Henry II of England
Henry II known as Henry Curtmantle, Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as King of England, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, Count of Anjou and Nantes, Lord of Ireland. Before he was 40 he controlled England, large parts of Wales, the eastern half of Ireland and the western half of France—an area that would come to be called the Angevin Empire. Henry was the son of daughter of Henry I of England, he became involved by the age of 14 in his mother's efforts to claim the throne of England occupied by Stephen of Blois, was made Duke of Normandy at 17. He inherited Anjou in 1151 and shortly afterwards became the Duke of Aquitaine by marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine, whose marriage to Louis VII of France had been annulled. Stephen agreed to a peace treaty after Henry's military expedition to England in 1153, Henry inherited the kingdom on Stephen's death a year later. Henry was an energetic and sometimes ruthless ruler, driven by a desire to restore the lands and privileges of his grandfather Henry I.
During the early years of his reign the younger Henry restored the royal administration in England, re-established hegemony over Wales and gained full control over his lands in Anjou and Touraine. Henry's desire to reform the relationship with the Church led to conflict with his former friend Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury; this controversy lasted for much of the 1160s and resulted in Becket's murder in 1170. Henry soon came into conflict with Louis VII and the two rulers fought what has been termed a "cold war" over several decades. Henry expanded his empire at Louis' expense, taking Brittany and pushing east into central France and south into Toulouse. Henry and Eleanor had eight children -- five sons. Three of his sons would be king, though Henry the Young King was named his father's co-ruler rather than a stand-alone king; as the sons grew up, tensions over the future inheritance of the empire began to emerge, encouraged by Louis and his son King Philip II. In 1173 Henry's heir apparent, "Young Henry", rebelled in protest.
France, Brittany and Boulogne allied themselves with the rebels. The Great Revolt was only defeated by Henry's vigorous military action and talented local commanders, many of them "new men" appointed for their loyalty and administrative skills. Young Henry and Geoffrey revolted again in 1183; the Norman invasion of Ireland provided lands for his youngest son John, but Henry struggled to find ways to satisfy all his sons' desires for land and immediate power. By 1189, Young Henry and Geoffrey were dead, Philip played on Richard's fears that Henry II would make John king, leading to a final rebellion. Decisively defeated by Philip and Richard and suffering from a bleeding ulcer, Henry retreated to Chinon castle in Anjou, he was succeeded by Richard. Henry's empire collapsed during the reign of his youngest son, John. Many of the changes Henry introduced during his long rule, had long-term consequences. Henry's legal changes are considered to have laid the basis for the English Common Law, while his intervention in Brittany and Scotland shaped the development of their societies and governmental systems.
Historical interpretations of Henry's reign have changed over time. In the 18th century, scholars argued that Henry was a driving force in the creation of a genuinely English monarchy and a unified Britain. During the Victorian expansion of the British Empire, historians were keenly interested in the formation of Henry's own empire, but they expressed concern over his private life and treatment of Becket. Late-20th-century historians have combined British and French historical accounts of Henry, challenging earlier Anglocentric interpretations of his reign. Henry was born in France at Le Mans on 5 March 1133, the eldest child of the Empress Matilda and her second husband, Geoffrey the Fair, Count of Anjou; the French county of Anjou was formed in the 10th century and the Angevin rulers attempted for several centuries to extend their influence and power across France through careful marriages and political alliances. In theory, the county answered to the French king, but royal power over Anjou weakened during the 11th century and the county became autonomous.
Henry's mother was King of England and Duke of Normandy. She was born into a powerful ruling class of Normans, who traditionally owned extensive estates in both England and Normandy, her first husband had been the Holy Roman Emperor Henry V. After her father's death in 1135, Matilda hoped to claim the English throne, but instead her cousin Stephen of Blois was crowned king and recognised as the Duke of Normandy, resulting in civil war between their rival supporters. Geoffrey took advantage of the confusion to attack the Duchy of Normandy but played no direct role in the English conflict, leaving this to Matilda and her half-brother, Robert of Gloucester; the war, termed the Anarchy by Victorian historians, degenerated into stalemate. Henry spent some of his earliest years in his mother's household, accompanied Matilda to Normandy in the late 1130s. Henry's childhood from the age of seven, was spent in Anjou, where he was educated by Peter of Saintes, a noted grammarian of the day. In late 1142, Geoffrey decided t
Coronation of Elizabeth II
The coronation of Elizabeth II took place on 2 June 1953 at Westminster Abbey, London. Elizabeth II ascended the throne at the age of 25 upon the death of her father, George VI, on 6 February 1952, being proclaimed queen by her privy and executive councils shortly afterwards; the coronation was held more than one year because of the tradition of allowing an appropriate length of time to pass after a monarch dies before holding such festivals. It gave the planning committees adequate time to make preparations for the ceremony. During the service, Elizabeth took an oath, was anointed with holy oil, invested with robes and regalia, crowned Queen of the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. Celebrations took place across the Commonwealth realms and a commemorative medal was issued, it was the first British coronation to be televised. Elizabeth's was the last British coronation of the 20th century, it was estimated to have cost £1.57 million. The one-day ceremony took 14 months of preparation: the first meeting of the Coronation Commission was in April 1952, under the chairmanship of the Queen's husband, Duke of Edinburgh.
