Irish War of Independence
The Irish War of Independence or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought in Ireland from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army and British forces: the British Army, along with the quasi-military Royal Irish Constabulary and its paramilitary forces the Auxiliaries and Ulster Special Constabulary. It was an escalation of the Irish revolutionary period into warfare. In April 1916, Irish republicans launched the Easter Rising against British rule and proclaimed an Irish Republic. Although it was crushed after a week of fighting, the Easter Rising and the British response led to greater popular support for Irish independence. In the December 1918 election, the republican party Sinn Féin won a landslide victory in Ireland. On 21 January 1919 they declared Irish independence; that day, two RIC officers were shot dead in the Soloheadbeg ambush by IRA volunteers acting on their own initiative. The conflict developed gradually. For much of 1919, IRA activity involved capturing weaponry and freeing republican prisoners, while the Dáil set about building a state.
In September, the British government outlawed the conflict intensified. The IRA began ambushing RIC and British Army patrols, attacking their barracks and forcing isolated barracks to be abandoned; the British government bolstered the RIC with recruits from Britain—the Black and Tans and Auxiliaries—who became notorious for ill-discipline and reprisal attacks on civilians, some of which were authorized by the British government. Thus the conflict is sometimes called the Tan War; the conflict involved civil disobedience, notably the refusal of Irish railwaymen to transport British forces or military supplies. In mid-1920, republicans won control of most county councils, British authority collapsed in most of the south and west, forcing the British government to introduce emergency powers. About 300 people had been killed by late 1920. On Bloody Sunday in Dublin, 21 November 1920, fourteen British intelligence operatives were assassinated in the morning. A week seventeen Auxiliaries were killed by the IRA in the Kilmichael Ambush in County Cork.
The British government declared martial law in much of southern Ireland. The centre of Cork city was burnt out by British forces in December 1920. Violence continued to escalate over the next seven months, when 1,000 people were killed and 4,500 republicans were interned. Much of the fighting took place in Munster and Belfast, which together saw over 75 percent of the conflict deaths; the conflict in north-east Ulster had a sectarian aspect. While the Catholic minority there backed Irish independence, the Protestant majority were unionist/loyalist. A Special Constabulary was formed, made up of Protestants, loyalist paramilitaries were active, they attacked Catholics in reprisal for IRA actions, in Belfast a sectarian conflict raged in which 500 were killed, most of them Catholics. In May 1921, Ireland was partitioned under British law by the Government of Ireland Act, which created Northern Ireland. Both sides agreed to a ceasefire on 11 July 1921; the post-ceasefire talks led to the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty on 6 December 1921.
This ended British rule in most of Ireland and, after a ten-month transitional period overseen by a provisional government, the Irish Free State was created as a self-governing Dominion on 6 December 1922. Northern Ireland remained within the United Kingdom. After the ceasefire, violence in Belfast and fighting in border areas of Northern Ireland continued, the IRA launched a failed Northern offensive in May 1922. In June 1922, disagreement among republicans over the Anglo-Irish Treaty led to the ten-month Irish Civil War; the Irish Free State awarded 62,868 medals for service during the War of Independence, of which 15,224 were issued to IRA fighters of the flying columns. Since the 1880s, Irish nationalists in the Irish Parliamentary Party had been demanding Home Rule, or self-government, from Britain. Fringe organisations, such as Arthur Griffith's Sinn Féin, instead argued for some form of Irish independence, but they were in a small minority; the demand for Home Rule was granted by the British Government in 1912 prompting a prolonged crisis within the United Kingdom as Ulster unionists formed an armed organisation – the Ulster Volunteers – to resist this measure of devolution, at least in territory they could control.
