Niccolò Paganini was an Italian violinist, violist and composer. He was the most celebrated violin virtuoso of his time, left his mark as one of the pillars of modern violin technique, his 24 Caprices for Solo Violin Op. 1 are among the best known of his compositions, have served as an inspiration for many prominent composers. Niccolò Paganini was born in Genoa capital of the Republic of Genoa, the third of the six children of Antonio and Teresa Paganini. Paganini's father was an unsuccessful trader, but he managed to supplement his income through playing music on the mandolin. At the age of five, Paganini started learning the mandolin from his father, moved to the violin by the age of seven, his musical talents were recognized, earning him numerous scholarships for violin lessons. The young Paganini studied under various local violinists, including Giovanni Servetto and Giacomo Costa, but his progress outpaced their abilities. Paganini and his father traveled to Parma to seek further guidance from Alessandro Rolla.
But upon listening to Paganini's playing, Rolla referred him to his own teacher, Ferdinando Paer and Paer's own teacher, Gasparo Ghiretti. Though Paganini did not stay long with Paer or Ghiretti, the two had considerable influence on his composition style; the French invaded northern Italy in March 1796, Genoa was not spared. The Paganinis sought refuge in their country property near Bolzaneto, it was in this period. He mastered the guitar, but preferred to play it in intimate, rather than public concerts, he described the guitar as his "constant companion" on his concert tours. By 1800, Paganini and his father traveled to Livorno, where Paganini played in concerts and his father resumed his maritime work. In 1801, the 18-year-old Paganini was appointed first violin of the Republic of Lucca, but a substantial portion of his income came from freelancing, his fame as a violinist was matched only by his reputation as a womanizer. In 1805, Lucca was annexed by Napoleonic France, the region was ceded to Napoleon's sister, Elisa Baciocchi.
Paganini became a violinist for the Baciocchi court, while giving private lessons to Elisa's husband, Felice. In 1807, Baciocchi became the Grand Duchess of Tuscany and her court was transferred to Florence. Paganini was part of the entourage, towards the end of 1809, he left Baciocchi to resume his freelance career. For the next few years, Paganini returned to touring in the areas surrounding Genoa. Though he was popular with the local audience, he was still not well known in the rest of Europe, his first break came from an 1813 concert at La Scala in Milan. The concert was a great success; as a result, Paganini began to attract the attention of other prominent, though more conservative, musicians across Europe. His early encounters with Charles Philippe Lafont and Louis Spohr created intense rivalry, his concert activities, were still limited to Italy for the next few years. In 1827, Pope Leo XII honoured Paganini with the Order of the Golden Spur, his fame spread across Europe with a concert tour that started in Vienna in August 1828, stopping in every major European city in Germany and Bohemia until February 1831 in Strasbourg.
This was followed by tours in Britain. His technical ability and his willingness to display it received much critical acclaim. In addition to his own compositions and variations being the most popular, Paganini performed modified versions of works written by his early contemporaries, such as Rodolphe Kreutzer and Giovanni Battista Viotti. Paganini's travels brought him into contact with eminent guitar virtuosi of the day, including Ferdinando Carulli in Paris and Mauro Giuliani in Vienna, but this experience did not inspire him to play public concerts with guitar, performances of his own guitar trios and quartets were private to the point of being behind closed doors. Throughout his life, Paganini was no stranger to chronic illnesses. Although no definite medical proof exists, he was reputed to have been affected by Marfan syndrome or Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. In addition, his frequent concert schedule, as well as his extravagant lifestyle, took their toll on his health, he was diagnosed with syphilis as early as 1822, his remedy, which included mercury and opium, came with serious physical and psychological side effects.
