Northwest Arkansas includes Fayetteville, Springdale and Bentonville, the third, fourth and tenth largest cities in Arkansas. These cities are located within Washington counties; as per the 2016 United States Census Bureau estimates, NWA is the 105th largest metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. and the 22nd fastest growing in the United States. The MSA covers 3,213.01 sq mi, located within the Boston Mountains and Springfield Plateau subsets of The Ozarks. Northwest Arkansas doubled in population between 1990 and 2010. Growth has been driven by the three Fortune 500 companies based in NWA: Walmart, Tyson Foods, J. B. Hunt Transport Services, Inc. as well as over 1,300 suppliers and vendors drawn to the region by these large businesses and NWA's business climate. The region has seen significant investment in amenities, including the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, the Walmart AMP, the NWA Razorback Regional Greenway. Constituent counties of the MSA include: Benton County Madison County Washington County Fayetteville is the county seat of Washington County and home to the University of Arkansas.
As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 76,899. The city is the third most populous in Arkansas and serves as the county seat of Washington County. It's known for Dickson Street the most prominent entertainment district in the state of Arkansas, which itself contains the Walton Arts Center. Blocks from Dickson Street is the Fayetteville Historic Square, which hosts the nation's number one ranked Fayetteville's Farmer's Market. Fayetteville was ranked 8th on Forbes Magazine's Top 10 Best Places in America for Business and Careers in 2007. Business insider named Fayetteville the 2nd best place to live in the South in 2016. Springdale is a city in Benton Counties. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city is 73,123. Springdale is Arkansas's fourth-largest city, behind Little Rock, Fort Smith, Fayetteville. Springdale is the location of the headquarters of Tyson Foods Inc. the largest meat producing company in the world, has been dubbed the "Chicken Capital of the World" by several publications.
In 2008, the Wichita Wranglers of AA minor league baseball's Texas League moved to Springdale and play in Arvest Ballpark as the Northwest Arkansas Naturals. Rogers is a city in Benton County; as of the 2010 census, the city is the eighth most populous in the state, with a total population of 58,895. Rogers is famous as the location of the first Wal-Mart. In June 2007, BusinessWeek magazine ranked Rogers 18th in the 25 best affordable suburbs in the South. In 2010, CNN Money magazine ranked Rogers as the 10th Best Place to Live in the United States. Two of the city's biggest attractions are the outdoor concert venue the Walmart AMP and the open air shopping mall the Pinnacle Hills Promenade; the city is the home town of American country music singer/songwriter Joe Nichols, Marty Perry, as well as David Noland. It is where comedian Will Rogers married Betty Blake. Bentonville is the county seat of Benton County. At the 2010 census, the population was 38,284, up from 20,308 in 2000 ranking it as the state's 10th largest city.
Bentonville is the county seat of Benton County and home to the headquarters of Walmart, the largest retailer in the world. Bentonville has the location of the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art. Founded by Sam Walton's daughter Alice Walton and designed by world-renowned architect Moshe Safdie, this museum is home to some of America's finest works of art. Southern Living magazine cited Bentonville as "the South's next cultural mecca." Northwest Arkansas is located in the Southern United States. It is within the Upper South, characterized by the Ozarks; the southern part of NWA is a high and dissected plateau, full of sparsely populated oak-hickory forest, separating the region from the Arkansas River Valley to the south. NWA is located within the Ozark Mountains, a dissected plateau within the U. S. Interior Highlands, the largest mountainous region between the Appalachians and the Rocky Mountains. Although the topography varies within the region, the Ozark geology is present throughout. At Fayetteville, the geology splits between the Boston Mountains to the south and the Springfield Plateau to the north.
The Ouachita orogeny exposed the older limestones of the Springfield Plateau, resulting in a softer terrain, while the Boston Mountains retained steep, sharp grade changes. The Ozarks are covered by an oak-hickory-pine forest, with large portions of protected forestland remaining NWA. 25% of this forest has been cleared for development and agricultural uses. Most of NWA is within the White River watershed, with the western portions being contained within the Illinois River watershed. Within NWA, the White River is impounded at several locations, the most important of, at Beaver Dam, forming the 13,700 acres Beaver Lake; this reservoir was created in the 1960s for flood control and energy production uses. It serves as the water supply for most of NWA, with Beaver Water District treating potable water and selling it directly to the four largest NWA municipalities; the Illinois River watershed is a sensitive watershed, the subject of controversy within the area for many years. The phosphorus load of the Illinois has been subject of controversy resulting in litigation between Oklahoma and Arkansas reaching the United States Supreme Court in 1992.