In turn, nationalists formed the Irish Volunteers. The British Parliament passed the Third Home Rule Act on 18 September 1914 with an amending Bill for the partition of Ireland introduced by Ulster Unionist MPs, but the Act's implementation was postponed by the Suspensory Act 1914 due to the outbreak of the First World War in the previous month; the majority of nationalists followed their IPP leaders and John Redmond's call to support Britain and the Allied war effort in Irish regiments of the New British Army, the intention being to ensure the commencement of Home Rule after the war. But a significant minority of the Irish Volunteers opposed Ireland's involvement in the war; the Volunteer movement split, a majority leaving to form the National Volunteers under Redmond. The remaining Irish Volunteers, under Eoin MacNeill, held that they would maintain their organisation until Home Rule had been granted. Within this Volunteer movement, another faction, led by the separatist Irish Republican Brotherhood, began to prepare for a revolt a
The Irish Examiner The Cork Examiner and The Examiner, is an Irish national daily newspaper which circulates in the Munster region surrounding its base in Cork, though it is available throughout the country. The paper was founded by John Francis Maguire under the title The Cork Examiner in 1841 in support of the Catholic Emancipation and tenant rights work of Daniel O'Connell. Historical copies of The Cork Examiner, dating back to 1841, are available to search and view in digitised form at the Irish Newspaper Archives website and British Newspaper Archive. During the Spanish Civil War, the Cork Examiner took a pro-Franco tone in its coverage of the conflict. Though appearing under The Cork Examiner title, it was re-branded in 1996 to The Examiner, subsequently in 2000 to The Irish Examiner - to appeal to a more national readership; the newspaper, along with'sister paper' the Evening Echo, was part of the Thomas Crosbie Holdings group. Thomas Crosbie Holdings went into receivership in March 2013.
The newspaper was acquired by Landmark Media Investments. As of 2004, its Chief Executive was Thomas J. Murphy, its editor is Tim Vaughan. Vaughan left the group in August 2016; the newspaper was based at Academy Street, Cork for over a century, before moving to new offices at Lapp's Quay, Cork in early November 2006. In February 2017, it was reported that Landmark Media Investments had appointed KPMG to advise on a range of options, including an Independent News and Media "link" with the Irish Examiner. In March 2017, it was reported that The Irish Times might bid for the Irish Examiner, by April 2017 both The Irish Times and INM had entered a sales process and signed non-disclosure agreements. In May 2017, it was reported that Sunrise Media and The Irish Times were exploring an acquisition, in December 2017, a sale was agreed to The Irish Times - pending regulatory approval; the sale to the Irish Times was completed in July 2018. Average print circulation was 57,000 copies per issue in 1990, had risen to 62,000 by 1999, had decreased to 50,000 by 2009, was 28,000 by 2017.
Reflecting a changing trend in newspaper sales, the Examiner markets to advertisers on the basis of its print and online audience, stating in 2017 that "236,000 people read the Irish Examiner in print or online every day". Irish Media: A Critical History Since 1922, John Horgan, Routledge, 2001 Remember When - Pictures from the Irish Examiner Archive, Collins Press, 2010 Official website
Gaelic Athletic Association
The Gaelic Athletic Association is an Irish international amateur sporting and cultural organisation, focused on promoting indigenous Gaelic games and pastimes, which include the traditional Irish sports of hurling, Gaelic football, Gaelic handball and rounders. The association promotes Irish music and dance, the Irish language; as of 2014, the organisation had over 500,000 members worldwide, declared total revenues of €65.6 million in 2017. Gaelic football and hurling are the most popular activities promoted by the organisation, the most popular sports in the Republic of Ireland in terms of attendances. Gaelic football is the second most popular participation sport in Northern Ireland; the women's version of these games, ladies' Gaelic football and camogie, are organised by the independent but linked Ladies' Gaelic Football Association and the Camogie Association of Ireland respectively. GAA Handball is the Irish governing body for the sport of handball, while the other Gaelic sport, rounders, is managed by the GAA Rounders National Council.
Since its foundation in 1884, the association has grown to become a major influence in Irish sporting and cultural life with considerable reach into communities throughout Ireland and among the Irish diaspora. On 1 November 1884, a group of Irishmen gathered in the Hayes' Hotel billiard room to formulate a plan and establish an organisation to foster and preserve Ireland's unique games and athletic pastimes, and so, the Gaelic Athletic Association was founded. The architects and founding members were Michael Cusack of County Clare, Maurice Davin, Joseph K. Bracken, Thomas St George McCarthy, a District Inspector in the Royal Irish Constabulary, P. J. Ryan of Tipperary, John Wise-Power, John McKay. Maurice Davin was elected President, Wyse-Power and McKay were elected Secretaries and it was agreed that Archbishop Croke, Charles Stewart Parnell and Michael Davitt would be asked to become Patrons. In 1922 it passed over the job of promoting athletics to the National Athletic and Cycling Association.
The association has had a long history of promoting Irish culture. Through a division of the association known as Scór, the association promotes Irish cultural activities, running competitions in music, singing and storytelling. Rule 4 of the GAA's official guide states: The Association shall support the Irish language, traditional Irish dancing, music and other aspects of Irish culture, it shall foster an awareness and love of the national ideals in the people of Ireland, assist in promoting a community spirit through its clubs. The group was formally founded in 1969, is promoted through various Association clubs throughout Ireland; the association has many stadiums scattered throughout Ireland and beyond. Every county, nearly all clubs, have grounds on which to play their home games, with varying capacities and utilities; the hierarchical structure of the GAA is applied to the use of grounds. Clubs play at their own grounds for the early rounds of the club championship, while the latter rounds from quarter-finals to finals are held at a county ground, i.e. the ground where inter-county games take place or where the county board is based.
