Hot rods are old, classic or modern American cars with large engines modified for faster speed. The origin of the term "hot rod" is unclear. For example, some claim. Other origin stories include replacing the engine's camshaft or "rod" with a higher performance version. Hot rods were favorites for greasers The term has broadened to apply to other items that are modified for a particular purpose, such as "hot-rodded amplifier". There are various theories about the origin of the term "hot rod"; the common theme is that "hot" related to "hotting up" a car, which means modifying it for greater performance. One theory is that "rod" means roadster, a lightweight 2-door car, used as the basis for early hot rods. Another theory is that "rod" refers to camshaft, a part of the engine, upgraded in order to increase power output. In the early days, a car modified for increased performance was called a "gow job"; this term morphed into the hot rod in the early to middle 1950s. The term "hot rod" has had various uses in relation to performance cars.
For example, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment in its vehicle emissions regulations, refers to a hot rod as any motorized vehicle that has a replacement engine differing from the factory original. The predecessors to the hotrod were the modified cars used in the Prohibition era by bootleggers to evade revenue agents and other law enforcement. Hot rods first appeared in the late 1930s in southern California, where people raced modified cars on dry lake beds northeast of Los Angeles, under the rules of the Southern California Timing Association, among other groups; this gained popularity after World War II in California, because many returning soldiers had received technical training. The first hot rods were old cars, modified to reduce weight. Engine swaps involved fitting the Ford flathead V8 engine into a different car, for example the common practice in the 1940s of installing the "60 horse" version into a Jeep chassis. Typical modifications were removal of convertible tops, bumpers, and/or fenders.
Wheels and tires were changed for improved handling. Hot rods built before 1945 used'35 Ford wire-spoke wheels. After World War II, many small military airports throughout the country were either abandoned or used, allowing hot rodders across the country to race on marked courses. Drag racing had tracks as long as 1 mi or more, included up to four lanes of racing simultaneously; as some hot rodders raced on the street, a need arose for an organization to promote safety, to provide venues for safe racing. The National Hot Rod Association was founded in 1951, to take drag racing off the streets and into controlled environments. In the'50s and'60s, the Ford flathead. Many hot rods would upgrade the brakes from mechanical to hydraulic and headlights from bulb to sealed-beam. A typical mid-1950s to early 1960s custom Deuce was fenderless and steeply chopped, powered by a Ford or Mercury flathead, with an Edelbrock intake manifold and Collins magneto, Halibrand quick-change differential. Front suspension hairpins were adapted from sprint cars, such as the Kurtis Krafts.
As hot rodding became more popular and associations catering to hot rodders were started, such as the magazine Hot Rod, founded in 1948. As automobiles offered by the major automakers began increasing performance, the lure of hot rods began to wane. With the advent of the muscle car, it was now possible to purchase a high-performance car straight from the showroom; however the 1973 Oil Crisis caused car manufacturers to focus on fuel efficiency over performance, which led to a resurgence of interest in hot rodding. As the focus shifted away from racing, the modified cars became known as "street rods"; the National Street Rod Association began hosting events. By the 1970s, the 350 cu in small-block Chevy V8 was the most common choice of engine for hot rods. Another popular engine choice is the Ford Windsor engine. During the 1980s, many car manufacturers were reducing the displacements of their engines, thus making it harder for hot rod builders to obtain large displacement engines. Instead, engine builders had to modify the smaller engines to obtain larger displacement.
While current production V8s tended to be the most frequent candidates, this applied to others. In the mid-1980s, as stock engine sizes diminished, rodders discovered the 215 cu in aluminum-block Buick or Oldsmobile V8 could be modified for greater displacement, with wrecking yard parts; this trend was not limited to American cars. There is still a vibrant hot rod culture worldwide in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Sweden; the hot rod community has now been subdivided into two main groups: hot rodders. There is a contemporary movement of traditional hot rod builders, car clubs and artists who have returned to the roots of hot rodding as a lifestyle; this includes a new breed of traditional hot rod builders and styles, as well as classic style car clubs. Events like GreaseOrama feature the greaser lifestyle. Magazines like Ol' Skool Rodz and Gals, Rat-Rods and Rust Queens cover events and people. Author Tom Wolfe was
Full-size car— known as large car is a vehicle size class which originated in the United States and is used for cars larger than mid-size cars. It is the largest size class for cars; the equivalent European categories are E-segment and executive car. After World War II, the majority of full-size cars have used the sedan and station wagon body styles, however in recent years most full-size cars have been sedans; the highest-selling full-size car nameplate is the Chevrolet Impala, sold as a full-size car from 1958 to 1986 and from 1994 to 1996. The United States Environmental Protection Agency Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year includes definitions for classes of automobiles. Based on the combined passenger and cargo volume, large cars are defined as having an interior volume index of more than 120 cu ft for sedan models, or 160 cu ft for station wagons. From the introduction of the Ford Flathead V8 in the 1930s until the 1980s, most North American full-size cars were powered by V8 engines.
