Sauk Rapids, Minnesota
Sauk Rapids is a city in Benton County, United States. The population is 13,722 according to 2017 census estimates, it is located on a set of rapids on the Mississippi River near its confluence with the Sauk River. Sauk Rapids is part of the St. Cloud Metropolitan Statistical Area. Sauk Rapids was little more than a forest of oak and basswood trees along the Mississippi River until the first home was constructed there in 1851, a large mansion named Lynden Terrace erected by W. H. Wood. Soon other settlers followed and the town was named Sauk Rapids after the rapids just below the Sauk River's mouth on the Mississippi. Soon a general store was built a hotel, a large jail; the first settlers organized a Congregational church, soon followed by a Methodist, an Episcopalian and a Lutheran church. The first paper outside of St. Paul was the "Sauk Rapids Frontiersman," founded in 1854. A flour mill was erected in 1875, but was destroyed in 1886. In 1876, the first bridge was built, was destroyed in 1876, but rebuilt in 1879.
The first school was built in 1886. In 1874, Sauk Rapids was the end of the line for the local railroad. All the settlers from as far away as the upper Red River Valley brought their produce there to ship it. A six-horse stage coach made bi-weekly trips between Crow Wing. In 1856, the county seat moved to Watab returned to Sauk Rapids in 1859. A new courthouse was built, but in 1897 the seat moved to Foley where it resides. In 1917 the courthouse burned down. Sauk Rapids was one of the most important cities in Minnesota until 1886, when, on April 14 at 4:00 p.m. a tornado struck the town. The twister swept through the heart of the city. In Sauk Rapids alone, 44 people were killed and several hundred were wounded; the event was a great setback for the city, though it has rebuilt since it never regained its former prominence in statewide affairs. In recent years, the downtown area of Sauk Rapids has gone through substantial changes due to the construction of the New Sauk Rapids Bridge; this was because the new bridge links to 2nd Street rather than 1st Street, as the original Sauk Rapids Bridge did.
The intersection of Benton Drive and 2nd street was adjusted so the new bridge would extend over the railroad tracks and land on Benton Drive. Several buildings had to be demolished during the construction process, which meant that some parts of downtown were rebuilt. In addition, some sidewalks were repaved with cobblestone and the medians were filled with granite blocks. Sauk Rapids' city council consists of a mayor and four City Council members elected at-large to represent the community and legislate citywide policy. Sauk Rapids' mayor is Kurt Hunstiger and its four council members are Steve Heinen, Nick Sauer, Jason Ellering, Ellen Thronson, they possess the authority to pass and enforce ordinances, establish public and administrative policies, create advisory boards and commissions, limit the number of garbage trucks traversing the city streets. The City Council appoints a City Administrator who oversees the day-to-day operations of the city and implements the policies of the Council. City recreational facilities include 22 parks, nature preserves, paved walking paths, tennis courts and soccer fields, a golf course, public splash pad, a wading pool.
Sauk Rapids has 5 schools present with 1 private. The schools include Mississippi Heights Elementary, Pleasantview Elementary, Sauk Rapids-Rice Middle School, Sauk Rapids-Rice High School, Petra Lutheran School; the mascot for Mississippi Heights Elementary, Pleasantview Elementary, Sauk Rapids-Rice Middle School, Sauk Rapids-Rice High School is the Storm, a reference to the tornado of 1886. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.35 square miles, of which 6.10 square miles is land and 0.25 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 10 and Minnesota State Highway 15 are two of the main routes in Sauk Rapids. Other nearby routes include Interstate 94, Minnesota State Highway 23, County Road 75. Sauk Rapids is northeast of the city of St. Cloud, on the east bank of the Mississippi River; as of the census of 2010, there were 12,773 people, 4,960 households, 3,222 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,093.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,219 housing units at an average density of 855.6 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 94.9% White, 1.2% African American, 0.5% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.8% of the population. There were 4,960 households of which 36.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.0% were non-families. 26.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.03. The median age in the city was 32.8 years. 25.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.8% male and 51.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 10,213 people, 3,921 households, 2,599 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,234.1 people per square mile. There were 4,017 housing units at an average density of 878.7 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city w
Minneapolis–Saint Paul is a major metropolitan area built around the Mississippi, Minnesota and St. Croix rivers in east central Minnesota; the area is known as the Twin Cities after its two largest cities, the most populous city in the state, Saint Paul, the state capital. It is an example of twin cities in the sense of geographical proximity. Minnesotans living outside of Minneapolis and Saint Paul refer to the two together as "The Cities". There are several different definitions of the region. Many refer to the Twin Cities as the seven-county region, governed under the Metropolitan Council regional governmental agency and planning organization; the Office of Management and Budget designates 16 counties as the "Minneapolis–St. Paul–Bloomington MN–WI Metropolitan Statistical Area", the 16th largest in the United States; the entire region known as the "Minneapolis–St. Paul MN–WI Combined Statistical Area", has a population of 3,946,533, the 14th largest, according to 2017 Census estimates. Despite the Twin moniker, both cities are independent municipalities with defined borders.