The provincial championship finals are played at the same venue every year. However, there have been exceptions, such as in Ulster, where in 2004 and 2005 the Ulster Football Finals were played in Croke Park, as the anticipated attendance was to far exceed the capacity of the traditional venue of St Tiernach's Park, Clones. Croke Park is the association's flagship venue and is known colloquially as Croker or Headquarters, since the venue doubles as the association's base. With a capacity of 82,300, it ranks among the top five stadiums in Europe by capacity, having undergone extensive renovations for most of the 1990s and early 21st century; every September, Croke Park hosts the All-Ireland inter-county Hurling and Football Finals as the conclusion to the summer championships. Croke Park holds the All-Ireland club football and hurling finals on every St. Patrick's Day. Croke Park is named after Archbishop Thomas Croke, elected as a patron of the GAA during the formation of the GAA in 1884; the next three biggest grounds are all in Munster: Semple Stadium in Thurles, County Tipperary, with a capacity of 53,000, the Gaelic Grounds in Limerick, which holds 50,000, Páirc Uí Chaoimh, County Cork, which can accommodate 45,000.
Other grounds with capacities above 25,000 include: Fitzgerald Stadium, in Killarney, a capacity of 43,180 MacHale Park in Castlebar, the largest stadium in Connacht, a capacity of 42,000 St Tiernach's Park in Clones, County Monaghan, hosts most Ulster finals, a capacity of 36,000 Kingspan Breffni Park, in Cavan Town, County Cavan, which hosted International rules football series games in 2013, a capacity of 32,000 Casement Park, in Belfast, a capacity of 32,600 O'Moore Park, in Portlaoise, County Laois, a capacity of 27,000 Healy Park, in Omagh, County Tyrone, a capacity of 26,500 Pearse Stadium in Galway, which has hosted International rules football series games, a capacity of 26,197Research by former Fermanagh county footballer Niall Cunningham led to the publication in 2016 by his website, gaapitchlocator.net, of a map of 1,748 GAA grounds in Ireland, ranging from 24 grounds in his own county to 171 in Cork. The association has, since its inception, been associated with Irish nationalism, this has continued to the present in relation to Northern Ireland, where the sports are played exclusively by members of the ma
An Garda Síochána, more referred to as the Gardaí or "the Guards", is the police service of the Republic of Ireland. The service is headed by the Garda Commissioner, appointed by the Irish Government, its headquarters are in Dublin's Phoenix Park. Since the formation of the Garda Síochána in 1923, it has been a predominantly unarmed force, more than three-quarters of the force do not carry firearms; as of 31 July 2018, the police service had 2,310 civilian staff. Operationally, the Garda Síochána is organised into six geographical regions: the Eastern, Southern, South-Eastern and Dublin Metropolitan Regions. In addition to its crime detection and prevention roles, road safety enforcement duties, community policing remit, the police service has some diplomatic and witness protection responsibilities and border control functions; the service was named the Civic Guard in English, but in 1923 it became An Garda Síochána in both English and Irish. This is translated as "the Guardian of the Peace". Garda Síochána na hÉireann appears on its logo but is used elsewhere.
The full official title of the police service is used in speech. How it is referred to depends on the register being used, it is variously known as An Garda Síochána. Although Garda is singular, in these terms it is used like police. An individual officer is called a garda, or, informally, a "guard". A police station is called a Garda station. Garda is the name of the lowest rank within the force. "Guard" is the most common form of address used by members of the public speaking to a garda on duty. A female officer was once referred to as a bangharda; this term was abolished in 1990, but is still used colloquially in place of the now gender-neutral garda. The service is headed by the Garda Commissioner, whose immediate subordinates are two Deputy Commissioners – in charge of "Policing and Security" and "Governance and Strategy" – and a Chief Administrative Officer with responsibility for resource management. There is an Assistant Commissioner for each of the six geographical Regions, along with a number dealing with other national support functions.