Other committees were formed, such as the Coronation Joint Committee and the Coronation Executive Committee, both chaired by the Duke of Norfolk who, by convention as Earl Marshal, had overall responsibility for the event. Many physical preparations and decorations along the route were the responsibility of David Eccles, Minister of Works. Eccles described his role and that of the Earl Marshal: "The Earl Marshal is the producer – I am the stage manager..." The committees involved high commissioners from other Commonwealth realms, reflecting the international nature of the coronation. As Canadian Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent said at the time: "In my view the Coronation is the official enthronement of the Sovereign as Sovereign of the UK. We are happy to attend and witness the Coronation of the Sovereign of the UK but we are not direct participants in that function." The Coronation Commission announced in June 1952 that the coronation would take place on 2 June 1953. Norman Hartnell was commissioned by the Queen to design the outfits for all members of the royal family, including Elizabeth's coronation gown.
His design for the gown evolved through nine proposals, the final version resulted from his own research and numerous meetings with the Queen: a white silk dress embroidered with floral emblems of the countries of the Commonwealth at the time: the Tudor rose of England, Scottish thistle, Welsh leek, shamrock for Northern Ireland, wattle of Australia, maple leaf of Canada, the New Zealand silver fern, South Africa's protea, two lotus flowers for India and Ceylon, Pakistan's wheat and jute. Unknown to the Queen was a four-leaf clover embroidered on the dress's left-hand side, which her hand would touch throughout the day. Elizabeth rehearsed for the occasion with her maids of honour. A sheet was used in place of the velvet train, a formation of chairs stood in for the carriage, she wore the Imperial State Crown while going about her daily business – at her desk, during tea, while reading a newspaper – so that she could become accustomed to its feel and weight. Elizabeth took part in two full rehearsals at Westminster Abbey, on 22 and 29 May, though some sources claim that she attended one or "several" rehearsals.
The Duchess of Norfolk stood in for the Queen at rehearsals. Elizabeth's grandmother Queen Mary had died on 24 March 1953, having stated in her will that her death should not affect the planning of the coronation, the event went ahead as scheduled, it was estimated to cost £1.57 million, which included stands along the procession route to accommodate 96,000 people, street decorations, car hire, repairs to the state coach, alterations to the Queen's regalia. The Coronation ceremony of Elizabeth II followed a similar pattern to the coronations of the kings and queens before her, being held in Westminster Abbey, involving the peerage and clergy. However, for the new Queen, several parts of the ceremony were markedly different; the coronation of the Queen was the first to be televised, was the world's first major international event to be broadcast on television. There had been considerable debate within the British Cabinet on the subject, with Prime Minister Winston Churchill against the idea; the event was filmed in colour, separately from the BBC's black and white television broadcast.
Millions across Britain watched the coronation live, while, to make sure Canadians could see it on the same day, RAF Canberras flew BBC film recordings of the ceremony across the Atlantic Ocean to be broadcast by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the first non-stop flights between the United Kingdom and the Canadian mainland. At Goose Bay, the first batch of film was transferred to a Royal Canadian Air Force CF-100 jet fighter for the further trip to Montreal. In all, three such flights were made as the coronation proceeded, with the first and second Canberras taking the second and third batches of film to Montreal respectively. US networks
Anne, Queen of Great Britain
Anne was the Queen of England and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707. On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union, two of her realms, the kingdoms of England and Scotland, united as a single sovereign state known as Great Britain, she continued to reign as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland until her death in 1714. Anne was born in the reign of her uncle Charles II, her father, Charles's younger brother James, was thus heir presumptive to the throne. His suspected Roman Catholicism was unpopular in England, on Charles's instructions Anne and her elder sister, were raised as Anglicans. On Charles's death in 1685, James succeeded to the throne, but just three years he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Mary and her husband, the Dutch Protestant William III of Orange, became joint monarchs. Although the sisters had been close, disagreements over Anne's finances and choice of acquaintances arose shortly after Mary's accession and they became estranged. William and Mary had no children.