However, V6 engines and straight-six engines have been available on American full-size cars, have become common since the downsizing of full-sized cars in the 1980s. The lineage of mass-produced full-size American cars begins with the 1908 Ford Model T. In 1923, General Motors introduced the Chevrolet Superior, becoming the first vehicle to adopt a common chassis for several brands. In comparison to the cars of the 21st century, these vehicles are small in width. From the 1920s to the 1950s, most manufacturers produced model lines in a single size, growing in size with each model redesign. While length and wheelbase varied between model lines, width was a constant dimension, as the American federal government required the addition of clearance lights on a width past 80 inches. In 1960, following the introduction of compact cars, the "full-size car" designation came into wider use. In the 1960s, the term was applied to the traditional car lines of lower-price brands, including Chevrolet and Plymouth.
As a relative term, full-size cars were marketed by the same brands offering compact cars, with entry-level cars for buyers seeking the roominess of a luxury car at a lower cost. Into the 1970s, the same vehicles could transport up to six occupants comfortably, at the expense of high fuel consumption; the sales of full-size vehicles in the United States declined after the early 1970s fuel crisis. By that time, full-size cars had grown to wheelbases of 121–127 inches and overall lengths of around 225 in. In response to the 1978 implementation of CAFE, American manufacturers implemented downsizing to improve fuel economy, with full-size vehicles as the first model lines to see major change. While General Motors and Ford would reduce the exterior footprint of their full-size lines to that of their intermediates, AMC withdrew its Ambassador and Matador full-size lines. To save production costs, Chrysler repackaged its intermediates as full-size vehicles, exiting the segment in 1981. During the 1980s, to further comply with more stringent CAFE standards, manufacturers further reduced the exterior footprint of several model lines out of the full-size segment into the mid-size class.
For 1982, Chrysler exited the full-size segment with the mid-size Dodge Diplomat and Plymouth Gran Fury serving as its largest sedan lines. Following the 1985 model year, General Motors replaced most of its full-size model lines with front-wheel drive mid-size sedans. Developed to replace the Ford LTD Crown Victoria, the 1986 Ford Taurus was produced alongside it as the Ford mid-size model line. After abandoning the full-size segment for compact cars and minivans, Chrysler gained reentry into the full-size segment in 1988 with the Eagle Premier. Developed by AMC before its acquisition by Chrysler, the Premier was a version of the front-wheel drive Renault 25 adapted for North America. From the 1980s to the 1990s, the market share of full-size cars began to decline. From 1960 to 1994, the market share of full-size cars declined from 65 percent to 8.3 percent. From 1990 to 1992, both GM and Ford redesigned its full-size car lines for the first time since the late 1970s. For 1992, Chrysler developed its first front-wheel drive full-size car line, replacing the Eagle Premier/Dodge Monaco with the Chrysler LH cars.
The same year, the Buick Roadmaster was introduced, becoming the first rear-wheel drive GM model line adopted outside of Chevrolet and Cadillac since 1985. In 1995, the Toyota Avalon was introduced, becoming the first Japanese non-luxury full-size car with six seats to be sold in the North America; the 1989 Lexus LS400 luxury sedan was the first Japanese full-size car sold in North America. Following the 1996 model year, GM ended production of rear-wheel drive sedans, with full-size vehicles becoming exclusive to Cadillac. From 1997 to 2016, the longest vehicle produced by an American manufacturer was a Lincoln. By 2000, with the sole exception of the Ford Crown Victoria, Mercury Grand Marquis, Lincoln Town Car, full-size cars had abandoned rear-wheel drive and body-on-frame construction. Instead of model lineage, the EPA "large car" definition of over 120 interior cubic feet came into wide use
Renault Captur is the name of two different subcompact crossovers manufactured by the French automaker Renault. The production version of the first one, based on the B platform, made its debut at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show and started to be marketed in France during April 2013; the Captur Concept was first shown at the 2011 Geneva Motor Show. In Russia, a different and longer car, based on the B0 platform, with the same styling that the first but extended wheelbase, larger ground clearance and four-wheel-drive is available as the Renault Kaptur since March 2016. A localised version of the same car is offered with both front and four wheel drive in Brazil since the beginning of 2017, being badged as the Renault Captur; this model was introduced to India in November 2017. The car is based on the fourth generation Clio and incorporates design lines from the homonymous concept, as part of Renault's renovated design strategy developed by Laurens van den Acker, it has various customisation options for the exterior.