The six geographical Garda Regions, each overseen by an Assistant Commissioner, are: Dublin Metropolitan Region Eastern Northern Southern South-Eastern WesternAt an equivalent or near-equivalent level to the Assistant Commissioners are the positions of Chief Medical Officer, Executive Director of Information and Communications Technology, Executive Director of Finance. Directly subordinate to the Assistant Commissioners are 40 Chief Superintendents, about half of whom supervise what are called Divisions; each Division contains a number of Districts, each commanded by a Superintendent assisted by a team of Inspectors. Each District contains a number of Subdistricts, which are commanded by Sergeants; each Subdistrict contains only one Garda station. A different number of Gardaí are based at each station depending on its importance. Most of these stations employ the basic rank of Garda, referred to as the rank of Guard until 1972; the most junior members of the service are students, whose duties can vary depending on their training progress.
They are assigned clerical duties as part of their extracurricular studies. The Garda organisation has 2,000 non-officer support staff encompassing a range of areas such as human resources, occupational health services and procurement, internal audit, IT and telecommunications and fleet management, scenes-of-crime support and analysis, training and general administration; the figure includes industrial staff such as traffic wardens and cleaners. It is ongoing government policy to bring the level of non-officer support in the organisation up to international standards, allowing more officers to undertake core operational duties; the Garda Síochána Act 2005 provided for the establishment of a Garda Reserve to assist the force in performing its functions, supplement the work of members of the Garda Síochána. The intent of the Garda Reserve is "to be a source of local strength and knowledge". Reserve members are to carry out duties defined by the Garda Commissioner and sanctioned by the Minister for Justice and Equality.
With reduced training of 128 hours, these duties and powers must be executed under the supervision of regular members of the Service. The first batch of 36 Reserve Gardaí graduated on 15 December 2006 at the Garda College, in Templemore; as of October 2016, there were 789 Garda Reserve members with further training scheduled for 2017. Special Crime Operations consists of: Garda National Bureau of Criminal Investigation Criminal Assets Bureau Garda National Drugs and Organised Crime Bureau Garda National Economic Crime Bureau Garda National Cyber Crime Bureau Garda National Immigration Bureau Garda National Protective Services Bureau Technical Bureau Special Tactics & Operations Command: Emergency Response Unit Armed Support Units Operational Support Services that consists of: Air Support Unit Water Unit Dog Uni
Irish republicanism is an ideology based on the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic. The development of nationalist and democratic sentiment throughout Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was reflected in Ireland in the emergence of republicanism, in opposition to British rule; this followed hundreds of years of Irish resistance through rebellion. Discrimination against Catholics and nonconformists, attempts by the British administration to suppress Irish culture, the belief that Ireland was economically disadvantaged as a result of the Act of Union were among the specific factors leading to such opposition; the Society of United Irishmen, formed in the 1780s and led by liberal Protestants, evolved into a revolutionary republican organisation, inspired by the American Revolution and allied with Revolutionary France. It launched the 1798 Rebellion with the help of French troops; the rebellion had some success in County Wexford, before it was suppressed. A second rising in 1803, led by Robert Emmet, was put down, Emmet was hanged.
The Young Ireland movement, formed in the 1830s, was a part of the Repeal Association of Daniel O'Connell, but broke with O'Connell on the issue of the legitimacy of the use of violence. A political and cultural organisation, some members of Young Ireland staged an abortive rising, the Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848, its leaders were transported to Van Diemen's Land. Some of these escaped to the United States, where they linked up with other Irish exiles to form the Fenian Brotherhood. Together with the Irish Republican Brotherhood, founded in Ireland by James Stephens and others in 1858, they made up a movement known as "Fenians", dedicated to the overthrow of British imperial rule in Ireland, they staged another rising, the Fenian Rising, in 1867, a dynamite campaign in England in the 1880s. In the early 20th century IRB members, in particular Tom Clarke and Seán MacDermott, began planning another rising; the Easter Rising took place from 24 to 30 April 1916, when members of the Irish Volunteers and Irish Citizen Army seized the centre of Dublin, proclaimed a republic and held off British forces for a week.
The execution of the Rising's leaders, including Clarke, MacDermott, Patrick Pearse and James Connolly, led to a surge of support for republicanism in Ireland. In 1917 the Sinn Féin party stated as its aim the "securing the international recognition of Ireland as an independent Irish Republic", in the general election of 1918 Sinn Féin took 73 of the 105 Irish seats in the British House of Commons; the elected members did not take their seats but instead set up the First Dáil. Between 1919 and 1921 the Irish Republican Army, who were loyal to the Dáil, fought the British Army and Royal Irish Constabulary, a predominantly Roman Catholic force, in the Irish War of Independence. Talks between the British and Irish in late 1921 led to a treaty by which the British conceded, not a 32-county Irish Republic, but a 26-county Irish Free State with Dominion status; this led to the Irish Civil War. The Free State became an independent constitutional monarchy following the Balfour Declaration of 1926 and the Statute of Westminster 1931 and formally became a republic with the passage of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948.
