Interstate 70 in Indiana
In the U. S. state of Indiana, Interstate 70 travels east–west across the state passing through the capital of Indianapolis. I-70 departs into Ohio at Richmond, it covers 156.60 miles in Indiana, paralleling U. S. Route 40, the old National Road; the Indiana portion of I-70 begins at the Illinois state line west of Terre Haute. Heading east, I-70 crosses the Wabash River soon after entering the state. US 40 travels concurrent with I-70 before breaking off and traveling north of the interstate into the center of the city; the interstate crosses through the south side of Terre Haute, where it has an interchange with US 41/US 150. Just outside the city to the east, I-70 passes near Terre Haute Regional Airport before continuing onward to the east-northeast through rural lands towards Indianapolis; this stretch of I-70 does not have any interchanges with any significant cities until it reaches the Indianapolis metropolitan area, but it does pass within proximity of Greencastle. Entering the Indianapolis area, I-70 passes through the southern reaches of Plainfield in Hendricks County, home to many logistics and warehousing companies.
Shortly thereafter, it enters Marion County and the City of Indianapolis, passing just to the south of the Indianapolis International Airport, where the freeway now serves as the passenger terminal's main vehicular access point. At the far southeast corner of the airport, I-70 has an interchange with the I-465 circumferential for the first of two times at Exit 73. Once beyond the airport, Interstate 70 curves first to the northeast to the east, before crossing the White River, passing just to the south of Lucas Oil Stadium, downtown Indianapolis, the corporate headquarters campus of pharmaceutical giant Eli Lilly before reaching I-65. Turning north, the next section of I-70 along the east side of downtown Indianapolis travels concurrent with I-65; the two major interchanges at either end of this concurrency are referred to as the "North Split" and the "South Split", forming the eastern leg of a section of freeways and surface streets locally known as the "Inner Loop". The north split is called the "Spaghetti Bowl" due to the visual complexity of the overlapping freeways, ghost ramps, overpasses that were intended as a connection to a never-built portion of I-69.
Upon leaving I-65 at the north split, I-70 reaches a maximum width of ten lanes as it departs downtown Indianapolis toward the east-northeast. On the east side of the city, I-70 again intersects with the I-465 beltway at another complex interchange before departing the city and metro area in a nearly due-east direction toward Ohio; the portion of I-70 east of Indianapolis has been designated as the "Anton Tony Hulman, Jr. Memorial Way". Tony Hulman is most known for rescuing the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in 1945 and making the Indianapolis 500 popular; this stretch of I-70 does not have any interchanges with any significant cities until it reaches Richmond, but it does pass within proximity of both Greenfield and New Castle. On the northwest side of Richmond, US 35 joins I-70 and remains on the freeway as both routes jointly cross into Ohio, it has an interchange with US 27 providing access to Richmond south of the interstate. On the east side of Richmond, US 40 intersects with I-70 to the west of the Ohio state line.
Like all Interstate highways in Indiana, I-70 was constructed in segments which, when all were complete, make up the route as it is today. There were three large segments in the western portion of the route between the Illinois border and I-465 in Indianapolis, five more in the eastern portion connecting the east side of Indianapolis to Ohio; the urban portions through the capital city itself within I-465 were deferred until the end of the Interstate construction process in the early to mid-1970s. The first section of Interstate 70 to be built in Indiana was the portion around Richmond east of the Centerville exit, which opened to traffic on September 17, 1961; the final portion outside of I-465 to be completed was the middle of the three western segments, located between SR 46 near Terre Haute and Indiana State Road 43, which opened on October 20, 1969. Within I-465, the short section between Shadeland Avenue and the I-465 interchange had opened along with the rest of I-70 from that point east to SR 9 near Greenfield on December 2, 1968.