The car suspension is made up of a twist-beam axle on rear. Brakes are discs on front and drums on rear; the Captur has some new elements, such as a large drawer like glovebox, more reachable by the driver, instead of a conventional glove compartment in left hand drive models. The Captur had four trim levels in the UK: Expression, Expression+, Dynamique Media Nav and Dynamique S Media Nav. In December 2013, Renault added a top-of-the-range Signature trim and, in 2015, the Iconic. In 2018, the Captur added the sportier S-edition; as standard, it has parking sensors and voice activation for certain functions. In some versions, it adds removable seat covers with zippers, a new Renault satellite navigation system with touchscreen, reverse cameras and automated head lamps and windscreen wiper; the Captur achieved a five star rating at the 2013 EuroNCAP tests. Between its standard safety equipment, it has three point seat belts, two airbags, cruise control, speed limiter, ESC, ABS and audible and visual seat belt reminder warnings.
Renault Captur is equipped with Hill-Start assist feature. In May 2017, Renault introduced a facelifted Captur with revised interior and exterior designs, more customisation options and improved equipment. Despite being on the market for less than a full year, it managed to rank third in the European small crossover segment for 2013, with just over 84,000 sales, behind the Nissan Juke and the Dacia Duster, it was the segment's best seller in the last quarter of 2013. At the end of 2015, Renault Captur was ranked 14th out of the 20 most sold cars in Europe with 195,323 units The Captur is powered by a range of petrol and diesel engines; the Captur won What Car? 2014 “Best Small SUV Less Than £16,000”. It was named Voiture de l'Année 2013 by the French Association of Automotive Press; the Renault Samsung QM3 is a badge engineered version of the Captur, launched in South Korea at the Seoul Motor Show in April 2013, shortly after its European counterpart was revealed at the Geneva Motor Show. The QM3 was released on 6 December 2013, the initial 1,000 cars allocated to South Korea sold out within seven minutes.
The QM3's dimensions and wheelbase are identical to the Captur's, while the engine range is limited to a single dCi 90 four cylinder diesel and dual clutch transmission. The QM3 was voted Best Car at the 2013 Seoul Motor Show. and was chosen 2014 “SUV of the Year” by the newspaper JoongAng Ilbo in March 2014. A larger car with the same styling as the original Captur but with a larger wheelbase and ground clearance was introduced in Russia in 2016, badged as the Renault Kaptur; the Renault Kaptur is manufactured by the Renault Russia plant since April 2016. The front wheel drive version of this car is powered by the 1.6 litre engine and has manual gearbox or CVT, while all wheel drive versions have the 2.0 litre engine and manual or automatic gearbox. Change of the naming was explained by the difficulties of the correct pronunciation of the original "Captur" name in the Russian language. Unlike the European Captur, the Russian Kaptur uses the Renault Duster as a base instead of the fourth generation Clio.
A localised Brazilian version was introduced in the beginning of 2017, badged as the Renault Captur. The Brazilian version has CVT and automatic gearboxes; that same year, the Brazilian Captur was named as Best Design by Americar. The car got a 4-star safety rating in the 2017 Latin NCAP tests; the car is available in the Indian market since 2017 badged as Captur. Production and pre orders started in September 2017. Advertising videos from Renault India got a negative reception in some forum and media outlets for "misinform" customers on the car awards by mentioning the ones received by the B platform version. At first, the B0 model did not have diesel engines, it mounts engines either a mix of petrol/ethanol. The India-assembled Captur has a diesel engine as an option; the second generation Captur will debut in 2019 to be based on the newer CMF-B platform. A concept car named, it was shown with the Renault Samsung badge at the 2012 Busan Motor Show. The Captur is a mini SUV, it is the second of six concept cars showing Renaults future design directions.