After Mary's death in 1694, William reigned alone until his own death in 1702, when Anne succeeded him. During her reign, Anne favoured moderate Tory politicians, who were more to share her Anglican religious views than their opponents, the Whigs; the Whigs grew more powerful during the course of the War of the Spanish Succession, until 1710 when Anne dismissed many of them from office. Her close friendship with Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, turned sour as the result of political differences; the Duchess took revenge in an unflattering description of the Queen in her memoirs, accepted by historians until Anne was re-assessed in the late 20th century. Anne was plagued by ill health throughout her life, from her thirties, she grew ill and obese. Despite seventeen pregnancies by her husband, Prince George of Denmark, she died without surviving issue and was the last monarch of the House of Stuart. Under the Act of Settlement 1701, which excluded all Catholics, she was succeeded by her second cousin George I of the House of Hanover.
Anne was born at 11:39 p.m. on 6 February 1665 at St James's Palace, the fourth child and second daughter of the Duke of York, his first wife, Anne Hyde. Her father was the younger brother of King Charles II, who ruled the three kingdoms of England and Ireland, her mother was the daughter of Lord Chancellor Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon. At her Anglican baptism in the Chapel Royal at St James's, her older sister, was one of her godparents, along with the Duchess of Monmouth and the Archbishop of Canterbury, Gilbert Sheldon; the Duke and Duchess of York had eight children, but Anne and Mary were the only ones to survive into adulthood. As a child, Anne suffered from an eye condition, which manifested as excessive watering known as "defluxion". For medical treatment, she was sent to France, where she lived with her paternal grandmother, Henrietta Maria of France, at the Château de Colombes near Paris. Following her grandmother's death in 1669, Anne lived with an aunt, Henrietta Anne, Duchess of Orléans.
On the sudden death of her aunt in 1670, Anne returned to England. Her mother died the following year; as was traditional in the royal family and her sister were brought up separated from their father in their own establishment at Richmond, London. On the instructions of Charles II, they were raised as Protestants. Placed in the care of Colonel Edward and Lady Frances Villiers, their education was focused on the teachings of the Anglican church. Henry Compton, Bishop of London, was appointed as Anne's preceptor. Around 1671, Anne first made the acquaintance of Sarah Jennings, who became her close friend and one of her most influential advisors. Jennings married John Churchill in about 1678, his sister, Arabella Churchill, was the Duke of York's mistress, he was to be Anne's most important general. In 1673, the Duke of York's conversion to Catholicism became public, he married a Catholic princess, Mary of Modena, only six and a half years older than Anne. Charles II had no legitimate children, so the Duke of York was next in the line of succession, followed by his two surviving daughters from his first marriage and Anne—as long as he had no son.
Over the next ten years, the new Duchess of York had ten children, but all were either stillborn or died in infancy, leaving Mary and Anne second and third in the line of succession after their father. There is every indication that, throughout Anne's early life and her stepmother got on well together, the Duke of York was a conscientious and loving father. In November 1677, Anne's elder sister, married their Dutch first cousin, William III of Orange, at St James's Palace, but Anne could not attend the wedding because she was confined to her room with smallpox. By the time she recovered, Mary had left for her new life in the Netherlands. Lady Frances Villiers contracted the disease, died. Anne's aunt Lady Henrietta Hyde was appointed as her new governess. A year Anne and her stepmother visited Mary in Holland for two weeks. Anne's father and stepmother retired to Brussels in March 1679 in the wake of anti-Catholic hysteria fed by the Popish Plot, Anne visited them from the end of August. In October, they returned to the Duke and Duchess to Scotland and Anne to England.