In 1834, while still in Paris, he was treated for tuberculosis. Though his recovery was reasonably quick, after the illness his career was marred by frequent cancellations due to various health problems, from the common cold to depression, which lasted from days to months. In September 1834, Paganini returned to Genoa. Contrary to popular beliefs involving his wishing to keep his music and techniques secret, Paganini devoted his time to the publication of his compositions and violin methods, he accepted students, of whom two enjoyed moderate success: violinist Camillo Sivori and cellist Gaetano Ciandelli. Neither, considered Paganini helpful or inspirational. In 1835, Paganini returned to Parma, this time under the employ of Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria, Napoleon's second wife, he was in charge of reorganizing her court orchestra. However, he conflicted with the players and court, so his visions never saw completion. In Paris, he befriended the 11-year-old Polish virtuoso Apollinaire de Kontski, giving him some lessons and a signed testimonial.
It was put about, that Paganini was so impressed with de Kontski's skills that he
Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement. This movement has aesthetic and symbolic value, is acknowledged as dance by performers and observers within a particular culture. Dance can be categorized and described by its choreography, by its repertoire of movements, or by its historical period or place of origin. An important distinction is to be drawn between the contexts of theatrical and participatory dance, although these two categories are not always separate. Other forms of human movement are sometimes said to have a dance-like quality, including martial arts, cheerleading, figure skating, synchronized swimming, marching bands, many other forms of athletics. Theatrical dance called performance or concert dance, is intended as a spectacle a performance upon a stage by virtuoso dancers, it tells a story using mime and scenery, or else it may interpret the musical accompaniment, specially composed. Examples are western ballet and modern dance, Classical Indian dance and Chinese and Japanese song and dance dramas.
Most classical forms are centred upon dance alone, but performance dance may appear in opera and other forms of musical theatre. Participatory dance, on the other hand, whether it be a folk dance, a social dance, a group dance such as a line, chain or square dance, or a partner dance such as is common in western Western ballroom dancing, is undertaken for a common purpose, such as social interaction or exercise, of participants rather than onlookers; such dance has any narrative. A group dance and a corps de ballet, a social partner dance and a pas de deux, differ profoundly. A solo dance may be undertaken for the satisfaction of the dancer. Participatory dancers all employ the same movements and steps but, for example, in the rave culture of electronic dance music, vast crowds may engage in free dance, uncoordinated with those around them. On the other hand, some cultures lay down strict rules as to the particular dances in which, for example, men and children may or must participate. Archeological evidence for early dance includes 9,000-year-old paintings in India at the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, Egyptian tomb paintings depicting dancing figures, dated c. 3300 BC.
It has been proposed that before the invention of written languages, dance was an important part of the oral and performance methods of passing stories down from one generation to the next. The use of dance in ecstatic trance states and healing rituals is thought to have been another early factor in the social development of dance. References to dance can be found in early recorded history; the Bible and Talmud refer to many events related to dance, contain over 30 different dance terms. In Chinese pottery as early as the Neolithic period, groups of people are depicted dancing in a line holding hands, the earliest Chinese word for "dance" is found written in the oracle bones. Dance is further described in the Lüshi Chunqiu. Primitive dance in ancient China was associated with shamanic rituals. During the first millennium BCE in India, many texts were composed which attempted to codify aspects of daily life. Bharata Muni's Natyashastra is one of the earlier texts, it deals with drama, in which dance plays an important part in Indian culture.
It categorizes dance into four types – secular, abstract, interpretive – and into four regional varieties. The text elaborates various hand-gestures and classifies movements of the various limbs, steps and so on. A strong continuous tradition of dance has since continued in India, through to modern times, where it continues to play a role in culture, and, the Bollywood entertainment industry. Many other contemporary dance forms can be traced back to historical, traditional and ethnic dance. Dance is though not performed with the accompaniment of music and may or may not be performed in time to such music; some dance may provide its own audible accompaniment in place of music. Many early forms of music and dance were created for each other and are performed together. Notable examples of traditional dance/music couplings include the jig, tango and salsa; some musical genres have a parallel dance form such as baroque dance. Rhythm and dance are linked in history and practice; the American dancer Ted Shawn wrote.
