Augusta Victoria Hospital
Augusta Victoria Compound is a church-hospital complex located on the southern side of Mount of Olives in East Jerusalem. The complex was named for Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein, wife of German Kaiser Wilhelm II, the architect, Robert Leibnitz, was inspired by German palaces, such as the German Hohenzollern Castle. The complex was photographed in detail in ca,1910, along with the inaugural celebrations, by Khalil Raad, Palestines first Arab photographer. Although officially inaugurated on 10 April,1914, the construction was only finalised in 1914, after the Kaisers 1898 visit, he commissioned the construction of a guesthouse for German pilgrims. Private donations were collected throughout Germany and donators honoured with the Cross of the Mount of Olives, many of the building materials were imported from Germany. A 60-metre high church tower was constructed with four bells, the largest of them weighing six tons, to transport these bells from Jaffa, the road to Jerusalem had to be widened and paved.
The expense was more than double the cost of transporting the bells from Hamburg to Jaffa, Augusta Victoria was the first building in the country to have electricity, provided by a diesel generator. During World War I, the Hospital served as German military hospital, from 1915 to 1917 the compound was used as Ottoman headquarters by Djemal Pasha. From June to December 1917 the hospital was used as headquarters for the German high command of the German expeditionary corps, from 1920 to 1927, Augusta Victoria was the official residence of the British High Commissioner of the Palestine Mandate. In 1927, the buildings were damaged in an earthquake. The British headquarters moved to Armon HaNetziv, on the outskirts of Talpiot, in 1928 the compound was returned to its German pre-war owner, the Kaiserin Augusta Victoria Foundation. In the mid-1930s, when the building was about to reopen as a run by Deaconesses. During World War II, the compound was used as a hospital by the British. Under Jordanian administration, technically under United Nations Truce Supervision Organization control, the hospital director was the long-time staff physician of the German Deaconess Hospital of Jerusalem, the Arab Palestinian Dr.
Tawfiq Canaan, who kept this position until 1956. Prior to the 1967 Six-Day War, the campus was fortified with several bunkers, during that war the building was heavily damaged, the upper floor was devastated by fire and was only rebuilt in 1988. Since its establishment in 1950 it has been run and financed by the Lutheran World Federation. The hospital mission statement includes the provision of health care without regard to race, gender, the guesthouse is run by the Lutheran World Federation for international volunteers and guests. The hospital has a Department of Oncology which is a center for cancer treatment
Military Honor Medal
The Military Honor Medal was a two-class military decoration awarded by the Kingdom of Prussia. The medal was awarded to personnel from the rank of sergeant. Initial award criteria meant that in order to be awarded the 1st Class cross a recipient must have been awarded the 2nd Class medal first, the Military Honor Medal and General Honor Decoration developed in a side-by-side manner in their first years of award. They utilized the same cross and medal for their first few years until the General Honor Decoration, the Military Honor Medal was typically awarded during wars when the Iron Cross was not. These conflicts included the wars of German Unification such as the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states, Second Schleswig War in 1864, awards for military conflicts in the German colonial empire were made from 1896-1906. The Military Honor Medal could be awarded to foreign troops, the 1814 version of the cross and medal shared the same design as the Honor Decoration, the only difference between the awards at that time was the color of ribbon suspending the cross.
The General Honor Decoration for civil merit was suspended from a white with orange striped ribbon, the 1st class was a silver 36 mm cross pattée with a center medallion. The obverse of the medallion bore the inscription VERDIENST UM DEN STAAT in three lines, while the reverse bore the crowned cypher of Friedrich Wilhelm III, the founder of the award. This design change ended the identical paralleling of the designs of the General Honor Decoration, in 1864, King Wilhelm I reauthorized the Military Honor Medal for award with a redesign of the 1st class cross and a 2nd class medal. This came about at the time as the higher ranking Military Merit Cross. This new authorization changed the criteria of the medal, meaning it was no longer necessary to be awarded the 2nd class medal before the 1st class cross. The 1st class cross was still in the form of a silver cross pattée, the obverse now bore the inscription KRIEGS VERDIENST (War Merit above a spray of laurel leaves, while the reverse bore the crowned cypher of King Wilhelm.
