Crown Estate

The Crown Estate is a collection of lands and holdings in the territories of England and Northern Ireland within the United Kingdom belonging to the British monarch as a corporation sole, making it the "Sovereign's public estate", neither government property nor part of the monarch's private estate. The sovereign is not involved with the management or administration of the estate, exercises only limited control of its affairs. Instead, the estate's extensive portfolio is overseen by a semi-independent, incorporated public body headed by the Crown Estate Commissioners, who exercise "the powers of ownership" of the estate, although they are not "owners in their own right"; the revenues from these hereditary possessions have been placed by the monarch at the disposition of Her Majesty's Government in exchange for relief from the responsibility to fund the Civil Government. These revenues thus proceed directly to Her Majesty's Treasury, for the benefit of the British nation; the Crown Estate is formally accountable to the Parliament of the United Kingdom, where it is mandated to make an annual report to the sovereign, a copy of, forwarded to the House of Commons.

The Crown Estate is one of the largest property managers in the United Kingdom, administering property worth £14.1 billion, with urban properties valued at £9.1 billion representing the majority of the estate by value. These include many properties in central London, but the estate controls 792,000 ha of agricultural land and forest and more than half of the UK's foreshore, retains various other traditional holdings and rights, including Ascot Racecourse and Windsor Great Park. Occurring gold and silver in the UK, collectively known as "Mines Royal", are managed by the Crown Estate and leased to mining operators. In 2016 Crown Estate lost a Court case with regard to a Farm as reported here Historically, Crown Estate properties were administered by the reigning monarch to help fund the business of governing the country. However, in 1760, George III surrendered control over the Estate's revenues to the Treasury, thus relieving him of the responsibility of paying for the costs of the civil service, defence costs, the national debt, his own personal debts.

In return, he received an annual grant known as the civil list. By tradition, each subsequent monarch agreed to this arrangement upon her accession. However, from 1 April 2012, under the terms of the Sovereign Grant Act 2011, the Civil List was abolished and the monarch was thenceforth provided with a stable source of revenue indexed to a percentage of the Crown Estate's annual net revenue; this was intended to provide a long-term solution and remove the politically sensitive issue of Parliament having to debate the Civil List allowance every ten years. Subsequently, the Sovereign Grant Act allows for all future monarchs to extend these provisions for their reigns by Order in Council; the act does not imply any legal change in the nature of the estate's ownership, but is a benchmark by which the sovereign grant is set as a grant by Parliament. The history of the Crown lands in England and Wales begins with the Norman conquest; when William I died, the land he had acquired by right of conquest was still intact.

His successors, granted large estates to the nobles and barons who supplied them with men and arms. The monarch's remaining land was divided into royal manors, each managed separately by a seneschal; the period between the reigns of William I and Queen Anne was one of continuous alienation of lands. The Crown lands were augmented as well as depleted over the centuries: Edward I extended his possessions into Wales, James VI & I had his own Crown lands in Scotland which were combined with the Crown lands of England and Wales. However, the disposals outweighed the acquisitions: at the time of the Restoration in 1660, the total revenue arising from Crown lands was estimated to be £263,598. By the end of the reign of William III, however, it was reduced to some £6,000. Before the reign of William III all the revenues of the kingdom were bestowed on the monarch for the general expenses of government; these revenues were of two kinds: the hereditary revenues, derived principally from the Crown lands, feudal rights, profits of the post office, with licences, etc. the temporary revenues derived from taxes granted to the king for a term of years or for life.

After the Glorious Revolution, Parliament retained under its own control the greater part of the temporary revenues, relieved the sovereign of the cost of the naval and military services and the burden of the national debt. During the reigns of William III, George I and George II the sovereign remained responsible for the maintenance of the civil government and for the support of the royal household and dignity, being allowed for these purposes the hereditary revenues and certain taxes; as the state machinery expanded, the cost of the civil government exceeded the income from the Crown lands and feudal rights. On George III's accession he surrendered the income from the Crown lands to Parliament, abrogated responsibility for the cost of the civil government and the clearance of associated debts; as a result, to avoid pecuniary embarrassment, he was granted a fixed civil list payment and the income retained from the Duchy of Lancaster. The King surrendered to parliamentary control the hereditary excise duties, post office revenues, "the small branches" of hereditary revenue including rents of the Crown lands in England (which amounte

1894 in Sweden

Events from the year 1894 in Sweden Monarch – Oscar II Prime Minister – Erik Gustaf Boström. GAIS is founded Kata Dalström is engaged as a lecturer for the Socialists Svartviks IF is established 1 January - Aurora Nilsson, writer 21 March – Hannah Ryggen, textile artist. 6 July – Edmund Lindmark, gymnast. 9 October - Agnes von Krusenstjerna, writer 22 October – Gillis Bildt, politician - Peggy Hård, first woman clerk - Gumman Strömberg, fish seller, local profile 7 May - Marie Sophie Schwartz, writer 28 January - Elise Hwasser, actress

Caribbean University

Caribbean University is a private university system in Puerto Rico composed of four campuses. It was founded on February 1969, as the Caribbean Junior College in the municipality of Bayamon. In 1978, it was renamed to Caribbean University College of Dorado Puerto Rico. After being accredited by the Council on Higher Education of Puerto Rico. In 1990, after starting to offer graduate studies, it was renamed to Caribbean University; the university is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education. Caribbean University at Bayamón Caribbean University at Vega Baja Caribbean University at Carolina Caribbean University at Ponce Official website—