A musical rhythm requires two main elements. The basic pulse is equal in duration to a simple step or gesture. Dances have a characteristic tempo and rhythmic pattern; the tango, for example, is danced in 24 time at 66 beats per minute. The basic slow step, called a "slow", lasts for one beat, so that a full "right–left" step is equal to one 24 measure; the basic forward and backward walk of the dance is so coun
Afro-American religion are a number of related religions that developed in the Americas in various nations of Latin America, the Caribbean, the southern United States. They derive from traditional African religions with some influence from other religious traditions, notably Christianity. Afro-American religions involve veneration of the dead, include a creator deity along with a pantheon of divine spirits such as the Orisha, Loa and Alusi, among others. In addition to the religious syncretism of these various African traditions, many incorporate elements of Folk Catholicism, Native American religion, Spiritism and European folklore. Espiritismo Hoodoo Kélé Puerto Rican Vudú or Sanse Rastafarianism, Jamaica Santo Daime Tambor de Mina Quimbois. Xangô de Recife Xangô do Nordeste Black theology Roots and Rooted
Loa are the spirits of Haitian Vodou and Louisiana Voodoo. They are referred to as "mystères" and "the invisibles" and are intermediaries between Bondye —the Supreme Creator, distant from the world—and humanity. Unlike saints or angels, they are not prayed to, they are served, they are each distinct beings with their own personal likes and dislikes, distinct sacred rhythms, dances, ritual symbols, special modes of service. Contrary to popular belief, the loa are not deities of themselves; the word loa comes from the French les lois. The enslaved Fon and Ewe in Haiti and Louisiana syncretized the loa with the Catholic saints—vodoun altars will display images of Catholic saints. For example, Papa Legba is syncretized with Saint Lazarus of Bethany. Syncretism works the other way in Haitian Vodou and many Catholic saints have become loa in their own right, most notably Philomena, the archangel Michael, Jude the Apostle, John the Baptist. In a ritual the loa are called down by the houngan, mambo, or the bokor and the caplata to take part in the service, receive offerings, grant requests.
The loa arrive in the peristyle by mounting a horse in Creole referred as "Chwal"—who is said to be "ridden". This can be quite a violent occurrence as the participant can flail about or convulse before falling to the ground, but some loa, such as Ayizan, will mount their "horses" quietly. Certain loa display distinctive behavior by which they can be recognized, specific phrases, specific actions; as soon as a loa is recognized, the symbols appropriate to them will be given to them. For example, Erzulie Freda will be given a glass of pink champagne, she is sprinkled with her perfumes, fine gifts of food will be presented to her or she puts on her jewelry. Once the loa have arrived, been served, given help or advice, they leave the peristyle. Certain loa can become obstinate, for example the Guédé are notorious for wanting just one more smoke, or one more drink, but it is the job of the houngan or mambo to keep the spirits in line while ensuring they are adequately provided for. There are many families or "nanchons" of loa: Rada, Nago and Ghede, among others.
The Rada loa are older, as many of these spirits come from Africa and the kingdom of Dahomey. The Rada Loa are water spirits and many of the Rada loa are served with a water; the Rada are "Cool" in the sense. They include Legba, Ayizan, Damballa Wedo and Ayida-Weddo, Maîtresse Mambo Erzulie Fréda Dahomey, La Sirène, Agwé. Many of these spirits are served with white; the Petro loa are the more fiery aggressive and warlike loa, are associated with Haiti and the New World. They include Ezili Dantor and Met Kalfu, their traditional colour is red. Originating from the Congo region, these loa include the many Simbi loa, it includes Marinette, a fierce and much feared female loa. Originating from Yorubaland, this nation includes many of the Ogoun loa; the Guédé are the spirits of the dead. They are traditionally led by the Barons, Maman Brigitte; the Ghede as a family are loud, sexual, a lot of fun. As those who have lived they have nothing to fear, will display how far past consequence and feeling they are when they come through in a service—eating glass, raw chillis, anointing their sensitive areas with chilli rum, for example.