Another section of I-70 on the southwest side of Indianapolis between the I-465 beltway and Holt Road had been completed and opened by December 10, 1969. But the remainder of the I-70 mileage through the heart of the city was not finished and open to traffic until around 1974. Between 2003 and 2005, I-70 was rebuilt about 1,000 feet south of its original alignment on the western edge of Indianapolis; this reconstruction was done to allow expansion of runways at Indianapolis International Airport and to facilitate development of access roads from I-70 to the site of the new midfield Col. H. Weir Cook Passenger Terminal Building at the airport. Indiana Highway Ends: Interstate 70
Vandalia is a city in Montgomery County, United States, a suburb of Dayton. Its population was 15,246 during the 2010 census. In addition to being the city closest to Dayton International Airport, Vandalia lies at the crossroads of I-75 and I-70, making it a major hub for business. Vandalia is a sister city to Lichtenfels and Prestwick, Scotland, it is part of the Dayton Metropolitan Statistical Area. Vandalia is about 10 miles north of Dayton on Dixie Drive, it is between the Stillwater River. The city has been called the "Crossroads of America" due to its location on the National Road and the Dixie Highway; these correspond to U. S. Route 40 and former U. S. Route 25, which in turn, have been supplanted by two major expressways: east-west Interstate 70 and north-south Interstate 75. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.41 square miles, of which, 12.34 square miles is land and 0.07 square miles is water. On August 17, 1838, Benjamin Wilhelm, a settler from Pennsylvania, settled near what is now the intersection of U.
S. Route 40 and US Route 25-A, he built a small general store as a stop and resting place for travelers heading west. The small town began to attract travelers and entrepreneurs, on February 7, 1848 the town was incorporated as "The Village of Vandalia" with Benjamin Wilhelm as its first mayor; the village was laid out in 38 lots including a church, blacksmiths shops, a steam sawmill, meat markets, a carriage shop. It was named after Illinois. By 1959, Vandalia was outgrowing its "village" status, its citizens voted to make it a council-manager form of government making the village into a municipal corporation. On January 2, 1960, Vandalia became a Charter City of the State of Ohio; the Delphi Automotive manufacturing plant in Vandalia, which opened in the 1930s, cut back operations in 2003. It continued to operate "through Delphi’s time in Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, from October 2005 to October 2009," and was purchased by Mahle Behr in 2015; until 2005, Vandalia was home to the Amateur Trapshooting Association, which moved to Sparta, Illinois after an expansion of the Dayton International Airport.
Some records indicate that Benjamin Wilhelm, the town's founder, settled in Vandalia on his way to Vandalia, Illinois. Instead he named his new town after his original destination. Others claim that the town was named Vandalia because the National Road was intended to extend to Vandalia, but, for a time, it looked as though it would not do so; this doubt resulted in the name being used for a town along the Road in Ohio. As of the census of 2010, there were 15,246 people, 6,571 households, 4,166 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,235.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,055 housing units at an average density of 571.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.5% White, 4.1% African American, 0.1% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 0.6% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.6% of the population. There were 6,571 households of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.5% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.6% were non-families.
31.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age in the city was 40.6 years. 23.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.4% male and 51.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 14,603 people, 6,235 households, 4,090 families residing in the city; as of 2009 there were 27,298 citizens. The population density was 1,236.5 people per square mile. There were 6,489 housing units at an average density of 549.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.08% White, 1.28% African American, 0.13% Native American, 1.23% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.35% from other races, 0.90% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.89% of the population. There were 6,235 households out of which 30.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.4% were non-families.
29.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.88. In the city the population was spread out with 23.6% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $44,463, the median income for a family was $55,270. Males had a median income of $41,938 versus $26,853 for females; the per capita income for the city was $24,199. About 3.5% of families and 5.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.2% of those under age 18 and 5.4% of those age 65 or over. In 2009 Vandalia and Butler Township officials announced plans to jointly staff two fire stations to improve service delivery and response times.
The joint agreement marks the third time in recent past that Vandalia City officials have joined with
Interstate 69 in Indiana
Interstate 69 presently has two discontinuous segments of freeway in the U. S. state of Indiana. The original 157.3-mile-long highway, completed in November 1971, runs northeasterly from the state capital of Indianapolis, to the city of Fort Wayne, proceeds north to the state of Michigan. This original section is known as Segment of Independent Utility 1 in the national plan for expansion of I-69; the 134-mile segment in Southwest Indiana presently temporarily begins at the interchange with U. S. Highway 41 and Veterans Memorial Parkway in Evansville and as of 18 September 2018 temporarily ends just south of State Road 39 near Martinsville. Between I-64 and Bloomington four new terrain sections have opened in phases in 2009, 2012, 2015 as part of the planned national extension of I-69 southwest from Indianapolis via Paducah, Memphis and Houston to the international border with Mexico in Texas; the portion of I-69 between US 41 and I-64 is known as the Robert D. Orr Highway and was designated I-164.
The original stretch of I-69 in Indiana begins with an interchange at the northeast corner of I-465, the Indianapolis outer beltway, where Binford Boulevard, a four-lane divided surface arterial that carried SR 37, transitions into the I-69 freeway. Southbound at this junction, most I-69 motorists take exit 200, known as exit 0, to remain on a freeway and reach either I-465 south or I-465 west. Running in a northeasterly direction and concurrent with SR 37, I-69 turns east-northeast at the end of that overlap just past mile marker 205 in Fishers. From there, the freeway turns more easterly through the Campus Parkway/Southeastern Parkway interchange and remains on that general heading until it reaches the Pendleton area. After bypassing Pendleton to the west and north, SR 9 and SR 67 join I-69, which continues to the east-northeast into the Anderson area. There, SR 9 departs, shortly thereafter I-69 begins two long curves to the northeast, the north. Between Daleville and Chesterfield, SR 67 departs I-69, bound for Muncie.
From the Anderson–Muncie region, I-69 continues north, running concurrently with US 35 between SR 28 east of Alexandria and SR 22 near Gas City. After passing SR 18 east of Marion, I-69 heads more northeast, straight toward the Fort Wayne metro area. At the south junction of I-469, located at Lafayette Center Road near the General Motors truck assembly plant, US 33 joins I-69. US 24 used to be cosigned with I-69 from this point to the interchange at Jefferson Boulevard though it took travelers on that route several miles out of their way. However, in the mid-2010s, INDOT rerouted and resigned US 24 from its junction with I-469 in New Haven to use the northern leg of that beltway to I-69 south on the parent Interstate route to the aforementioned Jefferson Boulevard interchange. Now, eastbound US 24 joins US 33 there. US 33 continues on north to the Goshen Road interchange near Coliseum Boulevard on the northwest side of Fort Wayne, where it departs I-69, eastbound US 30 joins, the freeway curves more to the east once again.
The next junction is the US 27/SR 3 interchange at Lima Road on the north side of Fort Wayne. From the mid-1960s to 2001, US 27 was rerouted onto a concurrency with I-69 from here north to the Michigan border, but the route was thereafter truncated to this point as its national northern terminus. Past the next interchange at Coldwater Road, the original routing of US 27 north of town, the I-69 freeway curves back to a northerly heading. At the north junction of I-469, both US 30 and the present routing of US 24 now depart to the east along that beltway and shortly thereafter I-69 leaves the Fort Wayne metro area. I-69 continues north, passing just to the west of Auburn and Angola, before reaching the I-80/90 Indiana East–West Toll Road near Fremont. Shortly thereafter, the route crosses into the state of Michigan at a point just northwest of Fremont; the portion of I-69 between Indianapolis and the Toll Road was first proposed in the seminal report Interregional Highways, released in January 1944.
By March 1946, it was formally made part of the new National System of Interstate Highways by the U. S. Public Roads Administration. In 1958, its first extension was approved; this took the route into Michigan. It was extended yet again, north to Lansing in the 1960s, east—first to Flint and to the border with Canada at Port Huron, Michigan—in the 1980s; the extreme southern portion of I-69 from I-465 to central Indianapolis was never built, though unpaved ghost ramps and overpasses for its connection to I-65 and I-70 can still be seen at the North Split/Spaghetti Bowl interchange just northeast of downtown Indy. All of I-69 in Indiana north of the Indianapolis metro area was four lanes, but INDOT has reconstructed and widened I-69 to six lanes through most of the Fort Wayne metro area by adding a travel lane in the median for each direction. INDOT has widened I-69 from I-465 on the northeast side of Indianapolis to 116th Street/SR 37 in Fishers from the original six to eight through lanes, with additional auxiliary lanes between interchanges.
A project to add a third travel lane in the median for each direction between 116th Street/SR 37 and SR 38 near Pendleton, as well as to rebuild the Campus Parkway/Southeastern Parkway junction as a Divergent Diamond Interchange without necessitating its closure to tra
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi