden Treasury in the English Language in 1861, published by Macmillan and became a standard work for a century.
Inglis Palgrave was the editor of The Palgrave Dictionary of Political Economy, first published by Macmillan in 1894, 1896 and 1899 and the inspiration for The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics published in 1987. He was a editor of The Economist. Reginald Palgrave was Clerk of the House of Commons and wrote A History of the House of Commons, which Macmillan published in 1869. William Gifford Palgrave was an Arabic scholar, he wrote a two-volume work describing his travels and adventures for Macmillan called Narrative of a Year’s Journey through Central and Eastern Arabia, the most read book on the region until the account by T. E. Lawrence was published. Palgrave Macmillan publishes The Statesman's Yearbook, an annual reference work which gives a political and social overview of every country of the world. In 2008, Palgrave Macmillan published The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd edition, edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume. In 2009 Palgrave Macmillan made over 4,500 scholarly ebooks available to libraries.
Palgrave Macmillan represents the sales and distribution interests of W. H. Freeman, Worth Publishers, Sinauer Associates, University Science Books outside the USA, Canada and the Far East. Palgrave Macmillan distributed I. B. Tauris in the U. S. and Canada. S. In Australia Palgrave represents both the Macmillan Group, including Palgrave Macmillan and Nature Publishing Group, a variety of other academic publishers, including Acumen Publishing, Atlas & Co, Bedford-St. Martin's, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Continuum International Publishing Group, David Fulton, Gerald Duckworth and Company, W. H. Freeman, Haymarket Books, Henry Holt, I. B. Tauris, Learning Matters, Lynne Reiner Publishers, Macquarie Library, New Internationalist, The New Press, Ocean Press, Perseus Books Group, Pluto Press, Routledge/Taylor and Francis, Saqi Books, Scion Publishers, Seven Stories Press, Sinauer Associates, Tilde University Press, University Science Books, Zed Books. Launched in 2012, Palgrave Pivot is an imprint of Palgrave Macmillan, aimed at publishing shorter, "rigorously peer-reviewed" monographs, focused on new important research across the Humanities and Social Sciences.
Notable authors include: Jonathan Bate, is a British academic, critic, broadcaster and scholar of Shakespeare and Ecocriticism, editor of The RSC Shakespeare: The Collected Works Darioush Bayandor, a former Iranian diplomat and retired United Nations regional coordinator for humanitarian aid. Bayandor wrote a revisionist analysis of the 1953 Iranian coup d'état: Iran and The CIA: The Fall of Mosaddeq Revisited. John R. Bradley and middle-east expert, author of After the Arab Spring: How Islamists Hijacked The Middle East Revolts and Inside Egypt: The Land of Pharaohs on the Brink of a Revolution Juan Cole, is Richard P. Mitchell Collegiate Professor of History at the University of Michigan, author of Engaging the Muslim World Larry Elliot and Dan Atkinson, economics editors at The Guardian and The Mail on Sunday, authors of Going South: Why Britain will have a Third World Economy by 2014. Andrew Gamble, Professor of Politics at Cambridge University and author of The Spectre at the Feast Fawaz Gerges, professor of Middle Eastern Politics and International Relations at the London School of Economics and Political Science, where he is chair of the Middle Eastern Center.
He is the author of Obama and the Middle-East: The End of America's Moment? Michael Huemer, professor of philosophy at University of Colorado, Boulder. Books include The Problem of Political Authority, a defense of philosophical libertarianism and anarchism. Marco Katz Montiel, composes music and teaches literature at MacEwan University and Identity in Twentieth-Century Literature from Our America - Noteworthy Protagonists, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-1-137-43332-9, Fawzia Koofi, Afghan MP, the first female candidate in 2014 Afghanistan Presidential elections, author of The Favored Daughter, John Logsdon, Professor Emeritus of Political Science and International Affairs at George Washington University, author