The first was the Renault DeZir. It was designed by Julio Lozano under the leadership of Renault's design chief Laurens Van den Acker, it is based on the same platform as its partner Nissan's Juke. The Captur is powered by a twin-turbocharged version of the 1.6 L dCi "Energy" engine which will be rolled
Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows. The equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Compared with a full-size van, a minivan is based on a passenger car platform and has a less tall body; the largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. These have platforms derived from D-segment passenger cars or compact pickups. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to the largest size; the term minivan originated in North America in order to differentiate the smaller passenger vehicles from full-size vans, which were simply called'vans'.
The first known use of the term minivan was in 1959, however it was not until the 1980s that the term became used. The 1936 Stout Scarab is regarded as the first minivan; the passenger seats in the Scarab were moveable and could be configured for the passengers to sit around a table in the rear of the cabin. Passengers exited the Scarab via a centrally-mounted door; the DKW Schnellaster— manufactured from 1949 to 1962— featured front-wheel drive, a transverse engine, flat floor and multi-configurable seating, all of which would become characteristics of minivans. In 1950, the Volkswagen Type 2 adapted a bus-shaped body to chassis of a small passenger car; when Volkswagen introduced a sliding side door to the Type 2 in 1968, it had the prominent features that would come to define a minivan: compact length, three rows of forward-facing seats, station wagon-style top-hinged tailgate/liftgate, sliding side door, passenger car base. The 1956-1969 Fiat Multipla had many features in common with modern minivans.
The Multipla had a rear engine and cab forward layout. The Ford Carousel was a prototype developed in 1973 and intended to be released in 1975, however the model was cancelled as a result of the mid-1970s fuel crisis and company financial difficulties; the Carousel was designed as a family car that would fit into a typical 7 ft tall American garage door opening and had interior trim levels equivalent to a passenger car rather than a cargo van. In the late 1970s, Chrysler began a development program to design "a small affordable van that looked and handled more like a car"; the result of this program was the 1984 Plymouth Voyager. The Voyager debuted the minivan design features of front-wheel drive, a flat floor and a sliding door for rear passengers; the badge-engineered Dodge Caravan was released in for the 1984 model year, was sold alongside the Voyager. The term minivan came into use in comparison to size to full-size vans. In 1984, The New York Times described minivans "the hot cars coming out of Detroit," noting that "analysts say the mini-van has created an new market, one that may well overshadow the... station wagon."In response to the popularity of the Voyager/Caravan, General Motors released the 1985 Chevrolet Astro and GMC Safari badge-engineered twins, Ford released the 1986 Ford Aerostar.
These vehicles used a traditional rear-wheel drive layout, unlike the Voyager/Caravan. By the end of the 1980s, demand for minivans as family vehicles had superseded full-size station wagons in the United States. During the 1990s, the minivan segment underwent several major changes. Many models switched to the front-wheel drive layout used by the Voyager/Caravan minivans, for example Ford replaced the Aerostar with the front-wheel drive Mercury Villager for 1993 and the Ford Windstar for 1995; the models increased in size, as a result of the extended-wheelbase versions of the Voyager and Caravan which were in 1987. An increase in luxury features and interior equipment was seen in the 1988 Ford Aerostar Eddie Bauer, the 1990 Chrysler Town & Country and the 1990 Oldsmobile Silhouette; the third-generation Plymouth Voyager, Dodge Caravan and Chrylser Town & Country— released for the 1996 model year— were available with an additional sliding door on the drivers side. The highest selling year for minivans was in 2000.
However in the following years, the increasing popularity of sport utility vehicles began to erode sales of minivants. North American sales of the Volkswagen Transporter ceased in 2003. Ford exited the segment in 2006, when the Ford Freestar was cancelled, Chrysler discontinued its short-wheelbase minivans in 2007 and General Motors exited the segment in 2009 with the cancellation of the Chevrolet Uplander, it has been suggested that the lesser popularity of minivans than SUVs is due to the minivan's image as a vehicle for older drivers. In 2013, sales of the segment reached 500,000. Despite the declining sales for the segment in the late 2000s, several European brands launched minivans in the North American market; the Volkswagen Routan was sold from 200
Sport utility vehicle
Sport-utility, SUV or sport-ute is an automotive classification a kind of station wagon / estate car with off-road vehicle features like raised ground clearance and ruggedness, available four-wheel drive. Many SUVs are built on a light-truck chassis but operated as a family vehicle, though designed to be used on rougher surfaces, most used on city streets or highways. In recent years, in some countries the term SUV has replaced terms like "Jeep" or "Land-Rover" in the popular lexicon as a generic description for light 4WD vehicles. Many SUVs have an upright built body and tall interior packaging, a high seating position and center of gravity, available all-wheel drive for off-road capability; some SUVs include the towing capacity of a pickup truck and the passenger-carrying space of a minivan or large sedan. The traditional truck-based SUV is more and more being supplanted by unitary body SUVs and crossovers based on regular automobile platforms for lighter weight and better fuel efficiency.
