Crosstalk is a science fiction novel by Connie Willis, published in 2016. It is a romantic comedy. In a similar situation to Bellwether and Passage, the main character, Briddey Flannigan, is part of a larger institution who gets caught up in series of escalating events. Additionally, Crosstalk like Bellwether and Passage feature themes of neuroscience and technology. Briddey Flannigan, part of the middle management of a tech-company is engaged to one of the senior executives; the company is experimenting with communication technology that transmits neural activity as spoken words. The technology is still being tested and theoretically relies on emotional bonds between two people to work effectively. Briddey agrees to become part of the experiment but it goes wrong, upending her life. Crosstalk's reception was not as enthusiastic as for some of her previous work. For example, Amal El-Mohtar at NPR Books said the book was "not a great showcase" of Connie Willis oeuvre and Noah Berlatsky with The Los Angeles Times wrote that it was "frustrating".
However Eric Brown at The Guardian was more upbeat writing that "Willis tells a fast-paced tale with well-observed dialogue and some gentle humour."
Balaji Patturaj, popularly known as RJ Balaji, is an Indian radio jockey, presenter and actor based in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. He is best known as the host of the BIG FM 92.7 shows The Night Show with RJ Balaji, Take it Easy and its now defunct segment Cross Talk, where he made prank calls to unsuspecting victims. Although a radio jockey, Balaji is active in other fields, he has been a presenter at many inter-school cultural events in Chennai, a cricket commentator, has contributed to many social causes, such as providing relief support to the victims of the 2015 South Indian floods along with other actors. Balaji was born on 20 June 1985, was raised in Chennai, he has one younger brother, three younger sisters. He said. Balaji said in a 2013 interview with The Hindu that he changed 24 houses and 11 schools while growing up in Chennai, because his "mother just cannot stay in one place, she would move from Perambur to Thiruvanmiyur to Mylapore... no place close to each other." He failed in the twelfth grade once.
Before the news of his failure could spread in his neighbourhood and his family shifted to another locality. Balaji roamed around in random company and assisted his friend, an AC mechanic, to keep himself occupied. Balaji passed in the twelfth grade, when he was in college, he realised that his strength was in interaction, that the attention and acclaim he received in his college culturals gave him confidence and he realised that he had to be in the media. After completing his B. Sc computer science from the Kumararani Meena Muthiah College of Arts in 2006, Balaji joined the Amrita School of Communication in Coimbatore for a Postgraduate Diploma in Journalism, because he wanted to become like his cousin who worked at NDTV, but when he was asked to write a report on his hostel's canteen, the 56-word report contained 47 grammatical errors, he soon realised that English journalism was not what he was interested in. At that time he saw a newspaper advertisement of a radio station that auditioned for radio jockeys and he applied for it, though he "never knew what an RJ was back then".
He said that he did not get selected when he sang a gaana but was selected in November 2006. He has not completed his journalism course since. Balaji started his career as a radio jockey at Radio Mirchi Coimbatore, where he hosted a three-hour morning drive show called Hello Coimbatore which dealt with social issues. After four years he quit the job as he "didn't want to sound angry all the time" and returned to Chennai where his family and friends were living, he joined at BIG FM 92.7 because they gave him freedom to design his four-hour slot. The evening prime-time show was created to give people a "break from the serious stuff that they have to deal with during work hours and relax with the nonsense". Balaji created another segment in Take it Easy, titled Cross Talk, where he made prank calls to unsuspecting victims, nominated by a friend, cousin, co-worker or neighbour. On how the segment developed, Balaji said, "I was assigned to do a serious socially-relevant show in the beginning but Big gave me the chance to talk about anything in Take It Easy.
Once when I was talking to a couple about something serious, people who listened found it funny. That's how Cross Talk happened". Balaji described Radio Mirchi's Senthil Kumar, who taught him radio and its basics at Coimbatore, as his favourite RJ, said, "whatever I am right now is because of him."Cross Talk became popular among youths. The links went viral. Besides India, most of the downloads were in the United States, United Arab Emirates, Seychelles and Spain; the show earned him the moniker "Cross Talk Balaji". In November 2011, Balaji and BIG FM RJ's Muthu and Ophelia conducted "Little RJ Hunt", a three-phased event organised as part of the radio station's Children's Day celebrations. Balaji won the RJ of the Year and Best Programme Broadcast after 11am awards for Take it Easy at the 2012 Indian Excellence in Radio Awards, he was named amongst the Top 10 Promising Personalities of Tamil Nadu in 2012 by Ananda Vikatan Group. Balaji was the host for the 2013 event "BIG Manasa Thotta Singer", conducted by BIG FM.
He has been running the "RJ Balaji Skool of Radio Studies" since August 2013. Three apps on Balaji have been developed: an Android app named "RJ Balaji", an iOS app titled "RJ Balaji Official", a Windows Phone app as well. In December 2012, Balaji discontinued Cross Talk, in response to the suicide of Jacintha Saldanha. In November 2013, he decided to stop the segment 120 Rs. on his show where he reviewed Tamil films, after he had been criticised by actors and producers from the Tamil film industry. A few months before, he had been threatened by an employee from UTV Motion Pictures for his review of Settai. Via Twitter, he announced, "I am a normal guy who wants to go home happy. I can't handle aftermath of every show on films. After a lot of thought, I have decided not to speak about films until there's tolerance and maturity among certain people from film fraternity, most unlikely to happen. So,'120 show' is no more", he further state
Xiangsheng known as crosstalk, is a traditional Chinese comedic performing art, one of China's most popular cultural elements. It is in the form of a duo dialogue between two performers, but much less can be a monologue by a solo performer, or less a group act by multiple performers; the xiangsheng language, rich in puns and allusions, is delivered in a rapid, bantering style in the Beijing dialect. The acts would sometimes include Chinese rapping and musical instruments. Canadian xiangsheng comedian Dashan says the closest equivalent in English would be Abbott and Costello's "Who's on First?" sketch. Modern xiangsheng is made up of four classic skills: Speaking Imitating Teasing Singing. Xiangsheng is thought to have taken form in the late Qing Dynasty during the rule of the Xianfeng Emperor and the Tongzhi Emperor in the mid-1800s, although its roots may extend as far back as the Ming Dynasty, it began as a form of street performance incorporating joke-telling, comedic banter, imitations, or borrowing from other forms of performance art such as Peking Opera, all with the express purpose of making audiences laugh.
By the early days of the Republic of China, xiangsheng had evolved to the format as it is known today, is performed in teahouses and theatres as well as on radio and television. There are three major sources of Xiangsheng: Beijing Tianqiao, Tianjin Quanyechang, Nanjing Confucius Temple; the origins of some of the traditional xiangsheng pieces still being performed today can be traced back well over 100 years, although in many cases the original author is unattributed. Many skits in the body of work known as "traditional xiangsheng" have evolved through generations of performers successively revising material, retaining the general structure or "heart" of a piece while updating specific references with more modern material; the earliest xiangsheng comedian known by name is Zhang Sanlu, who performed during the mid-nineteenth century. A performer of traditional Manchu style drum-song, Zhang switched to doing imitations and telling humorous stories and was considered by artists to have been the first xiangsheng performer.
After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the popularity of xiangsheng increased. What had been seen as low-class street performing was now regarded as a proletarian art form, the fact that xiangsheng was performed in Standard Chinese made it a useful tool for promoting the use of Putonghua throughout the nation. Hou Baolin led a group of xiangsheng performers to reform xiangsheng in the 1950s, removing what was considered "vulgar" language and content and making xiangsheng more "politically correct". Xiangsheng began to be revered as an art form rather than lowly street performing. Hou became regarded as a master of xiangsheng and is characterized as being "China's Charlie Chaplin"; as with many forms of performance art, xiangsheng was banned during the Cultural Revolution but enjoyed a huge resurgence in the mid-1970s with many skits satirizing the Gang of Four and excesses of this period. With the popularization of television in the 1980s, xiangsheng became a standard feature of CCTV's annual New Year's Gala and other popular performing arts shows in China.
Xiangsheng entered a period of decline in the 1990s, resulting in large part by increased official sensitivity towards political and social satire following the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 as well as the lack of performance venues outside of sanitized state-run television programming. Many performers called for a return to the teahouses and small theatres that had traditionally been the main venue for xiangsheng performances but whose use in this regard had completely vanished. A new generation of xiangsheng performers emerged from this movement, the most prominent of these being Guo Degang. Guo is credited with renewing interest among young audiences reared in the Internet age who found xiangsheng to be boring and didactic. Guo's rise to fame, while representing a traditionalist movement, pitted him against more mainstream, establishment performers such as Jiang Kun. To appeal to younger audiences, in recent years animators have created animated versions of various skits using audio from past broadcasts.
The animated versions use humour in a literal sense, illustrating scenes or stories described by the performers. The small scale and popularity of xiangsheng make it second only to word of mouth in reflecting popular concerns. Hou Baolin and others have said that xiangsheng items are "works of comic nature which use satire and humour as their principal base; the cross talks use witty speech, ridiculous ridicule, in order to achieve the purpose of arrogant "big laugh" and entertaining people. Its earliest form was derived from the juggling of "Yuyou". In these jokes, artists pinned their mockery and whipping against the rulers, their satirical content strikes home at contemporary malpractices and often includes political satire." The role of xiangsheng in the social commentary was seen after the fall of the Gang of Four in 1976 when xiangsheng performances provided the first open criticisms of the gang. After 1976, xiangsheng has provided satire concerning corrupt of
Biological crosstalk refers to instances in which one or more components of one signal transduction pathway affects another. This can be achieved through a number of ways with the most common form being crosstalk between proteins of signaling cascades. In these signal transduction pathways, there are shared components that can interact with either pathway. A more complex instance of crosstalk can be observed with transmembrane crosstalk between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. One example of crosstalk between proteins in a signalling pathway can be seen with cyclic adenosine monophosphate's role in regulating cell proliferation by interacting with the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. CAMP is a compound synthesized in cells by adenylate cyclase in response to a variety of extracellular signals. CAMP acts as an intracellular second messenger whose major intracellular receptor is the cAMP-dependent protein kinase that acts through the phosphorylation of target proteins; the signal transduction pathway begins with ligand-receptor interactions extracellularly.
This signal is transduced through the membrane, stimulating adenylyl cyclase on the inner membrane surface to catalyze the conversion of ATP to cAMP. ERK, a participating protein in the MAPK signaling pathway, can be activated or inhibited by cAMP. CAMP can inhibit ERKs in a variety of ways, most of which involve the cAMP-dependent protein kinase and the inhibition of Ras-dependent signals to Raf-1. However, cAMP can stimulate cell proliferation by stimulating ERKs; this occurs through the induction of specific genes via phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB by PKA. Though ERKs do not appear to be a requirement for this phosphorylation of CREB, the MAPK pathway does play into crosstalk again, as ERKs are required to phosphorylate proteins downstream of CREB. Other known examples of the requirement of ERKs for cAMP-induced transcriptional effects include induction of the prolactin gene in pituitary cells, of the dopamine beta-hydroxylate gene in pheochromocytomal cells. A number of diverse mechanisms exist by.
Most mechanisms involving cAMP inhibition of ERKs uncouple Raf-1 from Ras activation through direct interaction of PKA with Raf-1 or indirectly through PKA interaction with the GTPase Rap1. PKA may negatively regulate ERKs by the activation of PTPases. Mechanisms for the activation of ERKs by cAMP are more varied including Rap1 or Ras, cAMP directly. Crosstalk can be observed across membranes. Membrane interactions with the extracellular matrix and with neighboring cells can trigger a variety of responses within the cell. However, the topography and mechanical properties of the ECM come to play an important role in powerful, complex crosstalk with the cells growing on or inside the matrix. For example, integrin-mediated cytoskeleton assembly and cell motility are affected by the physical state of the ECM. Binding of the α5β1 integrin to its ligand activates the formation of fibrillar adhesions and actin filaments. Yet, if the ECM is immobilized, matrix reorganization of this kind and formation of fibrillar adhesions is inhibited.
In turn, binding of the same integrin to an immobilized fibronectin ligand is seen to form phosphorylated focal contacts/focal adhesion within the membrane and reduces cell migration rates In another example of crosstalk, this change in the composition of focal contacts in the cytoskeleton can be inhibited by members of yet another pathway: inhibitors of myosin light-chain kinases or Rho kinases, H-7 or ML-7, which reduce cell contractility and motility.. A more complex, specific example of crosstalk between two major signaling pathways can be observed with the interaction of the cAMP and MAPK signaling pathways in the activation of lymphocytes. In this case, components of the cAMP pathway directly and indirectly affect MAPK signaling pathway meant to activate genes involving immunity and lymphocytes. Newly formed cAMP is released from the membrane and diffuses across the intracellular space where it serves to activate PKA; the catalytic subunit of PKA must bind four molecules of cAMP to be activated, whereupon activation consists of cleavage between the regulatory and catalytic subunits.
This cleavage in turn activates PKA by exposing the catalytic sites of the C subunits, which can phosphorylate an array of proteins in the cell. In lymphocytes, the intracellular levels of cAMP increase upon antigen-receptor stimulation and more so in response to prostaglandin E and other immunosupression agents. In this case, cAMP serves to inhibit immunity players. PKA type I colocalizes with the T-cell and B-cell antigen receptors and causes inhibition of T- and B-cell activation. PKA has been highlighted as a direct inducer of genes contributing to immunosupression. Additionally, the cAMP pathway interacts with the MAPK pathway in a more indirect manner through its interaction with hematopoietic PTPase. HePTP is expressed in all leukocytes; when overexpressed in T-cells, HePTP reduces the transcriptional activation of the interleukin-2 promoter induced by the activated T-cell receptor through a MAPK signaling cascade. The way that HePTP inhibits the MAPK signaling is by interacting with the MAP kinases Erk1, Erk2, p38 through a short sequence in HePTP’s non-catalytic N terminus termed the kinase interaction motif.
The highly-specific binding of Erk and p38 to this subunit of HePTP results in rapid inactivation of the signaling cascade. Yet, since both HePTP and Erk are cytosolic enzymes, it is reasonable to conclude that there exists a mechanism for the
CrossTalk is a current affairs debate television program on RT. Billed as the flagship program of the network, it is hosted by American journalist Peter Lavelle from RT's studios in Moscow, it is dedicated to discussions on global affairs, with Lavelle moderating conversation between several guests. The show was created by Lavelle who hosted IMHO and In Context for RT, it featured input from Yelena Khanga who provided the background story on the topic of discussion for the day. CrossTalk airs for 30 minutes. Guests are encouraged to intervene whenever they wish, which according to Oliver Bullough in the New Statesman, means the conversation can "degrade into comprehensible shouting". In a 2010 episode of CrossTalk, Lavelle's two guests — Douglas Murray of the Centre for Social Cohesion and Anne-Elisabeth Moutet of the Rousseau Institute — were taken aback when he said that the perpetrators of the September 11 attacks were "not fundamentalists". Lavelle said this particular episode was a "fiasco" because he lacked a "balanced pair of experts".
An edition in July 2016 was a response to a NATO summit in which all participants were critical of the alliance. One participant said NATO was "a minute group of megalomaniac powerbrokers hell bent on sending us into a third world war". According to Lavelle, he had been prevented from showing a defence of NATO in captions because of technical problems, although anti-NATO captions were shown. Dominic Kennedy in The Times of London reported in August 2016 that the programme has conveyed conspiracy theories that the September 11 attacks were an inside job and AIDS being caused by AIDS drugs themselves. Official site CrossTalk on YouTube