Minneapolis is somewhat younger with more modern skyscrapers downtown, while Saint Paul has been likened to an East Coast city, with quaint neighborhoods and a vast collection of well-preserved late-Victorian architecture. Minneapolis was influenced by its early Lutheran heritage. Saint Paul was influenced by its early French and German Catholic roots; the first European settlement in the region was near what is now known as the town of Stillwater, Minnesota. The city is 20 miles from downtown Saint Paul and lies on the western bank of the St. Croix River, which forms the border of central Minnesota and Wisconsin. Another settlement that began fueling early interest in the area was the outpost at Fort Snelling, constructed from 1820 to 1825 at the confluence of the Minnesota River and the Mississippi River. Fort Snelling held jurisdiction over the land south of Saint Anthony Falls, thus a town known as Saint Anthony grew just north of the river. For several years, the only European resident to live on the south bank of the river was Colonel John H. Stevens, who operated a ferry service across the river.
As soon as the land area controlled by Fort Snelling was reduced, new settlers began flocking across to the new village of Minneapolis. The town grew and Minneapolis and Saint Anthony merged. On the eastern side of the Mississippi, a few villages such as Pig's Eye and Lambert's Landing developed and would soon grow to become Saint Paul. Natural geography played a role in the development of the two cities; the Mississippi River Valley in this area is defined by a series of stone bluffs that line both sides of the river. Saint Paul grew up around Lambert's Landing, the last place to unload boats coming upriver at an accessible point, some seven miles downstream from Saint Anthony Falls, the geographic feature that, due to the value of its immense water power for industry, defined the location of Minneapolis and its prominence as the Mill City; the falls can be seen today from the Mill City Museum, housed in the former Washburn "A" Mill, among the world's largest mills in its time. The oldest farms in the state are located in Washington County, the eastern most county on the Minnesota side of the metropolitan area.
Joseph Haskell was Minnesota's first farmer, harvesting the first crops in the state in 1840 on what is now part of Afton Township on Trading Post Trail. The Grand Excursion, a trip into the Upper Midwest sponsored by the Rock Island Railroad, brought more than a thousand curious travelers into the area by rail and steamboat in 1854; the next year, in 1855, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow published The Song of Hiawatha, an epic poem based on the Ojibwe legends of Hiawatha. A number of natural area landmarks were included in the story, such as Lake Minnetonka and Minnehaha Falls. Tourists inspired by the coverage of the Grand Excursion in eastern newspapers and those who read Longfellow's story flocked to the area in the following decades. At one time, the region had numerous passenger rail services, including both interurban streetcar systems and interstate rail. Due to the width of the river at points further south, the Minneapolis–Saint Paul area was one of the few places where the Mississippi could be crossed by railroad.
A great amount of commercial rail traffic ran through the area carrying grain to be processed at mills in Minneapolis or delivering other goods to Saint Paul to be transported along the Mississippi. Saint Paul had long been at the head of navigation on the river, prior to a new lock and dam facility being added upriver in Minneapolis. Passenger travel hit its peak in 1888 with nearly eight million traversing to and from the Saint Paul Union Depot; this amounted to 150 trains daily. Before long, other rail crossings were built farther south and travel through the region began to decline. In an effort by the rail companies to combat the rise of the automobile, some of the earliest streamliners ran from Chicago to Minneapolis/Saint Paul and served distant points in the Pacific Northwest. Today, the only vestige of this interstate service comes by Amtrak's Seattle/Portland to Chicago Empire Builder route, running once daily in each direction, it is named after James J. Hill, a railroad tycoon who settled on Summit Avenue in Saint Paul at what is now known as the James J. Hill House.
