South Dakota is a U. S. state in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux Native American tribes, who compose a large portion of the population and dominated the territory. South Dakota is the seventeenth largest by area, but the fifth smallest by population and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States; as the southern part of the former Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889 with North Dakota. Pierre is the state capital and Sioux Falls, with a population of about 187,200, is South Dakota's largest city. South Dakota is bordered by the states of North Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska and Montana; the state is bisected by the Missouri River, dividing South Dakota into two geographically and distinct halves, known to residents as "East River" and "West River". Eastern South Dakota is home to most of the state's population, the area's fertile soil is used to grow a variety of crops. West of the Missouri, ranching is the predominant agricultural activity, the economy is more dependent on tourism and defense spending.
Most of the Native American reservations are in West River. The Black Hills, a group of low pine-covered mountains sacred to the Sioux, are in the southwest part of the state. Mount Rushmore, a major tourist destination, is there. South Dakota has a temperate continental climate, with four distinct seasons and precipitation ranging from moderate in the east to semi-arid in the west; the state's ecology features species typical of a North American grassland biome. Humans have inhabited the area for several millennia, with the Sioux becoming dominant by the early 19th century. In the late 19th century, European-American settlement intensified after a gold rush in the Black Hills and the construction of railroads from the east. Encroaching miners and settlers triggered a number of Indian wars, ending with the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890. Key events in the 20th century included the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, increased federal spending during the 1940s and 1950s for agriculture and defense, an industrialization of agriculture that has reduced family farming.
While several Democratic senators have represented South Dakota for multiple terms at the federal level, the state government is controlled by the Republican Party, whose nominees have carried South Dakota in each of the last 13 presidential elections. Dominated by an agricultural economy and a rural lifestyle, South Dakota has sought to diversify its economy in areas to attract and retain residents. South Dakota's history and rural character still influence the state's culture. South Dakota is in the north-central United States, is considered a part of the Midwest by the U. S. Census Bureau; the culture and geography of western South Dakota have more in common with the West than the Midwest. South Dakota has a total area of 77,116 square miles, making the state the 17th largest in the Union. Black Elk Peak named Harney Peak, with an elevation of 7,242 ft, is the state's highest point, while the shoreline of Big Stone Lake is the lowest, with an elevation of 966 ft. South Dakota is bordered to the north by North Dakota.
The geographical center of the U. S. is 17 miles west of Castle Rock in Butte County. The North American continental pole of inaccessibility is between Allen and Kyle, 1,024 mi from the nearest coastline; the Missouri River is the longest river in the state. Other major South Dakota rivers include the Cheyenne, Big Sioux, White Rivers. Eastern South Dakota has many natural lakes created by periods of glaciation. Additionally, dams on the Missouri River create four large reservoirs: Lake Oahe, Lake Sharpe, Lake Francis Case, Lewis and Clark Lake. South Dakota can be divided into three regions: eastern South Dakota, western South Dakota, the Black Hills; the Missouri River serves as a boundary in terms of geographic and political differences between eastern and western South Dakota. The geography of the Black Hills, long considered sacred by Native Americans, differs from its surroundings to such an extent it can be considered separate from the rest of western South Dakota. At times the Black Hills are combined with the rest of western South Dakota, people refer to the resulting two regions divided by the Missouri River as West River and East River.
Eastern South Dakota features higher precipitation and lower topography than the western part of the state. Smaller geographic regions of this area include the Coteau des Prairies, the Dissected Till Plains, the James River Valley; the Coteau des Prairies is a plateau bordered on the east by the Minnesota River Valley and on the west by the James River Basin. Further west, the James River Basin is low, flat eroded land, following the flow of the James River through South Dakota from north to south; the Dissected Till Plains, an area of rolling hills and fertile soil that covers much of Iowa and Nebraska, extends into the southeastern corner of South Dakota. Layers deposited during the Pleistocene epoch, starting around two million years ago, cover most of eastern South Dakota; these are the youngest rock and sediment layers in the state, the product of several successive periods of glaciation which deposited a large amount of rocks and soil, known as till, over the area. The Great Plains cover most of the western two-thirds of South Dakota.
West of the Missouri Rive
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located; each of the 326 Indian reservations in the United States is associated with a particular Native American nation. Not all of the country's 567 recognized tribes have a reservation—some tribes have more than one reservation, while some share reservations. In addition, because of past land allotments, leading to some sales to non–Native Americans, some reservations are fragmented, with each piece of tribal and held land being a separate enclave; this jumble of private and public real estate creates significant administrative and legal difficulties. The collective geographical area of all reservations is 56,200,000 acres the size of Idaho. While most reservations are small compared to U. S. states, there are 12 Indian reservations larger than the state of Rhode Island.