In some countries, notably the United States, SUVs are not classified as cars, but as light trucks. SUVs overtook lower medium segment cars to become the world's largest automotive segment in 2015, accounting for 22.9 percent of global light vehicle sales, or 36.8% of the world's passenger car market. Worldwide sales of SUVs grew from 5 million units in 2000 to 20 million in 2015 and are forecast to hit 42 million units by 2031. Becoming popular in the 1990s and early 2000s, SUVs combined with other light trucks, like pickups and minivans, supplanted many conventional large passenger cars and station wagons, changed the composition of America's vehicle fleet. SUV sales temporarily declined due to high oil prices and a declining economy, but by 2010, SUV sales around the world were growing again, in spite of gasoline prices; the market has overwhelmingly come to prefer 4/5-door models in favor of popular 2-door off-roaders. There is no universally accepted definition of the sport utility vehicle.
Dictionaries, automotive experts, journalists use varying wordings and defining characteristics, in addition to which there are regional variations of the use by both the media and the general public. The auto industry has not settled on one definition of the SUV either; the actual term "Sport Utility Vehicle" did not come into wide popular usage until the late 1980s — prior to such vehicles were marketed during their era as 4-wheel drives, station wagons, or other monikers. The American Merriam-Webster online dictionary offers three different definitions; the general definition of a "sport-utility vehicle", found under "SUV" reads: "a rugged automotive vehicle similar to a station wagon but built on a light-truck chassis", it is defined in the definition of sport-utility vehicle for students as: "an automobile similar to a station wagon but built on a light truck frame". However, the Merriam-Webster definition "for English Language Learners" reads: "a large vehicle, designed to be used on rough surfaces but, used on city roads or highways".
The Webster's New World Dictionary defines sport utility vehicle as "a passenger vehicle similar to a station wagon but with the chassis of a small truck and four-wheel drive". In recent years, the term SUV has come to replace the use of "jeep" as a generic trademark and description of these type of vehicles, a name that originated during World War II as slang for the light general purpose military truck. A Hemmings article defines the sport utility vehicle as bridging the gap between cars and trucks, "combining car-like appointments and wagon practicality with steadfast off-road capability". S. it only applies to the newer street oriented one, whereas "Jeep", "Land Rover" or 4x4 are used for the off-roader oriented ones. The German automaker BMW utilizes the term SAV to denote "Sport Activity Vehicles." Not all SUVs have four-wheel drive capabilities, not all four-wheel-drive passenger vehicles are SUVs. Although some SUVs have off-road capabilities, they play only a secondary role, SUVs do not have the ability to switch among two-wheel and four-wheel-drive high gearing and four-wheel-drive low gearing.
While automakers tout an SUV's off-road prowess with advertising and naming, the daily use of SUVs is on paved roads. In British English the terms "four-by-four" or "off-road vehicle" are preferred, for example the Chambers Dictionary has no entry for sport utility vehicle; the Collins English online dictionary defines sport utility vehicle as a "powerful vehicle with four-wheel drive that can be driven over rough ground" or "a high-powered car with four-wheel drive designed for off-road use", but the citations quoted by Collins are few. Other alternative terms are "four-wheel drive", or using the brand name to describe the vehicle. In the United States, many government regulations have categories for "off-highway vehicles" which are loosely defined and result in SUVs being classified as light trucks. For example, Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations included "permit greater cargo-carrying capacity than passenger carrying volume" in the definition for trucks, resulting in SUVs being classified as light trucks.