Like many Northern cities that grew up with the Industrial Revolution, Minneapolis and St. Paul experienced shifts in their economic base as heavy industry declined in the 1960s and 1970s. Along with the economic decline of the 60s and 70s came pop
Upper Mississippi River
The Upper Mississippi River is the portion of the Mississippi River upstream of Cairo, United States. From the headwaters at Lake Itasca, the river flows 2000 kilometers to Cairo, where it is joined by the Ohio River to form the Lower Mississippi River. In terms of geologic and hydrographic history, the Upper Mississippi east and south of Fort Snelling is a portion of the now-extinct Glacial River Warren which carved the valley of the Minnesota River, permitting the immense Glacial Lake Agassiz to join the world's oceans at the Gulf of Mexico; the collapse of ice dams holding back Glacial Lake Duluth and Glacial Lake Grantsburg carved out the Dalles of the St. Croix River at Interstate Park. "The Upper Mississippi River valley originated as an ice-marginal stream during what had been referred to as the'Nebraskan' glaciation. Current terminology would place this as Pre-Illinoian Stage."The Driftless Area is a portion of North America left unglaciated at that ice age's height, hence not smoothed out or covered over by previous geological processes.
Inasmuch as the Wisconsin glaciation formed lobes that met where the Mississippi now flows, given that huge amounts of glacial meltwater were flowing into the Driftless Area, that there is no lakebed, it is assumed that there were instances of ice dams bursting. The Upper Mississippi from below St. Anthony Falls downstream to St. Paul, Minnesota is a gorge with high limestone bluffs carved by the waterfall. Upstream of the waterfall the land slopes to rivers edge. Downstream of downtown St. Paul the river enters its wide preglacial valley; the states of Minnesota and Iowa, along with the federal government, have preserved certain areas of the land along this reach of the river. There are three National Park Service sites along the Upper Mississippi River; the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area is the National Park Service site dedicated to protecting and interpreting the Mississippi River itself. The other two National Park Service sites along the river are: Effigy Mounds National Monument and the Gateway Arch National Park.
Unlike the Lower Mississippi, much of the upper river is a series of pools created by a system of 29 locks and dams. The structures were authorized by Congress in the 1930s, most were completed by 1940. A primary reason for damming the river is to facilitate barge transportation; the dams regulate water levels for the Upper River and play a major part in regulating levels on the Lower Mississippi. On the upper reaches near the Minnesota-Wisconsin border, the river's floodplain is between 1.5 and 5 kilometers wide. South of St. Louis, the alluvial floodplain is 80 kilometers wide. Major tributaries to the Upper Mississippi River include the Missouri, Minnesota, St. Croix, Black and Kaskaskia Rivers; the Upper Mississippi provides habitat for more than 125 fish species and 30 species of freshwater mussels. Three national wildlife refuges along the river cover a total of 465 square kilometers; the largest of them, the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge, is over 420 kilometers long, reaching from the Alma, Wisconsin area down to Rock Island, Illinois.
The refuge consists of blufflands, bottomland forest, channels, backwater lakes and sloughs. It is part of the Mississippi Flyway. Although the river is much cleaner than it was in recent decades, water quality is still a priority concern. Agricultural runoff, including sediment, excessive nutrients, chemicals from agricultural and industrial sources continue to threaten Upper Mississippi River aquatic resources. In addition new threats continue to emerge such as personal care items including pharmaceuticals and endocrine-disrupting chemicals; the five states bordering the Upper Mississippi River are working together to address water quality issues. There is general agreement that nutrients are contributing to the Gulf of Mexico dead zone and to eutrophication problems in Lake Pepin, a large natural riverine lake, part of Pool 4 of the Upper Mississippi River. National and regional efforts are addressing these problems, but nutrient impairment problems are occurring elsewhere in the Upper Mississippi River as well in off-channel portions.
Excessive nutrients contribute to thick floating mats of filamentous algae or duckweeds that have a pronounced negative impact on light penetration and may threaten the growth and persistence of submerged aquatic vegetation, important for fish and aquatic life, including waterfowl. Efforts to control nutrients from point and non-point sources in the basin will provide additional benefits. Navigation locks allow towboats and other vessels to transit the dams. 1350 kilometers, from the head of navigation in Mile 858, Minnesota down to Cairo, has been made suitable for commercial navigation with a depth of 2.75 meters. The agriculture and barge transportation industries have lobbied in the late 20th and early 21st centuries for a multibillion-dollar project to upgrade the aging lock and dam system; some environmental groups and advocates of budgetary restraint argue that the project lacks economic justification. Each lock and dam complex creates a pool upstream of it. There are 29 locks on the Upper Mississippi maintained by the U.
S. Army Corps of Engineers—from Upper St. Anthony Falls upstream to Chain of Rocks downstream; the locks provide a collective 123 meters of lift. The Army Corps of Engineers has studied expanding locks 20, 21, 22, 24, 25 on the Upper Mississippi. List of crossings
The red fox is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most distributed members of the order Carnivora, being present across the entire Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic Circle to North Africa, North America and Eurasia. It is listed as least concern by the IUCN, its range has increased alongside human expansion, having been introduced to Australia, where it is considered harmful to native mammals and bird populations. Due to its presence in Australia, it is included on the list of the "world's 100 worst invasive species"; the red fox originated from smaller-sized ancestors from Eurasia during the Middle Villafranchian period, colonised North America shortly after the Wisconsin glaciation. Among the true foxes, the red fox represents a more progressive form in the direction of carnivory. Apart from its large size, the red fox is distinguished from other fox species by its ability to adapt to new environments. Despite its name, the species produces individuals with other colourings, including leucistic and melanistic individuals.
Forty-five subspecies are recognised, which are divided into two categories: the large northern foxes, the small, basal southern foxes of Asia and North Africa. Red foxes are together in pairs or small groups consisting of families, such as a mated pair and their young, or a male with several females having kinship ties; the young of the mated pair remain with their parents to assist in caring for new kits. The species feeds on small rodents, though it may target rabbits, game birds, reptiles and young ungulates. Fruit and vegetable matter is eaten sometimes. Although the red fox tends to kill smaller predators, including other fox species, it is vulnerable to attack from larger predators, such as wolves, golden jackals and medium- and large-sized felines; the species has a long history of association with humans, having been extensively hunted as a pest and furbearer for many centuries, as well as being represented in human folklore and mythology. Because of its widespread distribution and large population, the red fox is one of the most important furbearing animals harvested for the fur trade.
Too small to pose a threat to humans, it has extensively benefited from the presence of human habitation, has colonised many suburban and urban areas. Domestication of the red fox is underway in Russia, has resulted in the domesticated red fox. Females are called vixens, young cubs are known as kits. Although the Arctic fox has a small native population in northern Scandinavia, while the corsac fox's range extends into European Russia, the red fox is the only fox native to Western Europe, so is called "the fox" in colloquial British English; the word "fox" comes from Old English. Compare with West Frisian foks, Dutch vos, German Fuchs. This, in turn, derives from Proto-Indo-European *puḱ-'thick-haired. Compare to the Hindi pū̃ch'tail', Tocharian B päkā'tail; the bushy tail forms the basis for the fox's Welsh name, literally'bushy', from llwyn'bush'. Portuguese: raposa from rabo'tail', Lithuanian uodẽgis from uodegà'tail', Ojibwa waagosh from waa, which refers to the up and down "bounce" or flickering of an animal or its tail.
The scientific term vulpes derives from the Latin word for fox, gives the adjectives vulpine and vulpecular. The red fox is considered a more specialised form of Vulpes than the Afghan and Bengal foxes in the direction of size and adaptation to carnivory, it is, not as adapted for a purely carnivorous diet as the Tibetan fox. The species is Eurasian in origin, may have evolved from either Vulpes alopecoides or the related Chinese V. chikushanensis, both of which lived during the Middle Villafranchian. The earliest fossil specimens of V. vulpes were uncovered in Baranya, Hungary dating from 3.4-1.8 million years ago. The ancestral species was smaller than the current one, as the earliest red fox fossils are smaller than modern populations; the earliest fossil remains of the modern species date back to the mid-Pleistocene in association with the refuse of early human settlements. This has led to the theory that the red fox was hunted by primitive humans as both a source of food and pelts. Red foxes colonised the North American continent in two waves: during or before the Illinoian glaciation, during the Wisconsinan glaciation.
Gene mapping demonstrates that red foxes in North America have been isolated from their Old World counterparts for over 400,000 years, thus raising the possibility that speciation has occurred, that the previous binomial name of Vulpes fulva may be valid. In the far north, red fox fossils have been found in Sangamonian deposits in the Fairbanks District and Medicine Hat. Fossils dating from the Wisconsian are present in 25 sites in Arkansas, Colorado, Missouri, New Mexico, Texas and Wyoming. Although they ranged far south during the Wisconsinan, the onset of warm conditions shrank their range toward the north, have only reclaimed their former American ranges because of human-induced environmental changes. Genetic testing indicates two distinct red fox refugia exist in North America, which have been separated since the Wisconsinan; the northern refugium occurs in Alaska and western Canada, consists of the large subspecies V. v. alascensis, V. v. abietorum, V. v. regalis, V. v. rubricosa. The southern refugium occurs in the subalpine parklands and alpine meadows of the Rocky Mountains, the Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada
Mink are dark-colored, carnivorous mammals of the genera Neovison and Mustela, part of the family Mustelidae which includes weasels and ferrets. There are two extant species referred to as "mink": the European mink; the extinct sea mink was much larger. The American mink is larger and more adaptable than the European mink but, due to variations in size, an individual mink cannot be determined as European or American with certainty without looking at the skeleton. Taxonomically, both American and European mink were placed in the same genus Mustela, but most the American mink has been reclassified as belonging to its own genus Neovison; the American mink's fur has been prized for use in clothing, with hunting giving way to farming. Their treatment on fur farms has been a focus of animal welfare activism. American mink have established populations in Europe and South America, after being released from mink farms by animal rights activists, or otherwise escaping from captivity. In the UK, under the Wildlife & Countryside Act 1981, it is illegal to release mink into the wild.
In some countries, any live mink caught in traps must be humanely killed. American mink are believed by some to have contributed to the decline of the less hardy European mink through competition. Trapping is used to eliminate introduced American mink populations. Mink oil is used in some medical products and cosmetics, as well as to treat and waterproof leather. European mink Mustela lutreola American mink Neovison vison Sea mink Neovison macrodon The male weighs about 1 kg and is about 62 cm in length. Farm bred; the female reaches a length of about 51 cm. The sizes above do not include the tail. A mink's rich glossy coat in its wild state is brown and looks silky, but farm-bred mink can vary from white to black, reflected in the British wild mink, their pelage is deep, rich brown, with or without white spots on the underparts, consists of a slick, dense underfur overlaid with dark, glossy stiff guard hairs. The breeding season ends in March. Mink show the curious phenomenon of delayed implantation.
Although the true gestation period is 39 days, the embryo may stop developing for a variable period, so that as long as 76 days may elapse before the litter arrives. Between 45 and 52 days is normal. There is only one litter per year, they may have between 10 kits per litter. Litters as large as 16 have been recorded in fur farms, though they are rare. Mink are kept in captivity for the production of their fur, they are kept in battery cages and exhibit stereotypies. These abnormal, repetitive behaviours increase near their feeding time pacing and cage biting, both of which are thought to be the captive equivalent of hunting by the mink. Stereotypies have been noted to increase during human presence. To attempt to eliminate stereotypies in captive mink, the National Farm Animal Care Council has implemented regulations on incorporating environmental enrichments into mink cages. Enrichments are pen-related alterations or the addition of novel objects to improve the mink's physical and psychological health.
Enrichments may help reduce the onset of stereotypies, but decrease or eliminate them. Because of this, enrichments should be introduced early in life as a preventive measure; the National Farm Animal Care Council stated that ‘juvenile female pastel mink raised with access to a nest box performed fewer stereotypies from mid-September to late October than those without access to a nest box.’ Due to this, mink have access year round to a nest box and spend the majority of their time resting within. Thus, the availability and quality of the nest box play a large role in the prevention of stereotypies and a role in the animals' welfare; the maximum lifespan of a mink is around ten years, but exceed three years in the wild. Mink prey on fish and other aquatic life, small mammals and eggs. Mink raised on farms eat expired cheese, fish and poultry slaughterhouse byproducts, dog food, turkey livers, as well as prepared commercial foods. A farm with 3,000 mink may use as much as two tons of food per day.
In all, US mink farms use about 200,000 tons of dairy products. Great horned owls, foxes, coyotes and humans are all natural predators of mink. Mink are hunted to protect the fish population in lakes and rivers, but are becoming endangered because of this, they are trapped for their fur. Mink like to live near water and are found far from riverbanks and marshes; when roaming, they tend to follow streams and ditches. Sometimes they leave the water altogether for a few hundred meters when looking for rabbits, one of their favorite foods. In some places in Scotland and in Iceland, where they have become a problem, they live along the seashore. Sometimes they live in towns. Mink may be present at all hours when people are nearby. Mink are territorial animals. A male mink will not tolerate anothe
Crow Wing County Courthouse and Jail
The Crow Wing Historic County Courthouse, in Brainerd, United States, is a Beaux-Arts courthouse built in 1920. The building, along with its adjoining jail, are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Beaux-Arts style was popular in the first quarter of the 20th century for Minnesota courthouses. The first floor has a rough-cut stone exterior, while the floors above are built of smooth-cut gray stone; the interior has polished marble walls, with a rotunda surrounded by a balcony. The dome has both a fine brass electrolier; the Crow Wing Historical Society Museum is located in the former sheriff's jail. Crow Wing Historical Society - official site
The coyote, Canis latrans, is a canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the gray wolf, smaller than the related eastern wolf and red wolf, it fills much of the same ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia, though it is larger and more predatory, is sometimes called the American jackal by zoologists. The coyote is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its wide distribution and abundance throughout North America, southwards through Mexico, into Central America; the species is able to adapt to and expand into environments modified by humans. It is enlarging its range, with coyotes moving into urban areas in the Eastern U. S. and was sighted in eastern Panama for the first time in 2013. As of 2005, 19 coyote subspecies are recognized; the average male weighs the average female 7 to 18 kg. Their fur color is predominantly light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white, though it varies somewhat with geography.
It is flexible in social organization, living either in a family unit or in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. It has a varied diet consisting of animal meat, including deer, hares, birds, amphibians and invertebrates, though it may eat fruits and vegetables on occasion, its characteristic vocalization is a howl made by solitary individuals. Humans are the coyote's greatest threat, followed by gray wolves. In spite of this, coyotes sometimes mate with gray, eastern, or red wolves, producing "coywolf" hybrids. In the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, the eastern coyote is the result of various historical and recent matings with various types of wolves. Genetic studies show that most North American wolves contain some level of coyote DNA; the coyote is a prominent character in Native American folklore in the Southwestern United States and Mexico depicted as a trickster that alternately assumes the form of an actual coyote or a man. As with other trickster figures, the coyote uses deception and humor to rebel against social conventions.
The animal was respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might. After the European colonization of the Americas, it was reviled in Anglo-American culture as a cowardly and untrustworthy animal. Unlike wolves, which have undergone an improvement of their public image, attitudes towards the coyote remain negative. Coyote males average 8 to 20 kg in weight, while females average 7 to 18 kg, though size varies geographically. Northern subspecies, which average 18 kg, tend to grow larger than the southern subspecies of Mexico, which average 11.5 kg. Body length ranges on average from 1.0 to 1.35 m, tail length 40 cm, with females being shorter in both body length and height. The largest coyote on record was a male killed near Afton, Wyoming, on November 19, 1937, which measured 1.5 m from nose to tail, weighed 34 kg. Scent glands are a bluish-black color; the color and texture of the coyote's fur varies somewhat geographically. The hair's predominant color is light gray and red or fulvous, interspersed around the body with black and white.
Coyotes living at high elevations tend to have more black and gray shades than their desert-dwelling counterparts, which are more fulvous or whitish-gray. The coyote's fur consists of soft underfur and long, coarse guard hairs; the fur of northern subspecies is longer and denser than in southern forms, with the fur of some Mexican and Central American forms being hispid. Adult coyotes have a sable coat color, dark neonatal coat color, bushy tail with an active supracaudal gland, a white facial mask. Albinism is rare in coyotes; the coyote is smaller than the gray wolf, but has longer ears and a larger braincase, as well as a thinner frame and muzzle. The scent glands are the same color, its fur color variation is much less varied than that of a wolf. The coyote carries its tail downwards when running or walking, rather than horizontally as the wolf does. Coyote tracks can be distinguished from those of dogs by less rounded shape. Unlike dogs, the upper canines of coyotes extend past the mental foramina.
At the time of the European colonization of the Americas, coyotes were confined to open plains and arid regions of the western half of the continent. In early post-Columbian historical records, distinguishing between coyotes and wolves is difficult. One record from 1750 in Kaskaskia, written by a local priest, noted that the "wolves" encountered there were smaller and less daring than European wolves. Another account from the early 1800s in Edwards County mentioned wolves howling at night, though these were coyotes; this species was encountered several times during the Lewis and Clark Expedition, though it was well known to European traders on the upper Missouri. Lewis, writing on 5 May 1805, in northeastern Montana, described the coyote in these terms: The small woolf or burrowing dog of the prairies are the inhabitants invariably of the open plains.