That same year, the republican movement took the decision to focus on Northern Ireland thereafter. The Border Campaign, which lasted from 1956 to 1962, involved bombings and attacks on Royal Ulster Constabulary barracks; the failure of this campaign led the republican leadership to concentrate on political action, to move to the left. Following the outbreak of The Troubles in 1968-9, the movement split between Officials and Provisionals at the beginning of 1970. Both sides were involved in an armed campaign against the British state, but the Officials moved into mainstream politics after the Official IRA ceasefire of 1972; the Provisional IRA, except during brief ceasefires in 1972 and 1975, kept up a campaign of violence for nearly thirty years, directed against security forces and civilian targets. While the Social Democratic and Labour Party represented the nationalists of Northern Ireland in initiatives such as the 1973 Sunningdale Agreement, republicans took no part in these, believing that a withdrawal of British troops and a commitment to a united Ireland was a necessary precondition of any settlement.
This began to change with a landmark speech by Danny Morrison in 1981, advocating what became known as the Armalite and ballot box strategy. Under the leadership of Gerry Adams, Sinn Féin began to focus on the search for a political settlement; when the party voted in 1986 to take seats in legislative bodies within Ireland, there was a walk-out of die-hard republicans, who set up Republican Sinn Féin and the Continuity IRA. Following the Hume–Adams dialogue, Sinn Féin took part in the Northern Ireland peace process which led to the IRA ceasefires of 1994 and 1997 and the Good Friday Agreement of 1998. After elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly, republicans sat in government in Northern Ireland for the first time when Martin McGuinness and Bairbre de Brún were elected to the Northern Ireland Executive. However, another split occurred, with anti-Agreement republicans setting up the 32 County Sovereignty Movement and the Real IRA. Today, Irish republicanism is divided between those who support the institutions set up under the Good Friday Agreement and the St Andrews Agreement, those who oppose them.
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Camogie is an Irish stick-and-ball team sport played by women. Camogie is played by 100,000 women in Ireland and worldwide among Irish communities, it is organised by An Cumann Camógaíochta. UNESCO lists Camogie as an element of Intangible Cultural Heritage; the game consists of 2 thirty-minute halves. There is a half time interval of 10 minutes. In event of extra time halves must consist of 10 minutes each; each team has 15 players on the field. Within the 15 players the team must consist of 1 goal keeper, 3 full back players, 3 half back players, 2 centre-field players, 3 half forward players and 3 full forward players. There is a minimum requirement of 12 players on the pitch at all times; the field is not of a fixed size, but must be between 130m long by 80m wide, 145m long by 90m wide. H-shaped goals are used. A team achieves a score by making the ball go between the posts. If the ball goes over the bar for a "point", the team earns 1-point. If the ball goes under the bar for a "goal", the team earns a 3-points.
The annual All Ireland Camogie Championship has a record attendance of 33,154 while average attendances in recent years are in the region of 15,000 to 18,000. The final is televised; the rules are identical to hurling, with a few exceptions. Goalkeepers wear the same colours as outfield players; this is because no special rules apply to the goalkeeper and so there is no need for officials to differentiate between goalkeeper and outfielders. A camogie player can handpass any score from play Camogie games last 60 minutes, two 30-minute halves. Ties are resolved by multiple 2×10-minute sudden death extra time periods. Dropping the camogie stick to handpass the ball is permitted. A smaller sliotar is used in camogie – known as a size 4 sliotar – whereas hurlers play with a size 5 sliotar. If a defending player hits the sliotar wide, a 45-metre puck is awarded to the opposition After a score, the goalkeeper pucks out from the 13-metre line; the metal band on the camogie stick must be covered with tape.