This classification as trucks allowed SUVs to be regulated
A luxury vehicle is intended to provide passengers with increased comfort, a higher level of equipment and increased perception of quality than regular cars for an increased price. The term is subjective and can be based on either the qualities of the car itself or the brand image of its manufacturer. Luxury brands are considered to have a higher status than premium brands, however there is no fixed differentiation between the two. Traditionally, luxury cars have been large vehicles, however contemporary luxury cars range in size from compact cars to large sedans and SUVs; some car manufacturers market their luxury models using the same marque as the rest of their models. Other manufacturers market their luxury models separately under a different marque, for example Lexus and Bentley. A luxury car is sold under a mainstream marque and is re-branded under a specific luxury marque. For mass-produced luxury cars, sharing of platforms or components with other models is common, as per modern automotive industry practice.
Several car classification schemes which include a luxury category, such as: Australia: Since the year 2000, the Federal Government's luxury car tax applies to new vehicles over a certain purchase price, with higher thresholds applying for cars considered as fuel efficient. As of 2019, the thresholds were AU$66,000 for normal cars and AU$76,000 for fuel efficient cars. Europe: Luxury cars are classified as F-segment vehicles in the European Commission classification scheme. France: The term "voiture de luxe" is used for luxury cars. Germany: The term German: Oberklasse is used for luxury cars. Russia: The term (автомобиль представительского класса is used for luxury cars. Rental cars: The ACRISS Car Classification Code is a system used by many car rental companies to define equivalent vehicles across brands; this system includes "Luxury" and "Luxury Elite" categories. The criteria for a vehicle to be considered "luxury" is not published; the premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars.
It became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples include the Alfa Romeo Giulietta, Audi A3, Buick Verano, BMW 1 Series, Lexus CT 200h, Infiniti Q30, Mercedes-Benz A-Class, Mercedes-Benz B-Class, Volvo C30, Volvo V40, BMW i3. Premium compacts compete with well-equipped mid-size cars, optioned premium compact cars can have pricing and features that operlaps with compact executive cars. A compact executive car is a premium car smaller than an executive car. In European classification, compact executive cars are part of the D-segment. In North American terms, close equivalents are "compact premium car", "compact luxury car", "entry-level luxury car" and "near-luxury car". Executive car is a British term for an automobile larger than a large family car. In official use, the term is adopted by Euro NCAP, a European organization founded to test for car safety.
It is a passenger car classification defined by the European Commission. The next category of luxury cars is known in Great Britain as a luxury saloon or luxury limousine, is known in the United States as a full-size luxury sedan or large luxury sedan, it is the equivalent of the European German Oberklasse segment. Many of these luxury saloons are the flagship for the marque and therefore include the newest automotive technology. Several models are available in long-wheelbase versions, which provide additional rear legroom and a higher level of standard features. Examples of luxury saloons / full-size luxury sedans include the BMW 7 Series, Cadillac CT6 Genesis G90, Mercedes-Benz S-Class, Lexus LS, Porsche Panamera. Luxury cars costing over US$100,000 can be considered as "ultra-luxury cars". Examples include Maybach 57 and Bentley Arnage. Exotic cars which are targeted towards performance rather than luxury are not classified as ultra-luxury cars when their cost is greater than US$100,000. Several entry-level models from low-volume luxury car manufacturers, such as the Bentley Continental GT and the Rolls-Royce Ghost have been described as "entry-opulent" cars.
Many ultra-luxury cars are produced by brands with a long history of manufacturing luxury cars. The history of a brand and the exclusivity of a particular model can result in price premiums compared to luxury cars with similar features from less prestigious manufacturers. V12 engines are common in ultra-luxury cars. Long before the luxury SUV segment became popular in the 1990s, the vehicle in this segment was the 1966 Jeep Super Wagoneer, marketed at the time as a station wagon, it was the first off-road SUV to offer a V8 engine, automatic transmission, luxury car trim and equipment. Standard equipment included bucket seating, a center console, air conditioning, seven-position tilt steering wheel, a vinyl roof and gold colored trim panels on the body sides and tailgate. By the late 1970s, optional equipment included an electric sunroof, The 1978 Jeep Wagoneer Limited was the spiritual successor to the Super Wagoneer and was the first four-wheel drive car to use leather upholstery. Another precursor to the luxury SUV is the Range Rover, released in 1970.