The Environmental Protection Agency has classified the Illino
Asclepias tuberosa, butterfly weed, is a species of milkweed native to eastern North America. It is known as butterfly weed because of the butterflies that are attracted to the plant by its color and its copious production of nectar, it is the larval food plant of the queen and monarch butterflies. Hummingbirds and other insects are attracted, it is a perennial plant growing to 0.3–1 metre tall, with clustered orange or yellow flowers from early summer to early autumn. The leaves are spirally arranged, lanceolate, 5–12 cm long, 2–3 cm broad; this plant favors dry, sand or gravel soil, but has been reported on stream margins. It requires full sun; the plant looks similar to the lanceolate milkweed, but is uniquely identified by the larger number of flowers, the hairy stems that are not milky when broken. It is most found in fields with dry soil. Most propagated by seed. Sown outdoors after frost, a plant will produce seed in the third year. Difficult to transplant once established. Asclepias tuberosa subsp.
Interior – Asclepias tuberosa subsp. Rolfsii – Rolfs milkweed Asclepias tuberosa subsp. Tuberosa – Common names include butterfly weed, Canada root, chieger flower, fluxroot, Indian paintbrush, Indian posy, orange milkweed, orange root, orange Swallow-wort, pleurisy root, silky swallow-wort, tuber root, yellow milkweed, white-root, butterfly love and butterfly milkweed. Native Americans and European pioneers used the boiled roots to treat diarrhea and respiratory illnesses; the young seed pods were used as food after being boiled in several changes of water. The seed pod down was used to make candle wicks. Use of the plant is contraindicated in pregnancy, during lactation or with infants due to the small amount of cardiac glycosides. Peterson, Roger Tory. A Field Guide to Wildflowers of Northeastern and North-central North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 978-0-395-18325-0. Photo of a J. J. Audubon Plate Clay-Colored Sparrow perched atop Asclepias tuberosa Butterfly weed brief information and pictures Missouri Botanical Garden Asclepias tuberosa
Hickory is a type of tree, comprising the genus Carya. The genus includes 17 to 19 species. Five or six species are native to China and India, as many as 12 are native to the United States, four are found in Mexico, two to four are from Canada. A number of hickory species are used for products like edible nuts or wood. Hickories are deciduous trees with large nuts. Hickory flowers are small, yellow-green catkins produced in spring, they are self-incompatible. The fruit is a globose or oval nut, 2–5 cm long and 1.5–3 cm diameter, enclosed in a four-valved husk, which splits open at maturity. The nut shell is thick and bony in most species, thin in a few, notably the pecan. Beaked hickory is a species classified as Carya sinensis, but now adjudged in the monotypic genus Annamocarya. In the APG system, genus Carya has been moved to the order Fagales. AsiaCarya sect. Sinocarya – Asian hickories Carya dabieshanensis M. C. Liu – Dabie Shan hickory Carya cathayensis Sarg. – Chinese hickory Carya hunanensis W.
C. Cheng & R. H. Chang – Hunan hickory Carya kweichowensis Kuang & A. M. Lu – Guizhou hickory Carya poilanei Leroy - Poilane's hickory Carya tonkinensis Lecomte – Vietnamese hickoryNorth AmericaCarya sect. Carya – typical hickories Carya floridana Sarg. – scrub hickory Carya glabra Sweet – pignut hickory, sweet pignut, coast pignut hickory, smoothbark hickory, swamp hickory, broom hickory Carya laciniosa K. Koch – shellbark hickory, shagbark hickory, bigleaf shagbark hickory, big shellbark, bottom shellbark, thick shellbark, western shellbark Carya myristiciformis Nutt. – nutmeg hickory, swamp hickory, bitter water hickory Carya ovalis Sarg. – red hickory, spicebark hickory, sweet pignut hickory Carya ovata K. Koch – shagbark hickory Carya ovata var. ovata – northern shagbark hickory Carya ovata var. australis – Southern shagbark hickory, Carolina hickory Carya pallida Engl. & Graebn. – sand hickory Carya texana Buckley – black hickory Carya tomentosa Nutt. – mockernut hickory †Carya washingtonensis - Manchester extinct Miocene Carya sect.
Apocarya – pecans Carya aquatica Nutt. – bitter pecan or water hickory Carya cordiformis K. Koch – bitternut hickory Carya illinoinensis K. Koch – pecan Carya palmeri W. E. Manning – Mexican hickory Hickory is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species; these include: Luna moth Brown-tail Coleophora case-bearers, C. laticornella and C. ostryae Regal moths, whose caterpillars are known as hickory horn-devils Walnut sphinx The bride Hickory tussock moth The hickory leaf stem gall phylloxera uses the hickory tree as a food source. Phylloxeridae are related to aphids and have a complex life cycle. Eggs hatch in early spring and the galls form around the developing insects. Phylloxera galls may damage weakened or stressed hickories, but are harmless. Deformed leaves and twigs can rain down from the tree in the spring as squirrels break off infected tissue and eat the galls for the protein content or because the galls are fleshy and tasty to the squirrels; the pecan gall curculio is a true weevil species found feeding on galls of the hickory leaf stem gall phylloxera.
The banded hickory borer is found on hickories. Some fruits are difficult to categorize. Hickory nuts and walnuts in the Juglandaceae family grow within an outer husk. "Tryma" is a specialized term for such nut-like drupes. Hickory wood is hard, stiff and shock resistant. There are woods that are stronger than hickory and woods that are harder, but the combination of strength, toughness and stiffness found in hickory wood is not found in any other commercial wood, it is used for tool handles, wheel spokes, drumsticks, lacrosse stick handles, golf club shafts, the bottom of skis, walking sticks, for punitive use as a switch, as a cane-like hickory stick in schools and use by parents. Paddles are made from hickory; this property of hickory wood has left a trace in some Native American languages: in Ojibwe, hickory is called mitigwaabaak, a compound of mitigwaab "bow" and the final -aakw "hardwood tree". Baseball bats were made of hickory, but are now more made of ash. Hickory is replacing ash. Hickory was extensively used for the construction of early aircraft.
Hickory is highly prized for wood-burning stoves and chimineas because of its high energy content. Hickory wood is a preferred type for smoking cured meats. In the Southern United States, hickory is popular for cooking barbecue, as hickory grows abundantly in the region and adds flavor to the meat. Hickory is sometimes used for wood flooring due to its durability in resisting character. Hickory wood is not noted for rot resistance. A bark extract from shagbark hickory is used in an edible syrup similar
The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. Its source is Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota and it flows south for 2,320 miles to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U. S. two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. The main stem is within the United States; the Mississippi ranks as the fifteenth-largest river by discharge in the world. The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana. Native Americans have lived along its tributaries for thousands of years. Most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies; the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the native way of life as first explorers settlers, ventured into the basin in increasing numbers.
The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, the early United States, as a vital transportation artery and communications link. In the 19th century, during the height of the ideology of manifest destiny, the Mississippi and several western tributaries, most notably the Missouri, formed pathways for the western expansion of the United States. Formed from thick layers of the river's silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile regions of the United States. During the American Civil War, the Mississippi's capture by Union forces marked a turning point towards victory, due to the river's strategic importance to the Confederate war effort; because of substantial growth of cities and the larger ships and barges that replaced steamboats, the first decades of the 20th century saw the construction of massive engineering works such as levees and dams built in combination. A major focus of this work has been to prevent the lower Mississippi from shifting into the channel of the Atchafalaya River and bypassing New Orleans.
Since the 20th century, the Mississippi River has experienced major pollution and environmental problems – most notably elevated nutrient and chemical levels from agricultural runoff, the primary contributor to the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. The word Mississippi itself comes from Misi zipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, Misi-ziibi. In the 18th century, the river was the primary western boundary of the young United States, since the country's expansion westward, the Mississippi River has been considered a convenient if approximate dividing line between the Eastern and Midwestern United States, the Western United States; this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St. Louis and the phrase "Trans-Mississippi" as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, it is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, such as "the highest peak east of the Mississippi" or "the oldest city west of the Mississippi". The FCC uses it as the dividing line for broadcast call-signs, which begin with W to the east and K to the west, mixing together in media markets along the river.
The Mississippi River can be divided into three sections: the Upper Mississippi, the river from its headwaters to the confluence with the Missouri River. The Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri, it is divided into two sections: The headwaters, 493 miles from the source to Saint Anthony Falls in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca, 1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, Minnesota; the name "Itasca" was chosen to designate the "true head" of the Mississippi River as a combination of the last four letters of the Latin word for truth and the first two letters of the Latin word for head. However, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, the waterway's flow is moderated by 43 dams. Fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation.
The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all contain locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper river. Taken as a whole, these 43 dams shape the geography and influence the ecology of the upper river. Beginning just below Saint Paul and continuing throughout the upper and lower river, the Mississippi is further controlled by thousands of wing dikes that moderate the river's flow in order to maintain an open navigation channel and prevent the river from eroding its banks; the head of navigation on the Mississippi is the Coon Rapids Dam in Minnesota. Before it was built in 1913, steamboats could go upstream as far as Saint Cloud, depending on river conditions; the uppermost lock and dam on the Upper Mississippi River is the Upper St. Anthony Falls Lock an
Texarkana metropolitan area
The Texarkana metropolitan statistical area, as defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget, is a two-county region anchored by the twin cities of Texarkana and Texarkana, encompassing the surrounding communities in Bowie County and Miller County, Arkansas. As of the 2016 census, the MSA had a population of 150,098. Texarkana is a subset of the broader Ark-La-Tex region. Texarkana was founded in 1873 on the junction of two railroads; the name is a portmanteau of TEXas, ARKansas, nearby LouisiANA. One tradition tells of a Red River steamboat named The Texarkana, c. 1860. Another story mentions a storekeeper named Swindle in Red Land, Louisiana who concocted a drink called "Texarkana Bitters". A third account states that a railroad surveyor, coined the name. Local lore suggests that, before Texas's annexation by the US, lawlessness ruled in the area that at times was claimed by various nations. In 1876, Texas, was granted a charter under an act of the Texas legislature, a Texarkana, post office operated from 1886 to 1892.
Congressman Morris Sheppard secured a postal order changing the name to "Texarkana, Arkansas-Texas". The Texarkana metropolitan area was first defined in 1960. Known as the Texarkana, TX–Texarkana, AR Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, it consisted of Bowie County and Miller County, Arkansas. In 1963, the area was renamed the Texarkana, TX–AR Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, only to return to its original name in 1971. Little River County, was added to the SMSA in 1973. In 1983, the official name was shortened to the Texarkana, TX–Texarkana, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area, still in use; that same year, Little River County was removed from the MSA. The two-county MSA had a population of 137,486 in 2000; as of the census of 2000, there were 137,486 people, 72,695 households, 55,524 families residing within the MSA. The racial makeup of the MSA was 53.5% White, 43.3% African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.4% Asian, <0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.9% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.6% of the population. The median income for a household in the MSA was $31,976, the median income for a family was $38,887. Males had a median income of $32,482 versus $21,408 for females; the per capita income for the MSA was $16,901. Texarkana began as a railroad and lumber center, developed in the 20th century as a regional agricultural processing, retail and service center. Red River Army Depot and Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant were the largest regional employers from the 1940s through the 1970s. Paper mills near Ashdown and Atlanta, as well as other industrial facilities, brought new jobs to the area in the 1970s. Today the Texarkana area is a diversified economy whose pattern of employment categorized by industry is similar to the entire state of Arkansas. Texarkana consists of two separate municipal designations: Texarkana, the county seat of Miller County, Arkansas Texarkana, located in Bowie County, TexasState Line Avenue follows the Texas-Arkansas state line throughout much of Texarkana.
The two "sides" of Texarkana are separate only from a political standpoint. Thousands of locals live in one state and work in the other. Owing to its divided political nature, Texarkana has two sets of city officials. Texarkana is located at the intersection of Interstate 30 and Interstate 49, it is situated halfway between Dallas and Little Rock, Arkansas. Texarkana Regional Airport is located inside the northeastern city limits and is included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015, which categorized it as a primary commercial service airport; the airport covers an area of 964 acres at an elevation of 390 feet above mean sea level and it has two runways with asphalt surfaces: Runway 4/22 is 6,601 by 144 feet Runway 13/31 is 5,200 by 100 feet Major routes in Texarkana include: Interstate 30 Interstate 49 U. S. Route 59 U. S. Route 67 U. S. Route 71 U. S. Route 82 Loop As of October 2015, new interchanges had been completed at the junctions of I-30/US 59, I-30/I-49. Interstate 49 had been extended south to Shreveport with its northern extension planned into Kansas City along the U.
S. Route 71 corridor. Multiple projects were under construction to relieve the strain on local roadways, including continuous access roads and the expansion of area highways and bridges. Rail service in Texarkana is provided by: Amtrak's Texas Eagle, which stops at Texarkana Union Station Kansas City Southern Railway Texas Northeastern Railroad Union Pacific Railroad Notable historical buildings in Texarkana include the post office and federal building that straddle the state line, the Ace of Clubs House, The Perot Theater, Texarkana Regional Museum; the Aces of Clubs House is shaped like a club on a playing card and inspired by a winning poker hand. The Texarkana Symphony Orchestra was established in 2005, providing the community with several professional concerts of classical music every year. In 2007, the Texarkana Youth Symphony Orchestra was established, presenting spring and winter concerts. Texarkana College, a community college whose origins date to 1927, enrolls more than four thousand annually.
In 1971, East Texas State University began offering classes at the campus, an institution that became Texas A&M University–Texarkana. Texas A&M University-Texarkana has constructed a large campus at Bringle Lake. His
Campanula americana, the American bellflower, is a tall bellflower native to eastern North America from the Great Lakes region south to Florida and from the Dakotas east to New York. This native plant is an annual or biennial from 2-6' tall, its flowers are light blue to violet and are arranged in elongated clusters. It is an unusual bellflower in that its flowers are flat and not bell-shaped, it has a varying life-history with seeds germinating in the fall producing annual plants and spring-germinating seeds producing biennial plants. It is insect-pollinated, does not self-pollinate; some authorities, including the USDA Plants database consider the name Campanulastrum americanum to be the valid and correct name for this species. Media related to Campanula americana at Wikimedia Commons
Helena–West Helena, Arkansas
Helena–West Helena is the county seat of and the largest city within Phillips County, United States. The current city was consolidated, effective January 1, 2006, from the two Arkansas cities of Helena and West Helena. Helena is sited on the eastern side of Crowley's Ridge. West Helena is located on the western side of Crowley's Ridge, a geographic anomaly in the flat Arkansas Delta; the Helena Bridge, one of Arkansas' four Mississippi River bridges, carries U. S. Route 49 across to Mississippi; the combined population of the two cities was 15,012 at the 2000 census and at the 2010 census, the official population was 12,282. The municipality traces its historical roots to the founding of the port town of Helena on the Mississippi River by European Americans in 1833; as the county seat, Helena was the center of a prosperous cotton plantation region in the antebellum years. Helena was occupied by the Union Army early in the American Civil War; the city was the site of the Battle of Helena fought in 1863.
Confederate forces unsuccessfully tried to expel Union forces from Helena in order to help relieve pressure on the strategic river town of Vicksburg, Mississippi. In the year, Helena served as the launching point for the Union Army in the capture of Little Rock, the state capital. A thriving blues community developed here in the 1940s and 1950s as rural musicians relocated for city jobs. Mechanization had reduced the need for farm workers; the city continued to grow until the closing of the Mohawk Rubber Company, a subsidiary of Yokohama Rubber Company, in the 1970s. Unemployment surged shortly after. Among the attractions in Helena–West Helena are the Delta Cultural Center, the Pillow-Thompson House, the Helena Confederate Cemetery, which holds the remains of seven Confederate Army generals; the city holds an annual King Biscuit Blues Festival each October. It has been held under this name since 2010, when it was renamed at a 25th-anniversary performance by musician B. B. King; the city of Helena was founded by European Americans as a port along the Mississippi River.
Crowleys Ridge provided elevation and some protection against flooding, a rare feature along the right/west bank of the lower Mississippi River. During the Civil War, the Union Army occupied Helena prior to the Battle of Helena in 1863. In the early morning hours of July 4, 1863, Confederate forces attempted to retake Helena in order to help relieve pressure on the strategic river town of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Confederate forces in Vicksburg had arranged to surrender to General U. S. Grant on the morning of July 4. Many of the former battle sites are still intact. Helena may benefit from protecting these historic areas for destination tourism. Prior to consolidation, Helena contained 6,323 people within 23.1 km². Neighboring West Helena had 8,689 people in 11.5 km². Merger proposals began as early as 2002, a March 2005 vote among citizens of both cities approved the merger; the surrounding rural county is one of the poorest of Arkansas' 75 counties. Proponents of the consolidation said that combining the cities would strengthen their bargaining power for the surrounding region in competing for projects to improve the overall economy and standard of living.
Among the combined city's council's first tasks was the hiring of a new police chief. They chose Vincent Bell. Based on U. S. Census reports for both cities prior to the merger, the 2000 population of the area comprising Helena–West Helena was 15,012. There were 5,516 households, 3,765 families residing in the city; the racial makeup of the city was 31.85% White, 66.63% African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.27% from other races, 0.58% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 0.89% of the population. The median income for a household in the city was $19,896, the median income for a family was $23,274. Males had a median income of $25,087 versus $17,238 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,131. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,323 people, 2,312 households, 1,542 families residing in the city of Helena; the population density was 710.7 people per square mile. There were 2,710 housing units at an average density of 304.6/sq mi.
The racial makeup of the city was 30.59% White, 67.93% Black or African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.60% Asian, 0.17% from other races, 0.59% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.73% of the population. There were 2,312 households out of which 32.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.8% were married couples living together, 28.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.3% were non-families. 30.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.28. In the city, the population was spread out with 32.5% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 22.1% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 83.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $18,662, the median income for a family was $21,534.
Males had a median income of $27,203 versus $17,250 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,028. About 38.4% of families and 41.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 54.9% of those under age 18 and 24.1% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,689 people, 3,204 households, 2,223 families residing in the city