Their traditional colours are purple. Alusi Dahomean religion Haitian mythology Nkisi Orisha Paquet congo Winti Webster list of loa
Midnight is the transition time from one day to the next – the moment when the date changes. In ancient Roman timekeeping, midnight was halfway between sunset and sunrise, varying according to the seasons. By clock time, midnight is the opposite of noon, differing from it by 12 hours. Solar midnight is the time opposite to solar noon, when the Sun is closest to the nadir, the night is equidistant from dusk and dawn. Due to the advent of time zones, which regularize time across a range of meridians, daylight saving time, it coincides with 12 midnight on the clock. Solar midnight depends on time of the year rather than on time zone. In the Northern Hemisphere, "midnight" had an ancient geographic association with "north". Modern Polish, Belarusian and Serbian preserve this association with its word for "midnight", which means "north". Midnight marks the ending of each day in civil time throughout the world; as the dividing point between one day and another, midnight defies easy classification as either part of the preceding day or of the following day.
Though there is no global unanimity on the issue, most midnight is considered the start of a new day and is associated with the hour 00:00. In locales with this technical resolution, vernacular references to midnight as the end of any given day may be common. Speaking, it is incorrect to use "a.m." and "p.m." when referring to noon or midnight. The abbreviation a.m. stands for ante meridiem or before noon, p.m. stands for post meridiem or after noon. Since noon is neither before nor after noon, midnight is twelve hours before and after noon, neither abbreviation is correct. However, many digital representations of time are configured to require an "a.m." or "p.m." designation, preventing the correct absence of such designators at midnight. In such cases, there is no international standard defining. In the United States and Canada, digital clocks and computers display 12 a.m at midnight. The thirtieth edition of the U. S. Government Style Manual, in sections 9.54 and 12.9b, recommended the use of "12 a.m." for midnight and "12 p.m." for noon.
However, the previous 29th edition of the U. S. Government Printing Office Style Manual, in section 12.9, recommended the opposite. There is no further record documenting this change; the US National Institute of Standards and Technology recommends avoiding confusion altogether by using "00.01 am" and the date instead of "midnight."There are several common approaches to identifying and distinguishing the precise start and end of any given day. Use of a 24-hour clock can remove ambiguity; the "midnight" term can be avoided altogether if the end of day is noted as 24:00 and the beginning of day as 00:00. While both notations refer to the same moment in time, the choice of notation allows its association with the previous night or with the following morning; this approach follows the 24-hour time specification of ISO 8601. "Midnight" can be augmented with additional disambiguating information. A day and time of day may be explicitly identified together, for example "midnight Saturday night." Alternatively, midnight as the division between days may be highlighted by identifying the pair of days so divided: "midnight Saturday/Sunday" or "midnight December 14/15."
The approach recommended by the NIST can be helpful when any ambiguity can have serious consequences, such as with contracts and other legal instruments. A clear convention may be defined or culturally promulgated. Associating midnight with 00:00 and the start of day is one option that has the benefit of aligning with many religious calendars which singularly define a start of day, such as the Hebrew calendar and the Islamic calendar; as noted above, such conventions or definitions may not be uniformly observed. 12-hour clock Noon New Year's Eve 24-hour clock National Institute of Standards and Technology
Haitian Vodou is a syncretic religion practiced chiefly in Haiti and the Haitian diaspora. Practitioners are called "vodouists" or "servants of the spirits". Vodouists believe in unknowable Supreme Creator, Bondye. According to Vodouists, Bondye does not intercede in human affairs, thus they direct their worship toward spirits subservient to Bondye, called loa; every loa is responsible for a particular aspect of life, with the dynamic and changing personalities of each loa reflecting the many possibilities inherent to the aspects of life over which they preside. To navigate daily life, vodouists cultivate personal relationships with the loa through the presentation of offerings, the creation of personal altars and devotional objects, participation in elaborate ceremonies of music and spirit possession. Vodou originated in what is now Benin and developed in the French colonial empire in the 18th century among West African peoples who were enslaved, when African religious practice was suppressed, enslaved Africans were forced to convert to Christianity.