The largest reservation, the Navajo Nation Reservation, is similar in size to West Virginia. Reservations are unevenly distributed throughout the country; because tribes possess the concept of tribal sovereignty though it is limited, laws on tribal lands vary from those of the surrounding area. These laws can permit legal casinos for example, which attract tourists; the tribal council, not the local government or the United States federal government has jurisdiction over reservations. Different reservations have different systems of government, which may or may not replicate the forms of government found outside the reservation. Most Native American reservations were established by the federal government; the name "reservation" comes from the conception of the Native American tribes as independent sovereigns at the time the U. S. Constitution was ratified. Thus, the early peace treaties in which Native American tribes surrendered large portions of land to the U. S. designated parcels which the tribes, as sovereigns, "reserved" to themselves, those parcels came to be called "reservations".
The term remained in use after the federal government began to forcibly relocate tribes to parcels of land to which they had no historical connection. Today a majority of Native Americans and Alaska Natives live somewhere other than the reservations in larger western cities such as Phoenix and Los Angeles. In 2012, there were with about 1 million living on reservations. From the beginning of the European colonization of the Americas, Europeans removed native peoples from lands they wished to occupy; the means varied, including treaties made under considerable duress, forceful ejection, violence, in a few cases voluntary moves based on mutual agreement. The removal caused many problems such as tribes losing means of livelihood by being subjected to a defined area, farmers having inadmissible land for agriculture, hostility between tribes; the first reservation was established in southern New Jersey on 29 August 1758. It was called Brotherton Indian Reservation and Edgepillock or Edgepelick; the area was 3284 acres.
Today it is called Indian Mills in Shamong Township. In 1764 the "Plan for the Future Management of Indian Affairs" was proposed by the Board of Trade. Although never adopted formally, the plan established the imperial government's expectation that land would only be bought by colonial governments, not individuals, that land would only be purchased at public meetings. Additionally, this plan dictated that the Indians would be properly consulted when ascertaining and defining the boundaries of colonial settlement; the private contracts that once characterized the sale of Indian land to various individuals and groups—from farmers to towns—were replaced by treaties between sovereigns. This protocol was adopted by the United States Government after the American Revolution. On 11 March 1824, John C. Calhoun founded the Office of Indian Affairs as a division of the United States Department of War, to solve the land problem with 38 treaties with American Indian tribes; the document “Indian Treaties, Laws and Regulations Relating to Indian Affairs”’ published in 1825 in Washington City, America was signed by president Andrew Jackson.
He states that “we have placed the land reserves in a better state for the benefit of society” with approval of Indigenous reservations prior to 1850. The letter is signed by Isaac Shelby and the American President and discusses several regulations regarding Indigenous people of America and the approval of Indigenous segregation and the reservation system. President Martin Van Buren writes a Treaty with the Saginaw Tribe of Chippewas in 1837 to build a light house; the President of the United States of America was directly involved in the creation of new Treaties regarding Indian Reservations before 1850. He says Indigenous Reservations are “all their reserves of land in the state of Michigan, on the principle of said reserves being sold at the public land offices for their benefit and the actual proceeds being paid to them.” The agreement is for the Indigenous Tribe to sell their land, based on a Reservation to build a “lighthouse.” President, Martin Van Buren wants to buy Indigenous Reservation Land to build infrastructure.
A Treaty signed by John Forsyth, the Secretary of State on behalf of, President Martin Van Buren of the United
The Mandan are a Native American tribe of the Great Plains who have lived for centuries in what is now North Dakota. They are enrolled in the Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation. About half of the Mandan still reside in the area of the reservation; the Mandan lived along both banks of the Upper Missouri River and two of its tributaries—the Heart and Knife rivers— in present-day North and South Dakota. Speakers of Mandan, a Siouan language, they developed a agrarian culture, they established permanent villages featuring large, earth lodges, some 40 feet in diameter, surrounding a central plaza. Matrilineal families lived in the lodges; the Mandan were a great trading nation, trading their large corn surpluses with other tribes in exchange for bison meat and fat. Food was the primary item, but they traded for horses and other trade goods; the Mandan population was 3,600 in the early 18th century. It is estimated to have been 10,000-15,000 before European encounter. Decimated by a widespread smallpox epidemic in 1781, the people had to abandon several villages, remnants of the Hidatsa gathered with them in a reduced number of villages.