It was the first road-going vehicle to have a permanent four-wheel drive system, split
Compact car is a vehicle size class— predominantly used in North America— that sits between subcompact cars and mid-size cars. The present-day definition is equivalent to the European C-segment or the British term "small family car". However, prior to the downsizing of the United States car industry in the 1970s and 1980s, larger vehicles with wheelbases up to 110 in were considered "compact cars" in the United States. In Japan, small size passenger vehicle is a registration category that sits between kei cars and regular cars, based on overall size and engine displacement limits; the United States Environmental Protection Agency Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year includes definitions for classes of automobiles. Based on the combined passenger and cargo volume, compact cars are defined as having an interior volume index of 100–109 cu ft; the beginnings of U. S. production of compact cars were the late 1940s prototypes of economy cars, including the Chevrolet Cadet and the Ford Vedette.
Neither car reached production in the U. S. however the Vedette was produced by Ford SAF in France. The first U. S produced, it was built on a 100-inch wheelbase, nonetheless still a large car by contemporary European standards. The term "compact" was coined by a Nash executive as a euphemism for small cars with a wheelbase of 110 inches or less, it established a new market segment and the U. S. automobile industry soon adopted the "compact" term. Several competitors to the Nash Rambler arose from the ranks of America's other independent automakers, although none enjoyed the long-term success of the Rambler. Other early compact cars included the Willys Aero and the Hudson Jet. In 1954, 64,500 cars sold in the U. S. were small American cars, out of a total market of five million car. Market research indicated that five percent of those surveyed said they would consider a small car, suggesting a potential market size of 275,000 cars. By 1955, the Nash Rambler that began as a sideline convertible model became a success and was now available in station wagon and sedan body styles.
During the Recession of 1958, the only exception to the sales decline was American Motors with its compact, economy-oriented Ramblers that saw high demand among cautious consumers. By 1959, sales of small imported cars increased to 14% of the U. S. passenger car market, as consumers turned to compact cars. By this time, smaller cars appealed to people with a college education and a higher income whose families were buying more than one car. Customers expected compact cars to provide improved fuel economy compared to full-sized cars, while maintaining headroom and plenty of trunk space. Between 1958 and 1960, the major U. S. car manufacturers made a push towards compact cars, resulting in the introduction of the Studebaker Lark, Chevrolet Corvair, Ford Falcon, Plymouth Valiant. These models gave rise to compact vans built on the compact car platforms, such as the Studebaker Zip Van, Chevrolet Covair Greenbrier, Ford Econoline and Dodge A100. During the 1960s, compacts were the smallest class of North American cars, but they had evolved into only smaller versions of the 6-cylinder or V8-powered six-passenger sedan.
They were much larger than compacts by European manufacturers, which were five-passenger 4-cylinder engine cars. Adverising and road tests for the Ford Maverick and the Rambler American made comparisons with the popular Volkswagen Beetle. Compact cars were the basis for a new small car segment that became known as the pony car, named after the Ford Mustang, built on the Falcon chassis. At that time, there was a distinct difference in size between compact and full-size models, an early definition of the compact was a vehicle with an overall length of less than 200 in, much larger than European equivalents. In the early 1970s, the domestic automakers introduced smaller subcompact cars that included the AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. In 1973, the Energy Crisis started, which made small fuel efficient cars more desirable, the North American driver began exchanging their large cars for the smaller, imported compacts that cost less to fill up and were inexpensive to maintain; the 1977 model year marked the beginning of a downsizing of all vehicles, so that cars such as the AMC Concord and the Ford Fairmont that replaced the compacts were re-classified as mid-size, while cars inheriting the size of the Ford Pinto and Chevrolet Vega became classified as compact cars.
After the reclassification, mid-size American cars were still far larger than mid-size cars from other countries and were more similar in size to cars classified as "large cars" in Europe. It would not be until the 1980s that American cars were being downsized to international dimensions. In the 1985 model year, compact cars classified by the EPA included Ford's Escort and Tempo, the Chevrolet Cavalier, Toyota Corolla, Acura Legend, Mercedes-Benz 300, Nissan Maxima, Volvo DL, many others. Since the 1990s, most compact cars sold in the United States are imported models. In Japan, vehicles that are larger than kei cars, but with dimensions smaller than 4,700 mm long, 1,700 mm wide, 2,000 mm high and with engines at or under 2,000 cc are classified as "small size" cars. Small size cars are identified by a licence plate number beginning with "5". In the past, the small size category has received tax benefits stipulated by the Japanese government regulations, such as those in the 1951 Road Vehicle Act.
In 1955, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade