The Hunter Region commonly known as the Hunter Valley, is a region of New South Wales, extending from 120 km to 310 km north of Sydney. It contains its tributaries with highland areas to the north and south. Situated at the northern end of the Sydney Basin bioregion, the Hunter Valley is one of the largest river valleys on the NSW coast, is most known for its wineries and coal industry. Most of the population of the Hunter Region lives within 25 km of the coast, with 55% of the entire population living in the cities of Newcastle and Lake Macquarie. There are numerous other towns and villages scattered across the region in the eleven local government areas that make up the region. At the 2011 census the combined population of the region was 620,530. Under Australia's wine appellation system, the Hunter Valley wine zone Australian Geographical Indication covers the entire catchment of the Hunter River and its tributaries. Within that, the Hunter region is as large, includes most of the wine-producing areas, excluding the metropolitan area of Newcastle and nearby coastal areas, some national parks, any land, in the Mudgee Shire.
The Hunter wine region is one of Australia's best known wine regions, playing a pivotal role in the history of Australian wine as one of the first wine regions planted in the early 19th century. The success of the Hunter Valley wine industry has been dominated by its proximity to Sydney with its settlement and plantings in the 19th century fuelled by the trade network that linked the valley to the city; the steady demand of consumers from Sydney continues to drive much of the Hunter Valley wine industry, including a factor in the economy by the tourism industry. While the Hunter Valley has been supplanted by the massive Riverina wine region as the largest producer of New South Wales wine, it still accounts for around 3% of Australia's total wine production and is one of the country's most recognisable regions. For over 30,000 years the Wonnarua tribe of Aboriginal Australians inhabited the land, now known as the Hunter Valley wine region. Along with the Worimi to the north and the Awabakal to the south, the Wonnarua developed a trading route connecting the Coquun Valley to the harbour now known as Sydney harbour.
The wine-making history of Hunter Valley begins with the European settlement of the Sydney and the New South Wales region of Australia in the late 18th century as a penal colony of the British Empire. The Hunter River itself was discovered, by accident, in 1797 by British Lieutenant John Shortland as he searched for escaped convicts; the region soon became a valuable source for timber and coal that fuelled the steamship trade coming out of Sydney. Land prospector John Howe cut a path through the Australian wilderness from Sydney up to the overland area in what is now known as the Hunter Valley proper in 1820. Today, the modern Putty Road between the cities of Windsor and Singleton follows Howe's exact path and is a major thoroughfare for wine tourists coming into the Hunter Valley from Sydney; as previous plantings in the coastal areas around Sydney succumbed to the humidity and wetness, plantings to the west were limited by spring frost damage, northern reaches leading to the Hunter became by default, the wine region of the new colony.
The expansive growth of the Hunter Valley in the mid to late 19th century came directly from its monopoly position of the lucrative Sydney market. The provincial government of New South Wales had enacted regulations that placed prohibitive duties on wines from other areas such as Victoria and South Australia. Following World War I, many returning Australian veterans were given land grants in the Hunter Valley; this temporarily produced an up-tick in plantings but the global Great Depression as well as a series of devastating hail storms between 1929–30 caused many growers to abandon their vineyards. The Hunter Region is considered a transitional area between the Paleozoic rock foundation of the New England Fold Belt located to the south and the Early Permian and Middle Triassic period rock formations of the Sydney Basin to the south. Between these two geological areas is the Hunter-Mooki Thrust fault. At one time this fault was geologically active and gave rise to the Brokenback range that feature prominently in the Hunter region.
Strips of basalt found throughout the region bear witness to the volcanic activity that has occurred in the history of this fault. The Permian rocks in the central and southeastern expanse of the Lower Hunter Valley were formed when the area was underneath a shallow marine estuary; the remnants of this period has left an extensive network of coal seams that fuelled the early population boom of the Hunter Valley in the 19th century as well a high degree of salinity in the water table of much of the area. The further north and west, towards the Brokenback Range and the Upper Hunter, the more Triassic sandstone that can be found leading to the carboniferous rocks that form the northern boundary of the Hunter with the New England Fold Belt and the foothills of the Barrington Tops. Overall, the Hunter Valley has more soils that are unsuitable for viticulture than they have areas that are ideal for growing grapes; the soils of the Lower Hunter vary from sandy alluvial flats, to deep friable loam and friable red duplex soils.
In the Upper Hunter, the rivers and creeks of the region contribute to the areas black, silty loam soils that are overlaid on top of alkaline clay loam. Among the hills of the Brokenback range are strips of volcanic basalt that are prized b
Nangar National Park
Nangar is a national park in located New South Wales, Australia, 252 kilometres west of Sydney. The park is located in the Nangar-Murga Range between Canowindra, it features Nangar Mountain, which rises to 778 metres AHD . Trees consist of eucalyptus, scribbly gum and ironbark. Shrubs include spider flowers, thyme spurge, nodding blue waxlip orchids. Birds recorded include wrens, falcons, peregrine falcons and glossy black cockatoos. Eastern grey kangaroos and grey and swamp wallabies are common; the park was established in 1983 when 1,550 hectares of bushland were declared a national park. "Dripping Rock" was added to the park in 1988 and, in 1994, the Nangar State Forest was added to the park to expand its size to 9,196 hectares. "Dripping Rock" was a grazing property established in 1928 and named after a local seasonal waterfall. The original "Dripping Rock" homestead was converted to a shearing shed and a new homestead, built in 1935, was destroyed by a bushfire in September 2009. Protected areas of New South Wales Page on NPWS official site
Garrawilla National Park
Garrawilla National Park was created in December 2005. It covers an area of 937 hectares; this park is located on the northern side of the Oxley Highway halfway between Coonabarabran and Mullaley in New South Wales, Australia. Protected areas of New South Wales
Kathleen Kylie Tennant AO was an Australian novelist, short-story writer, critic and historian. Tennant was born in New South Wales, she was a publicity officer for the Australian Broadcasting Commission, as well as working as a journalist, union organiser, reviewer, a publisher's literary adviser and editor, a member of the Commonwealth Literary Fund advisory board. She married L. C. Rodd in 1933, her work was known for its well-researched, yet positive portrayals of the lives of the underprivileged in Australia. In a video interview filmed in 1986, three years before her death for the Australia Council's Archival Film Series, Tennant told how she lived as the people she wrote about, travelling as an unemployed itinerant worker during the Depression years, living in Aboriginal communities and spending a short time in prison for research. Two of Tennant's novels and Ride on Stranger, set in the 1930s have been made into television mini-series. 1935: S. H. Prior Memorial Prize awarded by The Bulletin magazine, for Tiburon 1940: S. H.
Prior Memorial Prize, for The Battlers, shared with Eve Langley, The Pea-Pickers, Malcolm Henry Ellis's "John Murtagh Macrossan lectures". 1942: Australian Literature Society Gold Medal for The Battlers 1960: Children's Book Council Book Award for All the Proud Tribesmen 1980: Officer of the Order of Australia for services to literature Tiburon — first published in serial form in The Bulletin Foveaux The Battlers Time Enough Later. A humorous coming of age story about a young woman and her relationship with an artistic older man. Ride on Stranger Lost Haven The Joyful Condemned The Honey Flow Tell Morning This — complete version of The Joyful Condemned The Man on the Headland Tantavallon ISBN 0-947072-02-0 Ma Jones and Little White Cannibals Long John Silver — adapted from the screenplay by Martin Rackin All the Proud Tribesmen — illustrated by Clem Seale. Children's Book Award Come and See: social studies for Third Grade We Find the Way: social studies for Fourth Grade Trail Blazers of the Air — illustrated by Roderick Shaw Modern Plays for Schools 3 Tether a Dragon — Commonwealth Jubilee Stage Play Prize Modern Plays for Schools 15 The Bushrangers' Christmas Eve and other plays Australia: Her Story Speak You So Gently: Lives among the Australian Aborigines Evatt: Politics and justice The Missing Heir — her autobiography The Development of the Australian Novel The Australian Essay Oral history interview of Kylie Tennant, available online at the National Library of Australia A Tennant Bibliography – compiled by Ross Burnet A picture of Kylie Tennant: Grant, Jane.
An Australian Life: Kylie Tennant. National Library of Australia. ISBN 978-0-642-27617-9. Cahill, Rowan, "More than a Footnote: A Biographical Portrait of L. C. Rodd", The Hummer, Number 27, January/April 1990, pp. 3–10 The Novels of Kylie Tennant by Margaret Dick
Mid North Coast
The Mid North Coast is a country region in the north-east of the state of New South Wales, Australia. The region covers the mid to north coast of the state, beginning at Seal Rocks, 275 km north of Sydney, extending as far north as Woolgoolga, 562 km north of Sydney, a distance of 400 km. From south to north, the region's main towns include the twin towns of Forster and Tuncurry, Port Macquarie, South West Rocks, Nambucca Heads and Coffs Harbour. Of these Taree, Port Macquarie and Coffs Harbour are the major commercial centres, all with large shopping centres, public facilities and attractions. Kempsey and Forster-Tuncurry are considered semi-major commercial centres. Smaller towns that are popular tourist spots are North Haven, South West Rocks and Pacific Palms; the region is known for its beaches. Major industries are farming and tourism; the following local government areas are contained within the region: The Coffs Coast extends from the village of Broom's Head in the north and as far south as the small seaside town of Scotts Head.
It includes the Sandon, Bellinger and Nambucca River catchments/drainage basins. The Coffs Coast services a regional catchment of over 200,000 people, with about 68,000 living in the City of Coffs Harbour, 13,000 in the Bellingen Shire, 19,000 in the Nambucca Shire; the area has younger population, with the average age being 33 years of age. The area is becoming known for Internet Start ups - with companies like Google and Design Crowd opening up small offices in the area. Three bus services run throughout the region. Sawtell Coaches run various services throughout Coffs Harbour city and to the suburbs of Boambee and Sawtell. Busways run services throughout Coffs Harbour city down south as far as Scotts Head and west into Bellingen. Ryans Bus services run North to Woolgoolga on a regular basis. Busways operate services in the Port Macquarie region. There are several railway stations on the Coffs Coast serviced by 3 trains; each run south once a day. Stations include Coffs Harbour, Urunga, Nambucca Heads, Macksville.
Further south are Kempsey, Wauchope and Taree. There is no station for Forster-Tuncurry. Rail is the fastest and cheapest way to get to either Sydney, the Gold Coast and Brisbane. Regions of New South Wales Local Government Directory
Goobang National Park
Goobang is a national park located in New South Wales, Australia, 296 kilometres northwest of Sydney. It protects the largest remnant forest and woodland in the central west region of the state, where interior and coastal New South Wales flora and fauna species overlap. Named Herveys Range by John Oxley in 1817, the area was reserved in 1897 as state forest because of its importance as a timber resource, was designated a national park in 1995; the park contains a camping ground and a hiking trail, Burrabadine Peak Walking Track, a 3.6 km round trip moderate hike. Goobang National Park is in a temperate to semi-arid zone experiencing hot summers and cool winters with temperatures ranging from 4 to 15 °C in winter and 17 to 32 °C in summer; the heaviest rain fall is in the summer and can range from 645 millimetres on the east side of the ranges to 564 millimetres west of the ranges. There are 459 species recorded in several that are threatened. Tylophora linearis is listed as vulnerable according to the TCS ACT 1995 and endangered according to the EPBC ACT 1999.
Eriostemon ericifolius is vulnerable based on TCS ACT 1995 and Astrotricha linearis only known record west of the Great Dividing Range. Pomaderris queeslandica endangered TSC ACT 1995 and Philotheca ericifoia vulnerable EPBC ACT 1999. There are 135 ecological communities in the South West Slope bioregion, most are considered poorly protected. There are 11 ecological communities in the park; these include red stringybark woodland found on siliceous hillslopes of the Hervey Range. Red stringybark, long leaved box black cypress pine, hummock grass, shrubby low woodland found on siliceous volcanic and sedimentary ranges. Red ironbark in association with black cypress shrubby woodland found on shallow sandy soils derived from sandstone. Red ironbark, red stringybark tumbledown gum heathland found on siliceous ridges and scribbly gum dominated open forest in association with black cypress pine and red ironbark. A further four communities that are protected in Goobang are considered to be of significance.
Mugga ironbark, black cypress, red stringybark, Blakely's red gum and red ironbark woodland which are found on hillslopes and in valleys on the ranges. Buloke and white cypress pine. Riparian Blakely's red gum, apple box, yellow box and inland grey box, with shrub and grass tall open forest in valleys. White box, with black cypress and red gum shrubby woodlands in the hills. Fires are an intrinsic feature of the Australian bush, to ensure continual biodiversity prescribed burns are carried out at the appropriate times within the park. Wildfires at Goobang have occurred due to dry lightning strikes in the hot summer months. There have been 52 wildfires recorded since 1942. There are 31 species of reptiles, 14 species of frogs and 31 species of mammals recorded in the park including echidnas, kangaroos and bats as well as exotics such as rabbits, foxes, goats and dogs. Threatened species include carpet python, Sloane's froglet, brush tailed rock wallaby, grey-headed flying-fox, yellow-bellied sheathtail bat, Corben's long eared bat (Nyetophilus corbeni and New Holland mouse Rabbits pose a threat to the survival of tree seedlings competition with native herbivores.
Weeds such as blackberry are significant as far as causing havoc within the natural environment forming large thickets blocking creeks suppressing native ground covers and providing a hiding spot for feral animals such as rabbits. Exotic grasses and weeds have replaced native undergrowth in most of the scattered white box communities. Grazing in and around remnant woodlands. Clearing of native vegetation that might act as connective corridors between the park and any other patchy native landscapes. Species that require specialized niches and or cannot disperse and colonize suitable habitat will be affected if this current
Hat Head National Park
Hat Head is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 461.7 kilometres via M1 and Pacific Highway/A1, northeast of Sydney. It lies within the Hastings-Macleay Important Bird Area. Hat Head National Park is located on the mid-north coast of New South Wales near South West Rocks and Kempsey; the Park consists of beaches, sand dunes, rocky headlands and wetlands. For the Dunghutti people some parts of the park remain a significant place as of their traditional land; the different areas of the park and the sea provided a rich source of food like shellfish. The park is culturally important to Aboriginal people as it contains ceremonial grounds, burial sites, shell middens and campsites. Hat Head National Park is rich with birdlife such as kookaburra, black swans, herons and honeyeaters. Hawks, falcons or eagles like white-bellied sea eagle soaring above the cliffs. Wildlife at Hat Head includes black sheoak, grass trees, glossy black cockatoo, red-necked and swamp wallabies as well as western grey kangaroos, sugar gliders, grey-headed flying fox and short-beaked echidna.
The regent skipper is only found in Limeburners Creek National Park. Several walking tracks and whale watching can be done or just relax at the rocky headlands. Birdwatchers can look for black swans and spoonbills in the park’s wetlands and eagles soaring above beach cliffs and shorebirds like curlews and plovers around the beach. Protected areas of New South Wales Smoky Cape, within the park Description National Park