Religious practices of contemporary Vodou are descended from, related to, West African Vodun as practiced by the Fon and Ewe. Vodou incorporates elements and symbolism from other African peoples including the Yoruba and Kongo. In Haiti, some Catholics combine aspects of Catholicism with aspects of Vodou, a practice forbidden by the Church and denounced as diabolical by Haitian Protestants. Vodou is a Haitian Creole word that referred to only a small subset of Haitian rituals; the word derives from an Ayizo word referring to mysterious forces or powers that govern the world and the lives of those who reside within it, but a range of artistic forms that function in conjunction with these vodun energies. Two of the major speaking populations of Ayizo are the Ewe and the Fon—European slavers called both the Arada; these two peoples composed a sizable number of the early enslaved population in St. Dominique. In Haiti, practitioners use "Vodou" to refer to Haitian religion generically, but it is more common for practitioners to refer to themselves as those who "serve the spirits" by participating in ritual ceremonies called a "service to the loa" or an "African service".
These terms refer to the religion as a whole. Outside of Haiti, the term Vodou refers to the entirety of traditional Haitian religious practice. Written as vodun, it is first recorded in Doctrina Christiana, a 1658 document written by the King of Allada's ambassador to the court of Philip IV of Spain. In the following centuries, Vodou was taken up by non-Haitians as a generic descriptive term for traditional Haitian religion. There are many used orthographies for this word. Today, the spelling Vodou is the most accepted orthography in English. Other potential spellings include Vodoun and voodoo, with vau- or vou- prefix variants reflecting French orthography, a final -n reflecting the nasal vowel in West African or older, non-urbanized, Haitian Creole pronunciations; the spelling voodoo, once common, is now avoided by Haitian practitioners and scholars when referring to the Haitian religion. This is both to avoid confusion with Louisiana Voodoo, a related but distinct set of religious practices, as well as to separate Haitian Vodou from the negative connotations and misconceptions the term "voodoo" has acquired in popular culture.
Over the years and their supporters have called on various institutions including the Associated Press to redress this misrepresentation by adopting "Vodou" in reference to the Haitian religion. In October 2012, the Library of Congress decided to change their subject heading from "Voodooism" to Vodou in response to a petition by a group of scholars and practitioners in collaboration with KOSANBA, the scholarly association for the study of Haitian Vodou based at University of California Santa Barbara. Vodou is popularly described as not a religion, but rather an experience that ties body and soul together; the concept of tying that exists in Haitian religious culture is derived from the Congolese tradition of kanga, the practice of tying one's soul to something tangible. This "tying of soul" is evident in many Haitian Vodou practices. Vodouisants believe; when it came in contact with Roman Catholicism, the Supreme Creator was associated with the Christian God, the loa associated with the saints.
Since Bondye is considered unreachable, Vodouisants aim their prayers to lesser entities, the spirits known as loa, or mistè. The most notable lwa include Papa Legba, Erzulie Freda, Kouzin Zaka, The Marasa, divine twins considered to be the first children of Bondye; these lwa can be divided into 21 nations, which include the Petro, Rada and Nago. Each of the lwa is associated with a particular Roman Catholic saint. For example, Legba is associated with St. Anthony the Hermit, Damballa is associated with St. Patrick; the lwa fall into family groups who share a surname, such as Ogou, Azaka or Ghede. For instance, "Ezili" is a family, Ezili Danto and Ezili Freda are two individual spirits in that family; each family is associated with a specific aspect, for instance the
Hitchhiking is a means of transportation, gained by asking people strangers, for a ride in their automobile or other vehicle. A ride is but not always, free. Itinerants have used hitchhiking as a primary mode of travel for the better part of the last century, continue to do so today. Signals used by hitchhikersHitchhikers use a variety of signals to indicate they need a ride. Indicators can be physical displays including written signs; the physical gestures, e.g. hand signals, hitchhikers use differ around the world: In some African countries, the hitchhiker's hand is held with the palm facing upwards. In most of Europe, North America, the United Kingdom, most hitchhikers stand with their back facing the direction of travel facing oncoming vehicles; the hitchhiker extends their arm towards the road with the thumb of the closed hand pointing upward or in the direction of vehicle travel. In other parts of the world, such as Australia, it is more common to use the index finger to point at the road.
Signals used by driversIn 1971, during the Vietnam War, drivers invented methods to communicate various messages to hitchhikers. To indicate to a hitchhiking soldier that their vehicle has no additional space to accommodate them, a driver could tap on the vehicle roof. Another common message that drivers could signal to hitchhikers—who sought to travel long distances, distances too far to walk in a reasonable amount of time—was that the driver's destinations were located nearby—and of little use to the hitchhiker—by pointing at the ground for a few seconds. Hitchhiking is a common practice worldwide and hence there are few places in the world where laws exist to restrict it. However, a minority of countries have laws. In the United States, for example, some local governments have laws outlawing hitchhiking, on the basis of drivers' and hitchhikers' safety. In 1946, New Jersey arrested and imprisoned a hitchhiker, leading to intervention by the American Civil Liberties Union. In Canada, several highways have restrictions on hitchhiking in British Columbia and the 400-series highways in Ontario.
In all countries in Europe, it is legal to hitchhike and in some places encouraged. However, worldwide where hitchhiking is permitted, laws forbid hitchhiking where pedestrians are banned, such as the Autobahn, motorways or interstate highways, although hitchhikers obtain rides at entrances and truck stops where it is legal at least throughout Europe with the exception of Italy. In 2011, Freakonomics Radio reviewed sparse data about hitchhiking, identified a decline in hitchhiking in the US since the 1970s, which it attributed to a number of factors, including lower air travel costs due to deregulation, the presence of more money in the economy to pay for travel, more numerous and more reliable cars, a lack of trust of strangers. Fear of hitchhiking is thought to have been spurred by movies such as The Texas Chain Saw Massacre and a few real stories of imperiled passengers, notably the kidnapping of Colleen Stan in California. See § Safety, below. Julian Portis points out that the rise of faster highways, such as freeways and expressways, has made hitchhiking more difficult.
He adds: The real danger of hitchhiking has most remained constant, but the general perception of this danger has increased.... Ur national tolerance for danger has gone down: things that we saw as reasonably safe appeared imminently threatening; this trend is not just isolated to the world of hitchhiking. Some British researchers discuss reasons for hitchhiking's decline in the UK, possible means of reviving it in safer and more-organized forms. In recent years, hitchhikers have started efforts to strengthen their community. Examples include the annual Hitchgathering, an event organized by hitchhikers, for hitchhikers, websites such as hitchwiki and hitchbase, which are platforms for hitchhikers to share tips and provide a way of looking up good hitchhiking spots around the world. Limited data is available regarding the safety of hitchhiking. Compiling good safety data requires counting hitchhikers, counting rides, counting problems: a difficult task. Two studies on the topic include a 1974 California Highway Patrol study and a 1989 German federal police study.
The California study found that hitchhikers were not disproportionately to be victims of crime. The German study concluded, they found that in some cases there were verbal disputes or inappropriate comments, but physical attacks were rare. Recommended safety practices include: Asking for rides at gas stations instead of signaling at the roadside Refusing rides from impaired drivers Hitchhiking during daylight hours Trusting one's instincts Traveling with another hitchhiker. Hitchhiking is encouraged, as Cuba has few cars, hitch hikers use designated spots. Drivers pick up waiting riders on a first come, first served basis. In Israel, hitchhiking is commonplace at designated locations called trempiyadas. Travelers soliciting rides, called trempists, wait at trempiyadas junctions of highw