In 1836, there were more than 1,600 full-blood Mandans but, following another smallpox epidemic in 1836-37, this number was estimated to have dropped to 125 by 1838. In the 20th century, the people began to recover. In the 1990s, 6,000 people were enrolled in the Three Affiliated Tribes. In the 2010 Census, 1,171 people reported Mandan ancestry; some 365 of them identified as full-bloods, 806 had partial Mandan ancestry. The English name Mandan is derived from the French-Canadian explorer Pierre Gaultier, Sieur de la Verendrye, who in 1738 heard it as Mantannes from his Assiniboine guides, which call the Mandan Mayádąna, he had heard the earth lodge peoples referred to by the Cree as Ouachipouennes, "the Sioux who go underground". The Assiniboine are Siouan speakers. Nearby Siouan speakers had exonyms similar to Mantannes in their languages, for instance, Teton Miwáthaŋni or Miwátąni, Yanktonai Miwátani, Yankton Mawátani or Mąwátanį, Dakota Mawátąna or Mawátadą, etc; the Mandan have used differing autonyms to refer to themselves: Numakaki was inclusive and not limited to a specific village or band.
This name was used before the smallpox epidemic of 1837-1838. Nueta, the name used after this epidemic was the name of Mandan villagers living on the west bank of the Missouri River; the Mandan used Nųmą́khų́·ki / Rųwą́ʔka·ki to refer to a general tribal entity. This word fell to disuse and instead two divisions' names were used, Nuweta or Ruptare; the term Nų́ʔetaa / Rų́ʔeta was extended to refer to a general tribal entity. The name Mi-ah´ta-nēs recorded by Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden in 1862 means "people on the river bank", but this may be a folk etymology. Various other terms and alternate spellings that occur in the literature including: Mayátana, Mayátani, Mąwádanį, Mąwádąδį, Mandani, Mantannes, Mendanne, Mandians, Maw-dân, les Mandals, Me-too´-ta-häk, Numakshi, Rųwą́'kši, Wíhwatann, Mevataneo. Gloria Jahoda in Trail of Tears states that they call themselves the "Pheasant people." George Catlin said the Mandans The Mandan language or Nų́ų́ʔetaa íroo belongs to the Siouan language family. It was thought to be related to the languages of the Hidatsa and the Crow.
However, since the Mandan language has been in contact with Hidatsa and Crow for many years, the exact relationship between Mandan and other Siouan languages has been obscured. For this reason, linguists classify Mandan most as a separate branch of the Siouan family. Mandan has two main dialects: Nuetare. Only the Nuptare variety survived into the 20th century, all speakers were bilingual in Hidatsa. Linguist Mauricio Mixco of the University of Utah has been involved in fieldwork with remaining speakers since 1993; as of 1999, there were only six fluent speakers of Mandan still alive. As of 2010, programs in local schools encourage students' learning the language; the Mandan and their language received much attention from European Americans, in part because their lighter skin color caused speculation they were of European origin. In the 1830s, Prince Maximilian of Wied spent more time recording Mandan over all other Siouan languages and additionally prepared a comparison list of Mandan and Welsh words.
The theory of the Mandan/Welsh connection, was supported by George Catlin, but researchers have found no evidence of such ancestry. Mandan has different grammatical forms. Questions asked of men must use the suffix -oʔša while the suffix -oʔrą is used when asking of women; the indicative suffix is -oʔs when addressing men and -oʔre when addressing women, for imperatives: -ta, -rą. Mandan, like many other North American languages, has elements of sound symbolism in their vocabulary. A /s/ sound denotes smallness/less intensity, /ʃ/ denotes medium-ness, /x/ denotes largeness/greater intensity: síre "yellow" šíre "tawny" xíre "brown" sró "tinkle" xró "rattle" The exact origins and early history of the Mandan is unknown. Early studies by linguists gave evidence that the Mandan language may have been related to the language of the Ho-Chunk or Winnebago people of present-day Wisconsin. Scholars theorize the Mandan ance
Hughes County, South Dakota
Hughes County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 17,022, making it the least populous capital county in the nation, the twelfth-most populous county in South Dakota, its county seat is Pierre, the state capital. The county was created in 1873, was organized in 1880, it was named for a legislator. On 4 June 1891, the county's area was increased by the addition of Farm Island, in the Missouri River downstream of Pierre. Hughes County is part of SD Micropolitan Statistical Area; the Missouri River forms the southwestern boundary line of Hughes County. The county's terrain consists of rolling hills cut by drainages; the area is dedicated to agriculture, including the use of center pivot irrigation. The county terrain slopes to the southeast, although the hills along the west fall off into the river valley; the county's highest point is on the upper part of the east boundary line, at 1,952' ASL. The county has a total area of 801 square miles, of which 742 square miles is land and 59 square miles is water.
Pierre Regional Airport serves the surrounding communities. Lake Oahe Lake Sharpe Woodruff Lake As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 16,481 people, 6,512 households, 4,310 families in the county; the population density was 22 people per square mile. There were 7,055 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.91% White, 0.19% Black or African American, 8.70% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.31% from other races, 1.47% from two or more races. 1.22% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,512 households out of which 33.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.00% were married couples living together, 8.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.80% were non-families. 29.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.00.