The 2nd class medal was still in the form of a medal but gained the updated obverse inscription KRIEGS VERDIENST
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Merit Cross for War Aid
The Merit Cross for War Aid was a war decoration of Prussia awarded during World War I. Instituted 5 December 1916, the cross was awarded for patriotic war aid service, the Merit Cross for War Aid is in the shape of a Maltese cross, typically found made of blackened Kriegsmetall alloy. The obverse of the bears a circular central medallion with the crowned cipher of King Wilhelm II. On the reverse the central medallion is inscribed FÜR KRIEGS-HILFSDIENST above an oak wreath, to the upper arm is attached a loop for suspension from its ribbon
Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein
Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein was the last German empress and queen of Prussia as the first wife of Wilhelm II, German Emperor. Augusta Victoria was the eldest daughter of Frederick VIII, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, on 27 February 1881, Augusta married her second cousin Prince Wilhelm of Prussia. Augustas maternal grandmother Princess Feodora of Leiningen was the half-sister of Queen Victoria, Wilhelm had earlier proposed to his first cousin, Princess Elisabeth of Hesse and by Rhine, a daughter of his mothers own sister, but she declined. He did not react well, and was adamant that he would marry another princess. Wilhelms family was originally against the marriage with Augusta Viktoria, whose father was not even a sovereign, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck was a strong proponent of the marriage, believing that it would end the dispute between the Prussian government and Augustas father. In the end, Wilhelms intransigence, the support of Bismarck, Augusta was known as Dona within the family.
She enjoyed a somewhat relationship with her mother-in-law, Victoria. The Empress was annoyed that the title of head of the Red Cross went to Dona, the two were often seen out riding in a carriage together. Augusta was at Victorias bedside when she died of breast cancer in 1901, Augusta had less than cordial relationships with some of Wilhelms sisters, especially the recently married Crown Princess Sophie of Greece. Sophie replied that it was her business whether or not she did, Augusta became hysterical and gave birth prematurely to her son, Prince Joachim, as a result of which she was protective of him for the rest of his life, believing that he was delicate. Evidently, so did Wilhelm, he wrote to his mother if the baby died. In 1920, the shock of exile and abdication, combined with the breakdown of Joachims marriage and his subsequent suicide and she died in 1921, in House Doorn at Doorn in the Netherlands. Wilhelm, still reeling over the losses, was devastated by her death. The Weimar Republic allowed her remains to be transported back to Germany, because he was not permitted to enter Germany, Wilhelm could accompany his wife on her last journey only as far as the German border.
Kaiserin Augusta gave birth to seven children by Wilhelm II, German Crown Prince, Prince Eitel Friedrich, married Duchess Sophia Charlotte of Oldenburg. Prince Adalbert, married Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, Prince August Wilhelm, married Princess Alexandra Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Prince Oskar, married Countess Ina Marie von Bassewitz, Prince Joachim, married Princess Marie-Auguste of Anhalt. Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia, married Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, the funeral of Augusta Victoria is reflected upon in the novel by Katherine Anne Porter, Ship of Fools
The Kulm Cross was a Prussian award. It was a version of the Badge of the Iron Cross and it was created on 4 December 1813 by Frederick William III of Prussia after the battle of Kulm. It was not awarded for any act of courage or merit. Officers wore it in silver and NCOs and other ranks in metal and it was worn on the tunic, with no ribbon. A Russian version of the order was completely identical in size and shape to the Prussian Order of the Iron Cross, differing only in that it had no date and monogram of the king. By awarding this cross 12,066 people were represented, but the reward could only be obtained by 7,131 soldiers who survived to 1816
Order of Merit of the Prussian Crown
The order was presented in one class and consisted of a badge and a breast star. For military merit the award was presented with crossed swords, the order was presented once with diamonds. In each of the compartments between the four arms of the cross is a crown surmounting the royal monogram. The central disc on the obverse of the shows a golden crown with red enamel, surrounded by a blue-enamelled circular band bearing the gold-lettered motto. The disc on the bears the intertwined initials IR W II. The star of the order is a golden eight-pointed star with straight rays, the sash of the order is blue, edged with orange stripes. The medal was awarded only 57 times, general von Gossler was the only person who received the awards in both departments. Zentralstelle für wissenschaftliche Ordenskunde, München 1997, ISBN 3-00-001396-2, kurt-Gerhard Klietmann, Der Verdienstorden der Preußischen Krone, Mitteilung aus dem Institut für Wissenschaftliche Ordenskunde, Der Herold - Band 12,32
General Honor Decoration (Prussia)
The General Honor Decoration was a decoration of Prussia. The decoration can trace its origin back to awards established in 1793 by King Frederick William III of Prussia, the various levels of the decoration recognized peacetime merit to Prussia. These awards were often to commemorate long and particularly meritorious service or for contributions from people who would not be considered for appointment to an order due to their rank. In general, recipients were lower and mid-level officials and officers, the General Honor Decoration originally consisted of a First Class medal in gold, and a Second Class medal in silver. After 1814, the medal was discontinued being replaced by a silver cross for the First Class. In January 1830, the cross was made into the Fourth Class of the Order of the Red Eagle, in 1890, a gold medal was reestablished as a higher level class
House Order of Hohenzollern
The House Order of Hohenzollern was a dynastic order of knighthood of the House of Hohenzollern awarded to military commissioned officers and civilians of comparable status. Associated with the versions of the order were crosses and medals which could be awarded to lower-ranking soldiers. The House Order of Hohenzollern was instituted on December 5,1841 by joint decree of Prince Konstantin of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and these two principalities in southern Germany were Catholic collateral lines of the House of Hohenzollern, cousins to the Protestant ruling house of Prussia. On August 23,1851, after the two principalities had been annexed by Prussia, the order was adopted by the Prussian branch of the house. Also, although the two principalities had become a region of the Prussian kingdom, the princely lines continued to award the order as a house order. The Prussian version was known as the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern. The Princely House Order continued to be awarded, after the fall of the German Monarchy, Prince Karl Antons second son, Karl Eitel Friedrich of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, had become prince and king of Romania as Carol I.
Carol I had died childless and was succeeded by his nephew Ferdinand I and this form of the order existed until the Romanian monarchy was abolished in 1947, King Michael awarded a slightly altered order in exile. The Royal House Order of Hohenzollern came in the classes, Grand Commander Commander Knight Member Member was a lesser class for soldiers who were not officers. The Members Cross, especially swords, was a rare distinction for non-commissioned officers. Another decoration, the Members Eagle was often given as an award to lesser officials such as schoolteachers. The Eagles were solely civilian awards, and could not be awarded with swords, all other grades could be awarded with swords. When awarded with swords it was worn on the ribbon of the Iron Cross, all grades could be awarded with swords. During World War I, the grade of the Princely House Order was often awarded to officers. 40, a regiment raised in the principalities of Hohenzollern. Soldier in the regiments sister reserve and Landwehr regiments received the decoration.
Unlike the Royal House Order, awards of the Princely House Order were made on the ribbon of the order regardless of whether they were with or without swords. As with the Prussian and Hohenzollern versions, crossed swords could be used to indicate a wartime or combat award, the badge of the House Order of Hohenzollern was a cross pattée with convex edges and curved arms
Prince Eitel Friedrich of Prussia
Prince Eitel Friedrich of Prussia was the second son of Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany by his first wife, Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein. He was born and died in Potsdam, Germany, on 27 February 1906, Prince Eitel married Duchess Sophia Charlotte of Oldenburg in Berlin. They were divorced on 20 October 1926 and had no children, raised at the cadet corps of Plön Castle, Prince Eitel was in the front line from the beginning of World War I and was wounded at Bapaume, where he commanded the Prussian First Foot Guards. He temporarily relinquished command to Count Hans von Blumenthal, but returned to duty before the end of the year, the following year, he was transferred to the Eastern Front. During the summer of 1915, he was out in a field in Russia when he had an encounter with Manfred von Richthofen. The two men were hiding in a tree line from what they thought was the advancing Russian army and who turned out to be the grenadiers, guardsmen. After the war, he was engaged in monarchist circles and the Stahlhelm paramilitary organization, in 1921, the Berlin criminal court found him guilty of the fraudulent transfer of 300,000 Marks and sentenced him to a fine of 5000 Marks.
From 1907 to 1926, he was Master of the Knights of the Order of St. John and he received the Pour le Mérite order in 1915. His body is buried at the Antique Temple in Sanssouci Park and commander of the Leibkompagnie,1. Garderegiment zu Fuß à la suite, Grenadierregiment König Friedrich Wilhelm IV, deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen Nr.34 Hauptmann, Saxon Army à la suite,7. Königsinfanterieregiment Nr. Henry Two ships were named after Prince Eitel, the passenger ship Prince Eitel Friedrich and the Reich postal steamer Prince Eitel Friedrich. Iron Cross, Second Class, ca.1914 Iron Cross, First Class, ca.1914 Pour le Mérite, with Oak Leaves Schench, G. Handbuch über den Königlich Preuβischen Hof und Staat fur das Jahr 1908
Mount of Olives
The Mount of Olives or Mount Olivet is a mountain ridge east of and adjacent to Jerusalems Old City. It is named for the groves that once covered its slopes. The southern part of the Mount was the Silwan necropolis, attributed to the ancient Judean kingdom, the Mount has been used as a Jewish cemetery for over 3,000 years and holds approximately 150,000 graves, making it central in the tradition of Jewish cemeteries. Much of the top of the hill is occupied by At-Tur, the Mount of Olives is one of three peaks of a mountain ridge which runs for 3.5 kilometres just east of the Old City across the Kidron Valley, in this area called the Valley of Josaphat. The peak to its north is Mount Scopus, at 826 metres, while the peak to its south is the Mount of Corruption, the highest point on the Mount of Olives is At-Tur, at 818 m. The ridge acts as a watershed, and its side is the beginning of the Judean Desert. The ridge is formed of sedimentary rock from the Late Cretaceous, and contains a soft chalk.
While the chalk is easily quarried, it is not a strength for construction. From Biblical times until the present, Jews have been buried on the Mount of Olives, the necropolis on the southern ridge, the location of the modern village of Silwan, was the burial place of Jerusalems most important citizens in the period of the Biblical kings. The religious ceremony marking the start of a new month was held on the Mount of Olives in the days of the Second Temple, roman soldiers from the 10th Legion camped on the Mount during the Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 AD. After the destruction of the Second Temple, Jews celebrated the festival of Sukkot on the Mount of Olives and they made pilgrimages to the Mount of Olives because it was 80 meters higher than the Temple Mount and offered a panoramic view of the Temple site. It became a place for lamenting the Temples destruction, especially on Tisha BAv. From there they see the whole Temple and there they weep, in the mid-1850s, the villagers of Silwan were paid £100 annually by the Jews in an effort to prevent the desecration of graves on the mount.
Prime Minister of Israel Menachem Begin asked to be buried on the Mount of Olives near the grave of Etzel member Meir Feinstein, during the 19 years the Jordanian annexation of the West Bank lasted, the committee was not formed. During this period, four roads were paved through the cemeteries, graves were demolished for parking lots and a filling station and were even used in latrines at a Jordanian Army barracks. However, the United Nations did not condemn the Jordanian government for these actions, following the 1967 Six-Day War and the Israeli capture of East Jerusalem, its government began restoration work and re-opened the cemetery for burials. Israels 1980 unilateral annexation of East Jerusalem was condemned as a violation of law and ruled null. As of 2010, the Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives has been targeted regularly by Arab vandals, notable graves that have been defaced by vandals include those of the Gerrer Rebbe and Menahem Begin