Side-to-side charges are forbidden. Two points are awarded for a score direct from a sideline cut. Camogie players must wear skorts rather than shorts. Experimental rules were drawn up in 1903 for a female stick-and-ball game by Máire Ní Chinnéide, Seán Ó Ceallaigh, Tadhg Ó Donnchadha and Séamus Ó Braonáin; the Official Launch of Camogie took place with the first public match between Craobh an Chéitinnigh and Cúchulainns on 17 July at a Feis in Navan. The sport's governing body, the Camogie Association or An Cumann Camógaíochta was founded in 1905 and re-constituted in 1911, 1923 and 1939; until June 2010 it was known as Cumann Camógaíochta na nGael. Máire Ní Chinnéide and Cáit Ní Dhonnchadha, two prominent Irish-language enthusiasts and cultural nationalists, were credited with having created the sport, with the assistance of Ní Dhonnchadha's scholarly brother Tadhg Ó Donnchadha, who drew up its rules. Thus, although camogie was founded by women, independently run, there was, from the outset, a small yet powerful male presence within its administrative ranks.
It was no surprise that camogie emanated from the Gaelic League, nor that it would be dependent upon the structures and networks provided by that organisation during the initial expansion of the sport. Of all the cultural nationalist organisations for adults that emerged during the fin de siècle, the Gaelic League was the only one to accept female and male members on an equal footing. Under Séamus Ó Braonáin's original 1903 camogie rules both the match and the field were shorter than their hurling equivalents. Matches were 40 minutes, increased to 50 minutes in 1934, playing fields 125–130 yards long and 65–70 yards wide. From 1929 until 1979 a second crossbar, a "points bar" was used, meaning that a point would not be allowed if it travelled over this bar, a somewhat contentious rule through the 75 years it was in use. Teams were regulated at 12 a side, using an elliptical formation although it was more a "squeezed lemon" formation with the three midfield players grouped more together than their counterpart on the half back and half-forward lines.
In 1999 camogie moved to the GAA field-size and 15-a-side, adopting the standard GAA butterfly formation. The name was invented by Tadhg Ua Donnchadha at meetings in 1903 in advance of the first matches in 1904. Men play using a curved stick called in Irish a camán. Women would use a shorter stick, at one stage described by the diminutive form camóg; the suffix -aíocht was added to both words to give names for the sports: camánaíocht and camógaíocht. When the Gaelic Athletic Association was founded in 1884 the English-origin name "hurling" was given to the men's game; when an organisation for women was set up in 1904, it was decided to anglicise the Irish name camógaíocht to camogie. An Cumann Camógaíochta has a similar structure to the Gaelic Athletic Association, with an Annual Congress every spring which decides on policy and major issues such as rule changes, an executive council, the Árd Chómhairle which deals with short-term issues and governance; the game is administered from a headquarters in Croke Park in Dublin.
Each of 28 co
Aaron Roe Ward Cunningham is an American former professional baseball outfielder. He has played in Major League Baseball for the Oakland Athletics, San Diego Padres and Cleveland Indians. Cunningham was drafted by the Chicago White Sox in the sixth round of the 2005 Major League Baseball Draft. After two years in the White Sox organization, he was traded to the Arizona Diamondbacks for Danny Richar on June 16, 2007. On December 14, 2007, he was acquired by the Oakland Athletics in the trade that sent Dan Haren to the Diamondbacks, he was called up from the minors for the first time on August 30, 2008. Cunningham played in 22 games for Oakland in 2008 and 23 games in 2009, playing both left and right field. On January 16, 2010, Cunningham and Scott Hairston were traded to the San Diego Padres for Kevin Kouzmanoff and Eric Sogard. In Cunningham's first start as a Padres player on June 15 he hit a grand slam to center field in his first at bat. In 2010, Cunningham split time between the Triple-A club.
While in the majors, he served as a reserve corner outfielder, starting 30 games and hitting a career high.288 in 132 at-bats. In 2011, Cunningham again split time between the minors and majors, making 20 starts with the Padres at the corner outfield positions, he hit.329 in 87 games with the Triple-A Tucson Padres, but only.178 in 90 at-bats with the big league club. On December 16, 2011, Cunningham was traded to the Cleveland Indians for minor league pitcher Cory Burns. Cunningham broke camp with the big league club in 2012 and played in a career high 72 games, starting 21 games across all three outfield positions, he was used as a late-inning defensive replacement and batted.175 in 97 at-bats. On July 24 he laid down a successful suicide squeeze bunt to score the winning run in a game against Detroit. Cunningham was designated for assignment on July 25 and he finished the year with the Triple-A Columbus Clippers. On November 12, 2012, Cunningham signed a minor league deal with the Texas Rangers with an invitation to spring training.
He signed a minor league deal with the Chicago Cubs in November 2013. Cunningham signed a minor league deal with Arizona in March 2014 but was released a few months later, he re-signed on September 2, 2014. On March 24, 2015, Cunningham was released by the Diamondbacks. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube, or Baseball-Reference