The county population contained 27.80% under the age of 18, 6.20% from 18 to 24, 28.60% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, 13.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $42,970, the median income for a family was $51,235. Males had a median income of $32,228 versus $22,656 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,689. About 6.00% of families and 8.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.80% of those under age 18 and 10.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 17,022 people, 7,066 households, 4,435 families in the county; the population density was 23.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,623 housing units at an average density of 10.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 85.7% white, 10.5% American Indian, 0.5% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 42.7% were German, 12.4% were Norwegian, 9.8% were Irish, 9.7% were English, 3.8% were American. Of the 7,066 households, 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.5% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.2% were non-families, 32.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age was 39.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $53,501 and the median income for a family was $70,881. Males had a median income of $42,701 versus $32,265 for females; the per capita income for the county was $28,236. About 7.1% of families and 9.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.5% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over. Hughes is a Republican county in Presidential and Congressional elections; the last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1936.
In 2012, Republican Mitt Romney won 64% of the county's vote. In the South Dakota Senate Hughes is part of the 24th Senate district, held by Republican Bob Gray. In the State House Hughes is part of district 24, held by Republicans Tad Perry and Mark Venner. Blunt Pierre Harrold Canning Raber Valley Crow Creek North Hughes West Hughes National Register of Historic Places listings in Hughes County, South Dakota
Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska
The Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska is one of two federally recognized tribes of Ho-Chunk Native Americans. The other Ho-Chunk tribe is the Ho-Chunk Nation of Wisconsin; the name Winnebago comes from an Algonquin term "People of the Filthy Water." Tribe members refer to themselves as Hochungra - "People of the Parent Speech". The Winnebago Reservation, established in 1863, is located in Thurston and Dixon Counties and Woodbury County, Iowa, their entire land base is 27,637 acres large. In 1990, 1,151 tribal members lived on the reservation; the Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska is headquartered in Nebraska. The tribe is governed by a democratically elected general council; the current administration is. The Winnebago Tribe speaks English and the Ho-Chunk language, a Chiwere-Winnebago language, part of the Siouan-Catawban language family. Ho-Chunk, Inc. is the tribe's corporation that provides construction services, professional services, business and consumer products. The Winnebago Tribe owns and operates the WinnaVegas Casino Resort and Flowers Island Restaurant and Buffet, all located in Sloan, Iowa.
Joba Chamberlain, Major League Baseball pitcher Angel De Cora, artist and Indian rights activist Terri Crawford Hansen, journalist Henry Roe Cloud, college administrator, US federal government official, Presbyterian minister, first fullblood Native American to attend Yale College Lillian St. Cyr, known as Red Wing, a Winnebago actress of the silent film era Frank LaMere, advocate, politician John Raymond Rice, U. S. Army in service of UN Forces in Korean War Lexie Wakan LaMere, first native to graduate from Senate Page school, youngest delegate in the Nebraska Democratic Party Ho-Chunk religion Little Priest Tribal College Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1 Official Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska website Ho-Chunk, Inc. economic development arm of the Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska Constitution of the Winnebago Tribe, Winnebago Reservation, in the State of Nebraska
Chamberlain, South Dakota
Chamberlain is a city in Brule County, South Dakota, United States. It is located on the Eastern bank of the Lake Francis Case dammed section of the Missouri river, close to where it is crossed by Interstate 90 highway; the population of Chamberlain was 2,387 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Brule County. Chamberlain is home to the St. Joseph's Indian School, which includes the Akta Lakota Museum and Cultural Center, which profiles the lives of nomadic Plains Indians. Chamberlain is the home of the South Dakota Hall of Fame, the 50-foot statue of a Native American woman, stands nearby. Chamberlain was named after Selah Chamberlain, a railroad director of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway. Chamberlain is located at 43°49′20″N 99°19′42″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.84 square miles, of which, 6.64 square miles is land and 1.20 square miles is water. Chamberlain has been assigned the ZIP code range 57325-57326 and the FIPS place code 11220.
As of the census of 2010, there were 2,387 people, 1,040 households, 589 families residing in the city. The population density was 359.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,142 housing units at an average density of 172.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 81.9% White, 0.3% African American, 14.8% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.5% of the population. There were 1,040 households of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.1% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 43.4% were non-families. 36.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 15% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age in the city was 41.8 years. 24.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 45.7% male and 54.3% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,338 people, 942 households, 550 families residing in the city. The population density was 360.8 people per square mile. There were 1,044 housing units at an average density of 161.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.83% White, 0.60% African American, 10.18% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.13% from other races, 1.84% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.68% of the population. There were 942 households out of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.3% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.6% were non-families. 36.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 3.01. In the city the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 17.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.6 males. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $34,487, the median income for a family was $43,500. Males had a median income of $29,545 versus $22,009 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,018. About 4.4% of families and 12.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.9% of those under age 18 and 25.9% of those age 65 or over