She joined her father and stepmother at Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh from July 1681 until May 1682. It was her last journey outside England. Anne's second cousin George of Hanover visited London for three months from December 1680, sparking rumours of a potential marriage between them. H
The shilling is a unit of currency used in Austria, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, United States and other British Commonwealth countries. The shilling is used as a currency in four east African countries: Kenya, Tanzania and Somalia, it is the proposed currency that the east African community plans to introduce. The word shilling comes from old English "Scilling", a monetary term meaning twentieth of a pound, from the Proto-Germanic root skiljaną meaning'to separate, divide.' The word "Scilling" is mentioned in the earliest recorded Germanic law codes, those of Æthelberht of Kent. Slang terms for the old shilling coins include "bob" and "hog". While the derivation of "bob" is uncertain, John Camden Hotten in his 1864 Slang Dictionary says the original version was "bobstick" and speculates that it may be connected with Sir Robert Walpole. One abbreviation for shilling is s, it was represented by a solidus symbol, which may have stood for a long s or ſ, thus 1/9 would be one shilling and ninepence.
A price with no pence was sometimes written with a solidus and a dash: 11/–. The solidus symbol is still used for the Kenyan shilling, rather than sh. During the Great Recoinage of 1816, the mint was instructed to coin one troy pound of standard silver into 66 shillings, or its equivalent in other denominations; this set the weight of the shilling, its subsequent decimal replacement 5 new pence coin, at 87.2727 grains or 5.655 grams from 1816 until 1990, when a new smaller 5p coin was introduced. In the past, the English world has had various myths about the shilling. One myth was that it was deemed to be the value of a cow in a sheep elsewhere. A shilling was a coin used in England from the reign of Henry VII; the shilling continued in use after the Acts of Union of 1707 created a new United Kingdom from the Kingdoms of England and Scotland, under Article 16 of the Articles of Union, a common currency for the new United Kingdom was created. The term shilling was in use in Scotland from early medieval times.
The common currency created in 1707 by Article 16 of the Articles of Union continued in use until decimalisation in 1971. In the traditional pounds and pence system, there were 20 shillings per pound and 12 pence per shilling, thus there were 240 pence in a pound. Three coins denominated in multiple shillings were in circulation at this time, they were: two shillings, which adopted the value of 10 new pence at decimalisation. At decimalisation in 1971, the shilling coin was superseded by the new five-pence piece, of identical size and weight and had the same value, inherited the shilling's slang name of a bob. Shillings remained in circulation until the five pence coin was reduced in size in 1991. Between 1701 and the unification of the currencies in 1825, the Irish shilling was valued at 13 pence and known as the "black hog", as opposed to the 12-pence English shillings which were known as "white hogs". In the Irish Free State and Republic of Ireland the shilling coin was issued as scilling in Irish.
It was worth 1/20th of an Irish pound, was interchangeable at the same value to the British coin, which continued to be used in Northern Ireland. The coin featured a bull on the reverse side; the first minting, from 1928 until 1941, contained 75% silver, more than the equivalent British coin. The original Irish shilling coin ) was withdrawn from circulation on 1 January 1993, when a smaller five pence coin was introduced. Australian shillings, twenty of which made up one Australian pound, were first issued in 1910, with the Australian coat of arms on the reverse and King Edward VII on the face; the coat of arms design was retained through the reign of King George V until a new ram's head design was introduced for the coins of King George VI. This design continued until the last year of issue in 1963. In 1966, Australia's currency was decimalised and the shilling was replaced by a ten cent coin, where 10 shillings made up one Australian dollar; the slang term for a shilling coin in Australia was "deener".
The slang term for a shilling as currency unit was "bob", the same as in the United Kingdom. After 1966, shillings continued to circulate, as they were replaced by 10-cent coins of the same size and weight. New Zealand shillings, twenty of which made up one New Zealand pound, were first issued in 1933 and featured the image of a Maori warrior carrying a taiaha "in a warlike attitude" on the reverse. In 1967, New Zealand's currency was decimalised and the shilling was replaced by a ten cent coin of the same size and weight. Ten cent coins minted through the remainder of the 1960s included the legend "ONE SHILLING" on the reverse. Smaller 10-cent coins were introduced in 2006. Shillings were used in Malta, prior to decimalisation in 1972, had a face value of five Maltese cents. In British Ceylon, an shilling was equivalent to eight fanams. With the replacement of the rixdollar by the rupee in 1852, a shilling was deemed to be equivalent to half a rupee. On the decimalisation of the currency
Trade dollars are silver coins minted as trade coins by various countries to facilitate trade with China and the Orient. They all approximated in weight and fineness to the Spanish dollar, which had set the standard for a de facto common currency for trade in the Far East; the existence of trade dollars came about because of the popularity of the silver Spanish dollar in China and East Asia. Following the establishment of the Spanish Philippines, Intramuros became an entrepôt for Chinese goods in one direction and silver, from across the Pacific to the Spanish held silver mines of Mexico, in the other; this so-called "Manila Galleons" trade route, led from the 16th Century onwards to the wide circulation of "pieces of eight" in East Asia. The high regard in which these coins came to be held, led to the minting of the silver Chinese yuan, a coin designed to resemble the Spanish one; these Chinese "dragon dollars" not only circulated in China, but together with original coins of Spanish-Mexican origin became the preferred currency of trade between China and its neighbours.
Defeated in the First Opium War China was forced to open its ports to foreign trade, in the late half of the 19th Century Western nations trading with China found it cheaper and more expedient to mint their own coins, from their own supplies of silver, than to continue to use coins from Mexican sources. These so-called trade dollars would approximate in specification, weight 7 mace and 2 candareens and fineness.900, the Spanish-Mexican coins so long trusted and valued in China. To control the money supply in French Indochina in 1885, the French introduced a new silver Piastre de commerce and associated subsidiary coinage throughout the entire Indo-Chinese colonies in order to increase monetary stability; the piastre was equivalent to the Mexican peso. The piastre was therefore a direct lineal descendent of the Spanish pieces of eight, brought to the Orient from Mexico on the Manila Galleons, it was on a silver standard of 1 piastre = 24.4935 grams pure silver. This was reduced to 24.3 grams in 1895.
The Japanese Trade Dollar was a dollar coin, issued from 1875 to 1877. It was minted of 27.22 g of silver with a fineness of.900. The Yen coin had 26.96 g of silver at that time, otherwise nearly identical in design to the trade dollar.2,736,000 coins of this type were minted, the vast majority in 1876-77. When Japan introduced the gold standard in 1897, the silver 1 yen coins, including the trade dollars, were demonetized; the majority of the trade dollars were counterstamped with the character "gin". The Osaka mint placed the mark on the left side of the Tokyo mint on the right; the coins were released for use in Japanese-occupied Taiwan, Korea and Lüshunkou. With the extension of British trading interests in the East after the founding of Singapore in 1819 and Hong Kong in 1842, it became necessary to produce a special Dollar so as to remove the reliance of a British Colony upon the various foreign coins in circulation. "China trade silver dollars" were a direct result of the First and Second Opium War, which broke out when Chinese authorities tried to stop Britain from smuggling opium into the country.
The loser, had to open up a number of ports to British trade and residence, cede Hong Kong to Britain. In the decades that followed and adventurers flocked to these areas, international trade flourished. Foreign banks were established and large silver coins from all over the world began arriving to pay for tea and Chinese porcelain to be shipped abroad. These.900 fine silver trade dollars were circulated throughout China, where they were accepted as a medium of exchange. The British Trade Dollars, minted for use in the Far East, depict Britannia standing on shore, holding a trident in one hand and balancing a British shield in the other, with a merchant ship under full sail in the background. On the reverse is an arabesque design with the Chinese symbol for longevity in the center, the denomination in two languages - Chinese and Jawi Malay; the British Trade Dollar was designed by George William De Saulles and minted from 1895 for Hong Kong and the Straits Settlements. But after the Straits dollar was introduced to the Straits Settlements in 1903, it became a Hong Kong coin produced until 1935.
Those with the mint mark "B" were produced at the Bombay Mint. Those with no mint mark were produced in London; the mint mark "C" can be found in the ground between the left foot of Britannia and the base of the shield, while the mint mark "B" is located in the center prong of the trident. The 1921-B dollar was struck but never released for circulation, only a limited number of 1934-B and 1935-B coins were released. In some cases, the date on an manufactured coin die was altered; as this could not be done without leaving a trace of the former date, some coins show traces of an older date below the visible date. These include 1897-B over 1896-B, 1900-B over 1894-B, 1901-B over 1900-B, 1909-B over 1908-B, 1904-B over 1898-B, 1903-B over 1902-B, 1908-B over 1903-B, 1904-B over 1903-B, 1929-B over 1901-B, 1908-B over 1907-B, 1910-B over 1900-B; the British Trade Dollar was demonetized on 1 August 1937. The United States trade dollar is a silver dollar coin, issued by the United States Mint and minted in Philadelphia, Carson City, San Francisco from 1873 to 1885.
Business strike trade dollars were last produced in 1878 and proof coin production continued until 1885. The coin weighs 420 grains, about 8 grains more than the domestic silver dollar (Seated Liberty Dollars and
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a dense, ductile unreactive, silverish-white transition metal, its name is derived from the Spanish term platino, meaning "little silver". Platinum is a member of the platinum group of elements and group 10 of the periodic table of elements, it has six occurring isotopes. It is one of the rarer elements in Earth's crust, with an average abundance of 5 μg/kg, it occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some native deposits in South Africa, which accounts for 80% of the world production. Because of its scarcity in Earth's crust, only a few hundred tonnes are produced annually, given its important uses, it is valuable and is a major precious metal commodity. Platinum is one of the least reactive metals, it has remarkable resistance to corrosion at high temperatures, is therefore considered a noble metal. Platinum is found chemically uncombined as native platinum; because it occurs in the alluvial sands of various rivers, it was first used by pre-Columbian South American natives to produce artifacts.
It was referenced in European writings as early as 16th century, but it was not until Antonio de Ulloa published a report on a new metal of Colombian origin in 1748 that it began to be investigated by scientists. Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, jewelry. Being a heavy metal, it leads to health problems upon exposure to its salts. Compounds containing platinum, such as cisplatin and carboplatin, are applied in chemotherapy against certain types of cancer; as of 2018, the value of platinum is $833.00 per ounce. Pure platinum is a lustrous and malleable, silver-white metal. Platinum is more ductile than gold, silver or copper, thus being the most ductile of pure metals, but it is less malleable than gold; the metal has excellent resistance to corrosion, is stable at high temperatures and has stable electrical properties. Platinum does oxidize, forming PtO2, at 500 °C, it reacts vigorously with fluorine at 500 °C to form platinum tetrafluoride.
It is attacked by chlorine, bromine and sulfur. Platinum is insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric acid, but dissolves in hot aqua regia, to form chloroplatinic acid, H2PtCl6, its physical characteristics and chemical stability make it useful for industrial applications. Its resistance to wear and tarnish is well suited to use in fine jewellery; the most common oxidation states of platinum are +2 and +4. The +1 and +3 oxidation states are less common, are stabilized by metal bonding in bimetallic species; as is expected, tetracoordinate platinum compounds tend to adopt 16-electron square planar geometries. Although elemental platinum is unreactive, it dissolves in hot aqua regia to give aqueous chloroplatinic acid: Pt + 4 HNO3 + 6 HCl → H2PtCl6 + 4 NO2 + 4 H2OAs a soft acid, platinum has a great affinity for sulfur, such as on dimethyl sulfoxide. In 2007, Gerhard Ertl won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for determining the detailed molecular mechanisms of the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over platinum.
Platinum has six occurring isotopes: 190Pt, 192Pt, 194Pt, 195Pt, 196Pt, 198Pt. The most abundant of these is 195 Pt, it is the only stable isotope with a non-zero spin. 190Pt is the least abundant at only 0.01%. Of the occurring isotopes, only 190Pt is unstable, though it decays with a half-life of 6.5×1011 years, causing an activity of 15 Bq/kg of natural platinum. 198 Pt can undergo alpha decay. Platinum has 31 synthetic isotopes ranging in atomic mass from 166 to 204, making the total number of known isotopes 39; the least stable of these is 166Pt, with a half-life of 300 µs, whereas the most stable is 193Pt with a half-life of 50 years. Most platinum isotopes decay by some combination of beta alpha decay. 188Pt, 191Pt, 193Pt decay by electron capture. 190Pt and 198Pt are predicted to have energetically favorable double beta decay paths. Platinum is an rare metal, occurring at a concentration of only 0.005 ppm in Earth's crust. It is sometimes mistaken for silver. Platinum is found chemically uncombined as native platinum and as alloy with the other platinum-group metals and iron mostly.
Most the native platinum is found in secondary deposits in alluvial deposits. The alluvial deposits used by pre-Columbian people in the Chocó Department, Colombia are still a source for platinum-group metals. Another large alluvial deposit is in the Ural Mountains, it is still mined. In nickel and copper deposits, platinum-group metals occur as sulfides, tellurides and arsenides, as end alloys with nickel or copper. Platinum arsenide, sperrylite, is a major source of platinum associated with nickel ores in the Sudbury Basin deposit in Ontario, Canada. At Platinum, about 17,000 kg was mined between 1927 and 1975; the mine ceased operations in 1990. The rare sulfide minera
Festival of Britain
The Festival of Britain was a national exhibition and fair that reached millions of visitors throughout the United Kingdom in the summer of 1951. Historian Kenneth O. Morgan says the Festival was a "triumphant success" as people: flocked to the South Bank site, to wander around the Dome of Discovery, gaze at the Skylon, enjoy a festival of national celebration. Up and down the land, lesser festivals enlisted much voluntary enthusiasm. A people curbed by years of total war and half-crushed by austerity and gloom, showed that it had not lost the capacity for enjoying itself.... Above all, the Festival made a spectacular setting as a showpiece for the inventiveness and genius of British scientists and technologists. Labour cabinet member Herbert Morrison was the prime mover; however it was not to be another World Fair, for international themes were absent, as was the British Commonwealth. Instead the 1951 festival focused on Britain and its achievements; the Labour government was losing support and so the implicit goal of the festival was to give the people a feeling of successful recovery from the war's devastation, as well as promoting British science, industrial design and the arts.
The Festival's centrepiece was in London on the South Bank of the Thames. There were events in Poplar, South Kensington and Glasgow. Festival celebrations took place in Cardiff, Stratford-upon-Avon, Perth, York, Inverness, Oxford, Norwich and elsewhere and there were touring exhibitions by land and sea; the Festival became a "beacon for change" that proved immensely popular with thousands of elite visitors and millions of popular ones. It helped reshape British arts, crafts and sports for a generation. Journalist Harry Hopkins highlights the widespread impact of the "Festival style", they called it "Contemporary". It was: clean and new.... It caught hold and spread first across London and across England.... In an island hitherto given up to gravy browns and dull greens, "Contemporary" boldly espoused strong primary colors; the first idea for an exhibition in 1951 came from the Royal Society of Arts in 1943, which considered that an international exhibition should be held to commemorate the centenary of the 1851 Great Exhibition.
In 1945, the government appointed a committee under Lord Ramsden to consider how exhibitions and fairs could promote exports. When the committee reported a year it was decided not to continue with the idea of an international exhibition because of its cost at a time when reconstruction was a high priority. Herbert Morrison took charge for the Labour government and decided instead to hold a series of displays about the arts, science and industrial design, under the title "Festival of Britain 1951". Morrison insisted there be no politics, implicit; as a result Labour-sponsored programs such as nationalisation, universal health care and working class housing were excluded. Much of London lay in ruins and models of redevelopment were needed; the Festival was an attempt to give Britons a feeling of recovery and progress and to promote better-quality design in the rebuilding of British towns and cities. The Festival of Britain described itself as "one united act of national reassessment, one corporate reaffirmation of faith in the nation's future."
Gerald Barry, the Festival Director, described it as "a tonic to the nation". A Festival Council to advise the government was set up under General Lord Ismay. Responsibility for organisation devolved upon the Lord President of the Council, Herbert Morrison, the deputy leader of the Labour Party, London County Council leader, he appointed a Great Exhibition Centenary Committee, consisting of civil servants, who were to define the framework of the Festival and to liaise between government departments and the festival organisation. In March 1948, a Festival Headquarters was set up, to be the nucleus of the Festival of Britain Office, a government department with its own budget. Festival projects in Northern Ireland were undertaken by the government of Northern Ireland. Associated with the Festival of Britain Office were the Arts Council of Great Britain, the Council of Industrial Design, the British Film Institute and the National Book League. In addition, a Council for Architecture and a Council for Science and Technology were specially created to advise the Festival Organisation and a Committee of Christian Churches was set up to advise on religion.
Government grants were made to the Arts Council, the Council of Industrial Design, the British Film Institute and the National Museum of Wales for work undertaken as part of the Festival. Gerald Barry had operational charge. A long-time editor with left-leaning, middle-brow views, he was energetic and optimistic, with an eye for what would be popular, a knack on how to motivate others. Unlike Morrison, Barry was not seen as a Labour ideologue. Barry selected the next rank, giving preference to young architects and designers who had collaborated on exhibitions for the wartime Ministry of Information, they thought along the same lines and aesthetically, as middle-class intellectuals with progressive sympathies. Thanks to Barry a collegial sentiment prevailed that minimised delay; the arts were displayed in a series of country-wide dramatic performances. Achi